Protecting children ar (1) .pdf


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ISBN 2-88477-099-2

‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ‬
‫ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ :‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺠﻬﺎ ﻭﲡﺎﺭﺑﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ‬

‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﱈ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎ‪‬ﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﱈ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﱈ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﱈ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﳕﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻧﻘﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻛﺎﺳﺎ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻧﺰﺍ‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺷﻜﺮ ﺧﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘـﺔ ﺛﻤﺮﺓ ﳎﻬـﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﲈ ﺑـﲔ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴـﻴﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﺸـﺄﻥ‬
‫ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺑﺎﳉﻤﻴﻞ ﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﺟﺎﺏ ﺩﻭﻳﻚ‬
‫ﳌﺪﻩ ﳍـﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻹﳍـﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸـﺠﻴﻊ‪ .‬ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻷﺳـﺎﳼ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳌـﴩﻭﻉ ﻣـﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴـﻴﻒ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺩﺍﺭﺕ ﻭ ﻣﻮﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴـﻴﻖ ﻛﲈ ﻣﺪﺕ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺃﻋﲈﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱰﲨﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺇﺿﺎﰲ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄـﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻹﺻـﻼﺡ ﻗﻮﺍﻧـﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ )ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺳـﻴﺪﺍ( ﺑﻴﻨﲈ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﺑﱰﺗﻴﺐ ﺃﻋﲈﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱰﲨﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺳـﺎﳘﺖ ﺷـﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﲏ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺷﻜﺮ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺗﺴﺘﺤﻘﻪ‬
‫ﺟﻴﻨﺎ ﻟﻮﻛﺎﺭﻳﲇ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴـﻴﻒ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻟﻌﺒﺖ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﺤﺮﺭ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﺴـﻖ ﺍﻷﺳـﺎﳼ ﻭ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻭﺷـﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳـﺐ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﴍﻓﺖ ﻋـﲆ ﺃﻋﲈﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴـﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﱰﲨﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻴﻜﺴﺎﻧﺪﺭﺍ ﻳﻮﺳﱰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴﻴﻒ ﻭ ﺇﻳﺮﻙ ﺳﻮﺗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﺑﺪﻋﻢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﴩﻭﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻬﺎﻡ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮ ﺩﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ؛ ﺇﻟﻴﺎﻧـﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄـﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻮﺍﻧـﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ؛ ﺑﺎﻭﻟـﻮ ﺩﺍﻓﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻮﺿﻴـﺔ ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺴـﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﳊﻘـﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ؛ ﺳـﻴﻔﺮﻳﻦ ﺟﺎﻛﻮﻣـﻲ؛ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺍﻧـﺲ ﻣﺎﺭﺗﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣـﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻧﻘـﺪﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜـﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ؛ ﺑﲑﻧﺎﺭﺩ ﺑﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺆﺳﺴـﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ؛‬
‫ﺳﻮﺩﺍﺭﺷـﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﺞ ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋـﻲ؛ ﺍﻟﻴﺴـﺎﻧﺪﺭﺍ ﺩﻳﻨﺘﻴـﺲ ﻭ ﺟـﻮﱄ ﺑﲑﺟﲑﻭﻥ ﻭ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻧﻮﻳﻞ ﻓﻴﻨﻴﲇ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴـﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻼﺀ ﺑﺎﳌـﺪ ﺑﻤﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻓﻌﲔ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﺜﻠﲈ ﻓﻌﻠﺖ ﻛﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻻﻧﺪﺟﺮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴﻴﻒ‪.‬‬

‫‪٥‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﰲ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳـﻌﻴﺎ ﻣﻨﻬـﺎ ﻻﺣﱰﺍﻡ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﲣﺎﺫ ﺗﺪﺍﺑـﲑ ﺗﴩﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﺸـﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧـﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧـﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﳊﻘـﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﺣﺐ ﺑﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴـﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﳍﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺣﺼﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣـﺪﺍﺙ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﺪ ﺃﳖﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﻔﻜـﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﺗﻌﱪ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻗﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﻴﺎﺏ ﺗﻄﺒﻴـﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺤﺴـﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺿـﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻄﺒﻴـﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻬﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺷـﺆﻭﻥ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣـﺪﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﺟﻨﻮﺡ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺷﻬﺪﻧﺎ ﻃﻴﻠﺔ ‪ ١٥‬ﺳـﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻛﲈ ﻫﺎﺋﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﴩﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﻃﻮﻳﻼ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻠﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻣﻠﺤﺔ ﻟﺒﺬﻝ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﻻﺣﱰﺍﻡ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺁﻧﻔﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﳉﻨـﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﺣـﺐ ﲠﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼـﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴـﻴﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﲢﻤﻞ ﺑﲔ ﻃﻴﺎﲥﺎ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﻋـﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻣﻬﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﲥﺎ ﻭﺃﻧﺸﻄﺘﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺑﻞ ﻟﺮﺑﲈ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﲈﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﻜﺮﺓ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﳉﻨـﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴـﺎﻫﻢ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘـﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﺸـﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳـﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﰲ ﲢﺴـﲔ ﳑﺎﺭﺳـﺔ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﰲ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬

‫‪٧‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﲢﺴـﻴﻨﺎ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﺗﺴـﻴﲑ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ) ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﻭﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ( ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺗﺎﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﱰﺩﺩ ﳊﻈـﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺈﺣـﺪ￯ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻛﻠﲈ‬
‫ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺠﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﺎﺏ ﺩﻭﻳﻚ‬
‫ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‬

‫‪٨‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ‬

‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬

‫‪٩‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻏﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺳﺲ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٩٧‬ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺠﻠﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻲ) ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﺸﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴـﺔ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﻗﻀـﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ(‪.‬ﻭﳞﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻨﺴـﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳـﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺸـﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻧﺸـﻄﺔ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺨﺮﻃﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺴﱰﺷﺪ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻟـﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻭ ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻳـﲑ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮ￯ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬
‫‪١‬‬
‫ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﺑﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻋﱪ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .١‬ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮ￯ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﺗﺸـﺠﻴﻊ ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺒﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺳـﻮﻳﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﳖﺞ ﻣﺸـﱰﻙ ﻋﲆ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮ￯‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٣‬ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﴩﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﲔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٤‬ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﱰﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﲈﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻧﴩﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٥‬ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﲪﺎﻳـﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳـﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣـﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧـﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻋـﲈﻝ ﺍﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ١‬ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﲇ‪ :‬ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺟﻴﺔ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻬﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﻊ ﺟﻨﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳌﺠﺮﺩﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻬﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺍﺑﲑ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪١١‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫• ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﲆ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‬
‫ﰲ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺷﺘﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻧﺠﺪ ﻣﺎﻳﲇ‪:‬‬
‫ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻏﻨﺪﺍ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،٢٠٠٠‬ﺃﺩ￯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺭﺷﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﺳﱰﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﻧﻈﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟـﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻧﻘﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻧﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﻏﻮﺍﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ٢٠٠٣‬ﺗﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻧﻘﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﻣﺆﺳﺴـﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺻﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻋﲆ ﻣﺴﺘﻮ￯‬
‫ﻋﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ٢٠٠٤‬ﺑﻤﺴﺢ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ‬
‫ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﰲ‪ ١٢٧‬ﺑﻠﺪﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﺸـﻜﻞ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ ﲢﻠﻴﻼ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻴﺎ ﻟﻸﻧﺸـﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ﺁﺫﺍﺭ‪ /‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‪.٢٠٠٤‬‬
‫ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﲏ‬

‫ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ‬

‫ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ‬

‫ﲪﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺻﺪ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫‪١٢‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫• ﻟﻠﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﺸﱰﻙ ﻋﲆ ﺷـﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﱰﻧﺖ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﻮﻇﻔﻲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﻧﺸـﺎﺀ ﻣﻘﺮ ﺭﺋﻴﴘ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻋﲆ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﱰﻧـﺖ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﻟﻠﻌﻤـﻮﻡ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺗﻘﻨﻲ ﻣﻨﺴـﻖ ﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﻧـﴩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬

‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻳﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺐ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﳎﺎ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻼ ﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﴩﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻮﱃ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﲆ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮ￯ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻋﱪ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﳌﻨـﻊ ﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴـﺔ ﻭﳏﺎﺭﺑﺘﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻜﺘـﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨـﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﻋﲆ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ ﺑﺄﻧﺸـﻄﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﻏﺴـﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻻﲡﺎﺭ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻛﲈ ﻳﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﺳـﱰﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻧﺰﺍﻫﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﻛﻞ ﺿﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ ﺣـﺪ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻗﻀـﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣـﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﺼـﺎﺹ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨـﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﺬ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﻭﻣﻜﺘـﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﻳﺴـﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺑﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﻜﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﲈ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣـﺪﺍﺙ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻧﺴـﺒﻴﺎ ﻋـﲆ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘـﻮﻡ ﻋﲆ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺷـﺘﻰ ﺻـﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋـﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣـﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺠﻠﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼـﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺐ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨـﺎﺀ ﻋﲆ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻀﻮ‪ ،‬ﺑﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﺸـﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬

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‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻲ ﳌﻨﻊ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺸـﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺃﻧﻈﻤـﺔ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﲢﺴـﲔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻫﻴـﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﲆ ﲢﺴﲔ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﳖﺞ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﺍﺳـﱰﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﳌﺴـﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﲆ ﺇﺻـﻼﺡ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣـﺪﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﱰﻛﻴﺰ ﻋـﲆ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨـﻊ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻫﻴـﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﲈﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺴﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﴩﻳﻊ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﺳﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺸﺄﳖﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺳﻴﲈ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ‬
‫ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﺩﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﲈ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﻘﺮ ﺭﺋﻴﴘ ﻋﲆ ﻣﺴﺘﻮ￯ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﻳﻌﻨﻰ ﺑﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﲣﺺ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺑﲈ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﲡﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﲪـﻼﺕ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴـﺔ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺧﻄـﻂ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻭﻃﻨﻴـﺔ ﲣﺺ ﺍﻷﺣـﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﺩﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳـﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑـﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﳉﻬـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﺩﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﲢﺴـﲔ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺣـﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ ﲡﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻛـﺰ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﱰﺑﻮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻭﺿﻊ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺝ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﳌﺠﺘﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺩﻣـﺞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺨـﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤـﺔ ﻣﺆﺧﺮﺍ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺘـﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻓﺮﺻﺎ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬

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‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺑﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﳌﺨـﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﺑﲈ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﱰﺑﻴﺔ ﻋـﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻷﻗـﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻟﻸﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﳌﻨﻊ ﺍﻧﺘﺸـﺎﺭ ﻓـﲑﻭﺱ ﻧﻘﺺ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻋـﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﴩﻳﺔ‪/‬ﻣﺘﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻧﻘﺺ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺴـﺐ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻳﺪﺯ( ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻐﻠﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﲈ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨـﺎﺀ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﻌﱪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﲣﺬﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴـﺘﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺔ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮ￯ ﻟﺪﻣﺞ ﻣﺸـﺎﺭﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺃﻭﺳـﻊ ﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﲣﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻓﱰﺓ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻱ‪ .‬ﻛﲈ ﻳﺸـﺎﺭﻙ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮ￯ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻬﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺷﻬﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺠﻞ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﻨﺔ ﻻ ﺳﻴﲈ ﻓﻴﲈ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﺩﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪:‬‬

‫‪Timothy Lemay‬‬
‫‪Chief Rule of Law Section‬‬
‫‪Human Security Branch, Divisions for Operations‬‬
‫‪UN Office on Drugs and Crime‬‬
‫‪P.O. Box 500, 1400 Vienna‬‬
‫‪Austria‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ‪www.unodc.org :‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻭﺗﺸـﺠﻴﻌﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﻛﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻮﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺴﱰﺷﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻜﻮﻙ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺇﻋـﻼﻥ ﻭﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻓﻴﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋـﺎﻡ ‪ .١٩٩٣‬ﻭﻳﻌﺪ ﺗﺸـﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﻋﲆ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ ﺃﺣـﺪ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﲥـﺪﻑ ﻣﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺿﲈﻥ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﱰﻑ ﲠﺎ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺎ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﺍ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻠﺘﺰﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﺎ ﳚﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻋﻢ ﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬

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‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺮﺻﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻫـﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﲈ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﳊﻘـﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﻭﺿﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺘﺤـﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺸـﺄﻥ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﻘـﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺠـﺎﻝ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺣﱰﺍﻡ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻛﲈ ﺗﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﳊﲈﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳـﻌﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﲈ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ)ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭﺇﺫﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﺗﻠﺘـﺰﻡ ﻣﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ ﳊﻘـﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻗﻀـﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣـﺪﺍﺙ ﺑﻤﺴـﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻋﲆ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺣﻘـﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﲠﺎ ﻣـﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﲈ ﺗﺴـﻬﺮ ﻋﲆ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪:‬‬

‫‪Paulo David‬‬
‫‪Secretary, Committee on the Rights of the Child‬‬
‫‪Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights‬‬
‫‪Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10‬‬
‫‪Switzerland‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ‪www.ohchr.org :‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻛﻠﻔﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴﻴﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻭﲪﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺴﱰﺷـﺪ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‪ ،‬ﻛﲈ ﺗﺴـﻌﻰ‬

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‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺟﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﺠﻌﻞ ﻣـﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻣﺒـﺎﺩﺉ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺩﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﲪﺎﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻳﻨﻬﻢ ﴍﻭﻁ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻭﺟﺰﺀ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﺠـﺰﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄـﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﴩﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﻤـﻞ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟـﺔ ﰲ ‪ ١٥٨‬ﺑﻠـﺪﺍ ﻭﺇﻗﻠﻴﲈ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻠﺘﺰﻡ ﺑﻀﲈﻥ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﻣﺎﻧﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺿﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﺍﳌﺪﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻗﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺘﺨﺬ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺳﻮﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﲆ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﲢﻤﻲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺪ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﱰﺷـﺪ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟـﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴـﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﳊﻘـﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﲢﻤﻲ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺪ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﺸـﺄﻥ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﳎﺎﻝ ﳞﺘﻢ ﺑﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺳـﻮﺀ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﺳـﺘﻐﻼﳍﻢ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﲆ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻛـﲈ ﳞﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻋﺎﻫﻢ ﺃﴎﻫﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺸـﻬﺪ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ ﺃﻧﺸـﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﺸـﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺳـﺎﻁ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﲈ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻧﺰﺍﻋﺎ ﻣﺴـﻠﺤﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫ﳚﺪ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻵﱄ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺿﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﳞﺪﺩ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﺗﺆﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺴـﺠﻦ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠـﺎﺯ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺠـﻮﺀ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﲈ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣـﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻀـﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻋﲆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﲈﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﱪ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺎﳊﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﲢﻤﻲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﴤ‬
‫ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﻋـﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻳﻀﻢ ﺗﺄﻣـﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣـﺎﺕ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘـﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺭﺻـﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﻼﻍ ﻋﻨﻬـﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﺷـﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﻣﺎﺝ‪.‬‬

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‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻭﺗﺪﻋـﻢ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺳـﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜـﺎﻝ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤـﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺴـﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﺍﳌﺤﻠﻴﲔ ﻋـﲆ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺗﴩﻳﻊ ﻳﺘﲈﺷـﻰ ﻣـﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﲈ ﺗﺒﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠـﲔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣـﺪﺍﺙ ﺣﺘﻰ ﳚﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻢ ﻗﺎﺋﲈ ﻋﲆ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳـﻪ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﺟﺘﲈﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﻀﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﻈـﲈﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﳊﻬﺎ ﺑﲈ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﻭﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺳﻌﻴﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﺧﲑﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻭﺳـﺎﺋﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﺗﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﲆ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪:‬‬

‫‪Alexandra Yuster‬‬
‫‪Senior Advisor, Child Protection‬‬
‫‪UNICEF, 3 UN Plaza‬‬
‫‪New York, New York 10017‬‬
‫‪USA‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ‪www.unicef.org :‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋﻲ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻭﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺇﴍﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﰲ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﳌﺴـﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﻋﲆ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋﻲ ﰲ ‪ ١٦٦‬ﺑﻠﺪﺍ ﻣﺸـﺠﻌﺎ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﻋـﲆ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﻋﲆ ﻣﻮﻇﻔﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋﻲ ﻭﻋﲆ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﴍﻛﺎﺋﻪ ﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﲥﺎ ﺍﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋﻲ ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ‬
‫ﺭﺑﻂ ﻭﺗﻨﺴـﻴﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴـﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳـﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻟﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑـﲈ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺣﺪ￯‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻤﻮﺣﺔ ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫـﻲ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﻣﺴـﺘﻮ￯ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺼـﻒ ﺑﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻋـﺎﻡ ‪ .٢٠١٥‬ﻭﻳﺮﻛﺰ‬

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‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻋﲆ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﻋﲆ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﳊﻠﻮﻝ ﻭﺗﺒﺎﺩﳍﺎ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﲢﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴـﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻃـﺄﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻘـﺮ ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻣـﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠـﺺ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﻌﻬـﺎ ﻭﲢﺪﻳـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻓﲑﻭﺱ ﻧﻘـﺺ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻋـﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﴩﻳﺔ‪/‬ﻣﺘﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻧﻘـﺺ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺴـﺐ )ﺍﻹﻳﺪﺯ(‪ .‬ﻭ ﻳﺪﻣـﺞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋﻲ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﻭﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﳌﺴـﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﲑ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻛﲈ ﻳﺴـﺎﻋﺪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﻋﲆ ﺍﺟﺘﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺗﺮﺷﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺸـﺠﻊ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻧﺸـﺎﻃﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺪ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻘـﺮ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺑـﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴـﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻘـﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺟـﻮﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻗﻀﺎﺋـﻲ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻨـﺎﻙ ﺭﺍﺑﻄـﺔ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﺳـﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﺳـﺘﺌﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﴩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻄﻤﺢ‬
‫ﺧﻄﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋﻲ ﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻄـﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻌـﺎﻝ ﻳﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳـﺐ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺳـﻴﲈ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﺧـﺮ￯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺤﺮﻭﻣـﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳـﺮ￯ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣـﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳊـﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻝ ﻭﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺗﺘﲈﺷـﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺳـﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺴـﻌﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﱃ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺳـﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻋﲆ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺿﺪ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺿﺪ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﺸـﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺳﺨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺸـﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺸـﻜﻠﻮﻥ ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴـﻜﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻠـﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺪ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﻴﺰﺓ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺇﻧﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٩‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋﻲ ﺿﻤﻦ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﻳﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﻳﺪﻋﻤﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋـﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﺧـﺮ￯) ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻨﻈﻤـﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟـﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﳎﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻼ ﳞﺘﻢ ﻋﲆ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻤﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻀﻢ ﺑﻌﺾ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﲈﻡ ﺿﻤﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﲈﺋﻲ ﰲ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣـﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺩﻭﺍﺋـﺮ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻼﺿﻄﻼﻉ ﺑﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﲥﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻪ ﺍﺣﱰﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪:‬‬

‫‪R. Sudarshan‬‬
‫‪Advisor-Justice‬‬
‫‪UNDP Oslo Governance Centre‬‬
‫‪Inkognitogt. 18, N-0256 Oslo‬‬
‫‪Norway‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ‪www.undp.org :‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﺴـﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﺃﻧﺸﺌﺖ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،١٩٧٩‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻞ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﺸـﺠﻴﻊ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﲪﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻄﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﺒﺢ‬
‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﲈ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﺏ ‪ ٤٢‬ﺑﻠﺪﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﺠﲆ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﻓﻴﲈ ﻳﲆ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺇﺫﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﺄﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﲠﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴـﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺑﺄﴎﻩ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺚ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﻣﻦ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪٢٠‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺳـﺎﺋﻞ ﻟﻀﲈﻥ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻋﲆ ﺻﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﲈﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫• ﺿﲈﻥ ﺇﻋﻄـﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﳊﻘـﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﰲ ﲨﻴـﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﻣـﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌـﺪﲏ ﻭ ﲨﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﲈ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬
‫• ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺒﻨﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‬
‫• ﺿﲈﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﲈ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺤﻴﺎﲥﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺪ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺬ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،١٩٧٩‬ﺍﻧﺨﺮﻃﺖ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﺕ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺴـﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﺸـﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻋﺘـﲈﺩ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،١٩٨٩‬ﻭﺷـﺎﺭﻛﺖ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻮ￯ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﺨﻄﻰ ﺣﺜﻴﺜﺔ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﻟﻸﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻀﻐﻂ ﻹﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻋﲈﻝ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﳖﺞ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻢ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﺞ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑـﻊ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺸـﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻗﻀـﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣـﺪﺍﺙ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﺴـﻴﻖ ﻋﻤـﻞ ﺍﳌﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴـﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﲆ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﺳﱰﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮ￯ ﺍﳌﺤﲇ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻗﻬـﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺇﺫﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﺸـﺄﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻫﻘﲔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻋﱪ ﲢﺴﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﴎ ﻭﺍﳉﲈﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

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‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﲢﺴـﲔ ﺗﻨﺴـﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻋﲈﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﺴـﺎﺋﻞ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻋﻨـﴫﺍ ﻣﻬﲈ ﺁﺧﺮ‬
‫ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻓـﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﳊﺮﻛـﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻛﻲ ﻳﺘﺴﻨﻰ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻔﻀﻞ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﻛـﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺨـﺮﺍﻁ ﰲ ﺃﻋﲈﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐـﻂ ﻟﺪ￯ ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮ￯‬
‫ﻹﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻋﲈﻝ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻗﺴـﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﴍ ﻟﻀﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﺣﻘـﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻧﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻷﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻋﺘﲈﺩﻫﺎ ﳖﺠﺎ ﻗﺎﺋﲈ ﻋﲆ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻟﻴﻌﺮﻓﻮﺍ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻬﻢ ﻭﻟﻴﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪:‬‬

‫‪Carlos Pampín García‬‬
‫‪Juvenile Justice Programme‬‬
‫‪1 Rue de Varembé, P.O. Box 88‬‬
‫‪CH- 1211 Geneva 20‬‬
‫‪Switzerland‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ‪:‬‬

‫‪www.dci-is.org‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫ﲥﺪﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ ﳏﺎﻛﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﴪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷـﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺸـﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻺﻧﺴـﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺎﻃﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺮﺍﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻀﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﳎﻬﺎ ﲪﻼﺕ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺟﻠﺔ ﻭﺇﺟـﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﻣﺴـﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺿﺤﺎﻳـﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺀ ﻭﺣﻘـﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﻘـﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴـﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻋـﲆ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻠﻘﺎﻫﺎ ﺷﺒﻜﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻀﻢ ‪ ٢٦٦‬ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻋﱪ ﺃﻧﺤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪.‬‬

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‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻭﺗﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﺃﺷـﻜﺎﻝ ﺃﺧﺮ￯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﻋـﱪ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺳـﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺷـﻜﺎﻝ ﺃﺧﺮ￯ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﻭﻋـﱪ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻙ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻟﺪ￯ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺪ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻨـﺪﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼـﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺣﻘـﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑـﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﰲ ﻧﻄـﺎﻕ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻳﻘـﺎﻑ ﺍﳉﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﺧـﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﻭﻏﻴـﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻀﲈﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺴـﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻮﻇﻔﲔ ﻳﻨﻔـﺬﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺘﻌﻠـﻖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻛﺬﻟـﻚ ﺑﺎﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﳉﺎﺋﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻸﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺿـﺎﻉ ﻏﲑ ﻋﺎﺩﻳـﺔ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﻏﻴـﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻬـﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﳊﲈﻳـﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺤﺪﺭﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻗﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻘﺎﺳﻤﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻫﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﺮﺻﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻫﺪﺍﺕ) ﳉﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻭﳉﻨﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﳉﻨﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ( ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰﺍ ﻫﺎﻣﺎ ﻋﲆ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﻭﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭ ﲡﻌﻞ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺍﻫﺘﲈﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﲢﻈﻰ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﳖﺞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﺗﺴـﺠﻞ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺗﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﺭﻫﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ ﻓﺈﻥ ﳖﺞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﻫﻮ ﲢﺴـﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﲠـﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﻭﻃﻠﺐ‬
‫ﺗﺪﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳـﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﻠﻴﻎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﲔ ﻟﻜﴪ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﻓﻼﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﳊﺆﻭﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺗﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﺃﺧﺮ￯‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺮ￯ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻓﺤﺴـﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﱰﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻩ ﺍﳉﺴـﲈﲏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﴘ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﴍﻛﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺛﻴﻖ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﳌﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺑﺸـﺄﳖﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﳖﺞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻋﲆ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻭ ﹲﺗﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻗﻔﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻮﺛﻖ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺮ￯ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺷـﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺴـﺪﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻋـﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﲆ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﻇـﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠـﺎﺯ ﺗﺘﻌـﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧـﻮﻥ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﱄ ﻭﺗﻌـﺪ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺣﺸـﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺮﺍﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪:‬‬

‫‪Cécile Trochu‬‬
‫‪Child Rights Programme - OMCT‬‬
‫‪8, rue de Vieux Billard, P.O. Box 21‬‬
‫‪1211 Geneva 8‬‬
‫‪Switzerland‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ‪www.omct.org :‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺮﻫـﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴـﴘ ﰲ ﻟﻨﺪﻥ ﻭﳍﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻌـﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻏـﲑ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻧﺸـﺌﺖ ﻋـﺎﻡ ‪ .١٩٨٩‬ﻭﺗﺘﺨﺬ ﹼ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﰲ ﺑﺎﺭﻳﺲ ﻭﻣﻮﺳـﻜﻮ ﻭﺑﻮﺧﺎﺭﺳـﺖ ﻭﻛﻮﺳـﺘﺎﺭﻳﻜﺎ ﻭﻧﺒـﺎﻝ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻧﺪﺍ ﻭﺑﻮﺭﻧـﺪﻱ ﻭﻣﻼﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺭﺟﻴﺎ ﻭﻛﺎﺯﺍﺧﺴـﺘﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳـﺘﺤﺪﺛﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﰲ ﻏﻀﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴـﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﴩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬
‫ﰲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﲬﺴـﲔ ﺑﻠﺪ ﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﴩﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﻭﻭﺳـﻂ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﻭﴍﻗﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻭﺳﻂ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﻭﺟﻨﻮﲠﺎ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﻳﺒﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺴـﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﳉﻌﻞ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﲈﺷـﻰ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﻭﲢﺴـﲔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻـﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺸـﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄـﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﳏﻠﻴـﺔ ﻹﺻﻼﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴـﺠﻮﻥ ﻭﻗﺎﻧـﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑـﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﺴـﺎﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﻛﲈ ﺗﻘـﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻋـﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨـﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﻏـﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺻـﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃـﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴـﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﱪ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳﲇ‪:‬‬

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‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫• ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺻﻜﻮﻙ ﺩﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻣـﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﻋـﺎﺓ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧـﻮﻥ ﻭﻇﺮﻭﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ؛‬
‫• ﺇﻗﺼﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﳉﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺃﺧﻼﻗﻲ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ؛‬
‫• ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﻡ؛‬
‫• ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ؛‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻠﺠـﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺑﻨـﺎﺀﺓ ﻏﲑ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯﻳﺔ ﺗﺸـﺠﻊ ﺇﻋـﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻲ ﻣـﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻳﺎ؛‬
‫ﳖﺞ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻳﺘﲈﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻷﳖﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺪﻋﻲ ﺇﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺆﺳﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺒﺬﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﹰﺍ ﺟﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﴍﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﲥﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﻥ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻋﻢ ﴍﻛﺎﺀ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴـﲔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﲔ ﻋﲆ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻭﺿـﻊ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﳖﺞ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳـﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﻛﺂﺧﺮ ﺣﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﻛﻌﻘﻮﺑـﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﳊﺒـﺲ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻣـﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﺳـﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺭﺟﺖ ﻋﻨﴫ ﹰﺍ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘ ﹰﺎ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺇﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﻟﻠﺴﺠﻮﻥ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺁﺳـﻴﺎ ﻭﰲ ﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﻭﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻭﻭﺳﻂ ﻭﴍﻕ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺑﺸـﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻋﲆ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬
‫ﻋﲆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﲇ‪:‬‬

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‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫• ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫• ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﻋﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳـﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ ﻋﱪ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺠﺎﻝ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﺲ‬
‫• ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ‪ :‬ﺩﻋﻢ ﻭﺿﻊ ﹸﻣﺴﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﴩﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺘﻪ‬
‫• ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ ﻋﲆ ﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﲔ‬
‫• ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﻟﻠﺴﺠﻦ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﲠﺎ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﳉﲈﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﲆ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ‬
‫• ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺃﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ‬
‫• ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺠﺮﺩﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﻛـﺪﺕ ﲡﺮﺑـﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﺇﺻـﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺴـﺠﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴـﺔ ﻋـﲆ ﴐﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺴـﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺇﻧﺴـﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺪ ﹰ‬
‫ﻻ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄـﺔ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌـﺎﻭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺨﺮﻃﺔ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣـﺪﺍﺙ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﻭﺍﳌﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﴎﺓ ﻭﻣﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺷﺪ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﳉﲈﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﲆ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪:‬‬

‫‪Paul English‬‬
‫‪Executive Director‬‬
‫‪Penal Reform International, Unit 450‬‬
‫‪The Bon Marché Center, 241-251 Ferndale Road‬‬
‫‪Brixton, London‬‬
‫‪United-Kingdom‬‬

‫‪٢٦‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ‪www.penalreform.org :‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺸـﺌﺖ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٦٠‬ﻋﲆ ﻳﺪ ﺇﻳﺪﻣﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﺎﻳﺰﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤـﺔ ﳎﺮﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻴﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﳼ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻳﻨﻲ ﻳﻤﻮﳍﺎ ﺃﺳﺎﺳ ﹰﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﺤﻮﻥ ﺳﻮﻳﴪﻳﻮﻥ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ‪ ٣٠‬ﺑﻠﺪ ﹰﺍ ﺑﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﻃﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻏﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﲆ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳـﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﲢﻈـﻰ ﺑﺎﻫﺘﲈﻡ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻭﻫﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﳏﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﳉﻨﴘ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺑﺤﻤﻼﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﻋﱪ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﲠﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﴩﻳﻜﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻﺋﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮ￯ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻧﺤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺪ ﻳﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺭﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺑﻨـﺎﺀ ﻋﲆ ﺗﺎﺭﻳـﺦ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺃﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸـﻮﺍﺭﻉ ﺗﻮﺳـﻴﻊ ﺑﺮﺍﳎﻬـﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴـﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺸـﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺠﻞ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺟﻨﻮﺡ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺪﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺗﻮﺳـﻊ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮ￯ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﳖﺎ ﳏﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺳـﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺳﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﹼ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻘﺎﴏﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻫـﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻘﻀـﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺗﺒﻨﻲ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﻛﻠﲈ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﳖﺞ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺑـﺪﺃﺕ ﻣﻨﻈﻤـﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﻗﻀـﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣـﺪﺍﺙ ﻋـﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٩٦‬ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻏـﺔ "ﲨﻊ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒـﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈـﲈﺕ ﻏـﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ " ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴـﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺿـﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧـﻮﲏ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌـﻲ ﻟﻸﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺠﺮﺩﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ )ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﻮﺭﻳﺘﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻏﻴﻨﻴﺎ ﻭﺭﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻛﻮﺳﻮﻓﻮ ﻭﺑﲑﻭ ﻭﺑﻮﺭﻭﻧﺪﻱ ﻭﻫﺎﻳﺘﻲ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ(‬
‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺸـﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﺴـﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻜﺜﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺯﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺗﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺯﻳﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺴـﺠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼـﻮ￯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﱰﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﲆ ﺗﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﺷـﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﳌﺤﻠﻴﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻣﺒﺎﴍﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧـﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺷـﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺴـﻌﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺍﳌﺪ￯ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ‬

‫‪٢٧‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫"ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ" ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺸـﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺇﺻـﻼﺡ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﻧﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻨﻬـﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺪ ﺃﺩﺕ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺞ ﰲ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻠـﺪﺍﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻧﺸـﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻈﻤـﺔ ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻏـﲑ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﲔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺭﻉ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺿﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺴـﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻗﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺷﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴـﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﴩﻃـﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻨـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴـﺠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻐﻠﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻷﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳـﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻫـﺬﻩ "ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻛﺰ" ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫"ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻟﻠﺠﺮﻳﻤﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪:‬‬

‫‪Bernard Boeton‬‬
‫‪Child Rights and Juvenile Justice‬‬
‫‪Terre des hommes‬‬
‫‪En Budron C 8‬‬
‫‪1052 Le Mont-sur-Lausanne‬‬
‫‪Switzerland‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ‪www.tdh.ch :‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻧﻘﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻀـﻮ ﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻹﻧﻘـﺎﺫ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﺴـﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺗﻀﻢ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ‪ ٢٩‬ﺑﻠﺪ ﹰﺍ ﻭﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ ١٠٠‬ﺑﻠﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻧﻘﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳉﲈﻋـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻨﺤﺪﺭﻭﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﺴـﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺇﳚﺎﰊ ﻟﻸﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺪ ﻳﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻧﻘﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬

‫‪٢٨‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻣﻨﻈﻤـﺔ ﺃﻧﻘﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻋـﲆ ﲨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ "ﺍﳌﻬﺪﺩﻳﻦ" ﺍﻟﺬﻳـﻦ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﳚﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻧﻔﺴـﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ )ﻭﻗﺪ ﹸﻳﻌﺪﹼ ﻭﻥ ﺟﻨﺎﺓ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤـﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ(‪ :‬ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﺳﻴﲈ ﺃﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺭﻉ ﻭﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﴎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﴘﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻏﺎﺩﺭﻭﺍ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺤﺮﻭﻣـﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍ ﹸﳌﺴـﺘﻐﻠﲔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺃﺷـﻐﺎﻝ ﺷـﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺧﻄﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ﹼﺘﺠﺮ ﲠﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺠﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻏﲑﻫـﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳉﲈﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺤﺪﺭﻳـﻦ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﱪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻻﺳـﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﺪﺧﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺍﻏﲈﺗﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺴـﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻭﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﺗﺸـﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻗﻬﻢ ﻭﺗﹸﻘﻮﻱ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﲈﻳﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺳﻮﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﳘﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻭﺗﺮﻣﻲ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﲡﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﺃﻛﺜـﺮ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺮ‪ .‬ﺇﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﲈﻳﺔ ﻟﺪ￯‬
‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﳖﺞ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺷـﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﳊﲈﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﲆ ﺩﻋﻤﻬﻢ ﻋﲆ ﻣﺴﺘﻮ￯‬
‫ﺍﳉﲈﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﳖﺞ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻧﻘﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﺗﺆﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺑﴬﻭﺭﺓ ﺑﻘـﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻛﻠﲈ ﺃﻣﻜـﻦ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧـﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺒﲔ ﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺑﺴـﻴﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﳎﺮﻣﲔ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣـﺮﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻞ ﻫﻢ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻃﻔﺎﻝ "ﻣﻬﻤﺸﻮﻥ" ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﺎﲥﻢ ﻭﺍﺳـﱰﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﲥﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﻋﲈﻻ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺧﻔﻘﺖ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﲪﺎﻳﺘﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﺇﳖﻢ ﺃﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻳﻌﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻌﻴﺸﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸـﻮﺍﺭﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻘﺎﺅﻫﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴـﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﻞ ﻣـﺎ ﻳﻠﻘـﻰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﲈﻣـﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﴪﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺴـﻴﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﺿﺤﺎﻳـﺎ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﲆ‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﳉﻨﴘ ﺑﻞ ﻫـﻢ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧ ﹰﺎ ﺃﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﳏﺘﺠﺰﻭﻥ ﳌﺠﺮﺩ "ﺳـﻠﻮﻙ ﻏـﲑ ﺍﺟﺘﲈﻋـﻲ" ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﳛﺘﺠﺰ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ )ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ""ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﳊﲈﺋﻲ"( ﻭﻳﻌﺎﻣﻠﻮﻥ ﻛﻤﺬﻧﺒﲔ‬
‫ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﻫﻢ ﺿﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺍﳉﺴﺪﻱ ﻭﺍﳉﻨﴘ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻲ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﺎﺳـﺐ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﲈﻋـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻨﺤﺪﺭﻭﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﳖـﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌـﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺧﻄﲑﺓ ﻭﲡﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﻗﺴـﺎﺓ ﻭﺿﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻧﻔـﻮﺭ ﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﺗـﺮ￯ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻋﲆ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺳـﻤﻲ ﰲ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻗﻠﻴﺔ ﺻﻐﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺒـﻮﺍ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺧﻄﲑﺓ ﻭﻳﺸـﻜﻠﻮﻥ ﲥﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻷﻧﻔﺴـﻬﻢ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﳚـﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﹸﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﺗﹸﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬

‫‪٢٩‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺮ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﺎﲥﻢ ﻭﲢﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﺳـﱰﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﲆ ﻣﺴﺘﻮ￯ ﺍﳉﲈﻋﺔ ﳌﻨﻊ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓـﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳـ ﹰﺎ ﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﹸﲢﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑـﲔ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻋﻤﻠﻨـﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺗﺸـﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟـﺮﺩﻭﺩ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯﻳـﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﲈﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﳌﻨﻊ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺳـﻠﻮﻙ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺪﻋﻢ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﴩﻳﺔ ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﲤﻨﻊ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﲈ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﲆ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﲆ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮ￯ ﳑﻜﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻧﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﲆ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻄﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﰲ ﲨﺎﻋﺎﲥﻢ ﺩﻋ ﹰﲈ ﻓﻌﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻻ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻧﻘﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻳﲈﳖﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻳﻠﻌﺒـﻮﻥ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺩﻭﺭ ﰲ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺣﻠﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻧﺎﺟﻌـﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺸـﺎﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻮﳖـﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺗـﺮ￯ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤـﺔ ﴐﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﴍﺍﻙ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﰲ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳـﺎ ﺑﺘﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻮﺟـﺪﻭﻥ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳـﱰﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﲈﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﴍﺍﻛﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﻧﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﲈﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪:‬‬

‫‪Florence Martin‬‬
‫‪Child Rights and Protection Adviser‬‬
‫‪Save the Children UK‬‬
‫‪1 St. John's Lane‬‬
‫‪London EC1M 4AR‬‬
‫‪United-Kingdom‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ‪www.savethechildren.org.uk :‬‬

‫‪٣٠‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻛﺎﺳﺎ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻧﺰﺍ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﺳـﺎ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻧﺰﺍ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﺴـﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻧﻔﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻏﻮﺍﺗﻴﲈﻻ ﻭﻫﻮﻧﺪﺭﺍﺱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺴـﻴﻚ ﻭﻧﻴﻜﺎﺭﺍﻏﻮﺍ ﻭﻛﻮﺳـﺘﺎﺭﻳﻜﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﺪ ﻛﺎﺳـﺎ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻧﺰﺍ ﻓﺮﻉ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺨﺬ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ ﻣﻘـﺮ ﹰﺍ ﳍﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴـﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻏﻮﺍﺗﻴﲈﻻ ﻋـﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٨١‬ﺗﻮﺳـﻌﺖ ﺇﱃ ﻫﻮﻧﺪﺭﺍﺱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺴﻴﻚ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٨٦‬ﺛﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻴﻜﺎﺭﺍﻏﻮﺍ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ .١٩٩٨‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪٩٠٠٠‬‬
‫ﻃﻔﻞ ﺳـﻨﻮﻳ ﹰﺎ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻬﻢ ﻳﺘﺎﻣﻰ ﻭﻳﻌﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺳـﻮﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠـﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﳘﻠﺘﻬﻢ ﺃﴎﻫﻢ ﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﻓﻘﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺳـﻮﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﳖﺎ ﺛﻢ ﻋﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺒﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻌﻴﺸﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳚﺪ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺃﻧﻔﺴـﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻭﺳـﻂ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺻﻌﺒﺔ ﺑﺴـﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻈﻠـﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‬
‫ﻭﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﻭﺑﺴـﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻟﻸﺳـﻒ ﺑﺸـﻜﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻄﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﲥﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺇﱃ ﲣﻠﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﺸـﻮﺍﺭﻉ ﻣﻨﻬـﻢ ﺑﺄﻱ ﻭﺳـﻴﻠﺔ ﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﳎﺮﻣﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌـﺪ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫـﻢ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺿﺒـﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻀﺤـﻰ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻧﺘﻬـﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﺳـﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺸـﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻓﺨﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺸـﺒﺎﺏ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﺳـﻮﺀ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌـﺮﺽ ﺣﻴﺎﲥﻢ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺮ ﻻ ﺳـﻴﲈ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺳـﺠﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﳖﺞ ﻛﺎﺳﺎ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻧﺰﺍ ﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﺸﻜﺎﻭ￯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺸـﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺒﻠﻐﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺪ ﺭﺻـﺪ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﺳـﺎ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻧﺰﺍ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺩﲥﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻧﺠﺰﲥﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺭﺻﺪ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﴐﻭﺭﺓ ﻣﻠﺤﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﹰﺍ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺸـﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﲢﺘﺠﺰﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﻭﻟﻸﺳﺒﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﲠﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸـﻮﺍﺭﻉ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻃﺒﻘﺖ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﻭﺳـﻂ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺧﻄﻄ ﹰﺎ ﻗﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺪﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺼﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸـﺒﺎﺏ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺭﻓﻌﺖ ﻣﺴـﺘﻮ￯ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﴏﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﺑﻴـﺪ ﺃﳖﺎ ﱂ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﻌـﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺳـﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻧﺨﺮﺍﻁ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺸـﺒﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺑﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺪﺭﻙ ﻛﺎﺳـﺎ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻧﺰﺍ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺍﺟﺒﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﳌﺠﺮﻣـﲔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﺟـﺐ ﺃﻱ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﳾﺀ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪٣١‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪:‬‬

‫‪• Arturo Echeverría J. (national director - Casa Alianza Guatemala), 13 Av. 0-37‬‬
‫‪Zone 2 Mixco – Guatemala‬‬
‫‪• Lic. Sofia Almazan (national director - Casa Alianza Mexico), Paseo de la refor‬‬‫‪ma 111, Colonia Guerrero, Mexico D.F. 06300 - Apartado 61-132, 06600Mexico‬‬
‫‪D.F., MEXICO‬‬
‫‪• José Manuel Capellín (national director - Casa Alianza Honduras), Apartado‬‬
‫‪2401, Tegucigalpa, M.D.C. HONDURAS‬‬
‫‪• Zelmira García (national director - Casa Alianza Nicaragua), Apartado 15,‬‬
‫‪Managua, NICARAGUA‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ‪www.casa-alianza.org :‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣـﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠـﺎﺭﺏ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻋـﻮﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺈﺻـﻼﺡ ﻗﻀـﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﺒـﲔ ﺗﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﳖـﺞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻀـﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴـﻴﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟـﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﺨﺼـﻮﺹ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣـﺪﺍﺙ‪ .‬ﹸ‬
‫ﻭﲤﻴﺰ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺑﲔ ﲬﺲ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﻣـﻦ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭﺗﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺻﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﲈﺭﺳـﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺗﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺗﺸـﻜﻞ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﳜﺺ ﻋﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﱰﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺴـﲔ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧـﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧـﻮﻥ ﻭﻟﻠﺘﺤﻔﻴﺰ ﻋـﲆ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺃﻓـﻜﺎﺭ ﺃﺧﺮ￯‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻷﺟﻞ ﺇﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪٣٢‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺃﺳﻔﻠﻪ ﻟﻴﺴـﺖ ﺷـﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﲤﺜﻞ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ ﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﲡﺎﺭﲠﺎ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋـﲆ ﻭﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮ￯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸـﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣـﺪﺍﺙ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﲆ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻼﺗﺼـﺎﻝ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻻﻃﻼﻉ‬
‫ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ ‪٧ ...................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪٩ ..................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ ‪٣٧ .....................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﳊﲈﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﲔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴﻴﻒ ‪٣٩ ...........................................‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ‪٤٢ ..........................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﲔ ﰲ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪٤٥ .............................................................‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ ‪٤٩ ...................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﳎﺘﻤﻌﻲ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻧﻘﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ‪٥١ .............................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﳊﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺰﺍﻉ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺠﺘﻤﻌﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ‪٥٦ ....................................‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺠﺎﻟﺲ ﺍﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ‪٦٠ .................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻋﲆ ﻣﺴﺘﻮ￯ ﺍﻟﻘﺮ￯ ﲢﺖ ﺇﴍﺍﻑ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻧﻘﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ‪٦٤ .............................................‬‬
‫ﳉﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮ￯ ﺍﳌﺠﺘﻤﻌﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴﻴﻒ ‪٦٨ ...........................................‬‬

‫‪٣٣‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﲆ ﻣﺴﺘﻮ￯ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ‪ :‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ ""ﻫﺎﻟﺖ"‬
‫ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ‪٧١ .................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﲈﻝ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ ﳊﲈﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻧﻘﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ‪٧٤ .............................................‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ‪٧٩ ...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪٨١ ......................................‬‬
‫ﳎﻤﻊ ﻟﻠﺨﱪﺓ ﺫﻱ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺸﱰﻛﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﹼ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ‪٨٤ ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﱰﻛﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪٨٧ .............................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﺯﻳﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﻥ ﺍﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪٩٠ .............................................................‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ‪٩٣ .............................................................‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻦ ﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻟﺪ￯ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻠﺘﺤﻘﲔ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪٩٥ ......................................‬‬
‫ﻣﴩﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ‪٩٧ ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﺎﻓﺔ‬

‫‪٣٤‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴﻴﻒ ‪١٠٠ .............................................‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﺍﻟﺮﺻﺪ ﻭﺍﻻﺑﻼﻍ ‪١٠٣ .................................................................‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ‪١٠٥ ..................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺳﺠﻼﺕ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﻳﻤﺔ ‪١١٠ ..................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺑﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ‪١١٣ .................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺼﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﲏ‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻛﺎﺳﺎ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻧﺰﺍ ‪١١٦ ......................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ‪١١٩ .................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻨﺘﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺳﻮﺍﺑﻖ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻛﺎﺳﺎ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻧﺰﺍ ‪١٢٢ ......................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻧﺪﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﺟﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ‪١٢٥ .................................................‬‬

‫‪٣٥‬‬

‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ‬

‫‪٣٧‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ‬

‫‪ -١‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﳊﲈﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﲔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻭﻧﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴﻴﻒ‪،‬‬
‫ﺭﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﳏﺎﻣﻲ ﻛﻤﺒﻮﺩﻳﺎ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ‪ :‬ﻛﻤﺒﻮﺩﻳﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﳊﲈﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣـﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻤﺒﻮﺩﻳـﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﳛﺮﻡ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﲈﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻀﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺻﻮﳍﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﺇﻧﺼﺎﻓﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺼﻮﳍﻢ ﻋﲆ ﺍﳌﺴـﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺩﻓﺎﻋﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳊﲈﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﲇ‪ :‬ﻧﻘﺺ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻻﻋﺘﲈﺩ ﳏﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﲔ ﰲ‬
‫ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﻫﺘـﲈﻡ ﺑﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳـﺎ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻀـﺎﺓ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻌﻴﲔ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﲔ ﻛﲈ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻋﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺟﺮ￯ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺩﻋﻤﺖ ﻣﻨﻈﻤـﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴـﻴﻒ ﰲ ﺁﻳﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﺎﻳـﻮ ‪ ٢٠٠٠‬ﺇﻧﺸـﺎﺀ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﳊﲈﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺿﻤـﻦ ﺭﺍﺑﻄـﺔ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻘـﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤـﺔ ﻛﺬﻟـﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻟﻠﻮﺣـﺪﺓ ﻛﲈ ﺗﹸﺴـﻬﻞ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ ﺑﲈ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫• ﲤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻬﻤﲔ ﺑﺎﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺃﻋﲈﻝ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺳـﻮ￯ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﺤﺪﺭﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﴎ ﻓﻘﲑﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﻋﺎﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻀﻄﺮ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧ ﹰﺎ ﻹﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﻋﲆ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﺃﺧﺮ￯ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻧﻈﺮ ﹰﺍ ﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺗﻀﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬

‫‪٣٩‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫• ﻭﺿﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻠﻘﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺤﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺯﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺤﺘﺠﺰﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﻥ ﻟﺮﺻﺪ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻋﻬﻢ ﻭﲨﻊ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺭﻫﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﺼﺎﳊﻬﻢ( ﻭﺷـﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﻭﺳـﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴـﺠﻦ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺘﻲ ﺑﻨـﻮﻡ ﺑـﻦ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺪﺍﻝ ﻭﺃﻗﺴـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﴩﻃـﺔ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸـﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴـﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺪ ﻫـﺬﺍ ﴐﻭﺭﻳ ﹰﺎ ﻟﺘﺸـﺠﻴﻊ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﲈﻋـﺎﺕ ﻋﲆ ﺇﺣﺎﻟـﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﻟـﺢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳـﺒﺔ )ﻋـﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﺪﻋـﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔـﴘ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻲ ﻋﻨـﺪ ﺍﻟﴬﻭﺭﺓ(‬
‫ﻭﻟﻀﲈﻥ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑـﺄﴎ ﺍﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﻭﲡﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘـﺔ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﺣـﺪﺍﺙ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﳌﺮﺷﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﻮﻥ ﺧﺼﻮﺻ ﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻮﻧﲔ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﲢﺴﻴﺲ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻋﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺗﹸﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﺣـﺪﺓ ﲪﺎﻳـﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻧـﴩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺘـﲔ ﺍﳋﻤﲑﻳـﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﻜﻠﻴﺰﻳـﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻋﻬـﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺼﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ )ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺆﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴـﺔ ﻭﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧـﻮﻥ ﻭﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸـﻴﻮﺥ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﺳـﺘﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﻗﺴـﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ( ﺑﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ ﻟﻸﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﹸﻭﺯﻋﺖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ ‪ ٢١٥٠‬ﻧﺴـﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﴩﺓ ﻋﲆ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺤﻜﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﲪﺎﻳـﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﻛﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺷـﻬﺮ ﲥﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﻧﴩ ﻗـﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺤﻜﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﻗﻀﺎﻳـﺎ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻗـﺔ ﺑﺘﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣـﲔ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘـﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﻫﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﹸﻮﺯﻉ ﳎﺎﻧ ﹰﺎ ﻋﲆ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﲔ ﻭﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻗﻴﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﲈﻋﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺨﺮﻁ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪٤٠‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ‬

‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ‬
‫ﹸﲨﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﻭﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﻟﺪ￯ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﹸﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﹰﺍ ﻫﺎﻣ ﹰﺎ ﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﹸ‬
‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﻣﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﲈﺭﺳﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺪ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﲈﺭﺳﺔ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺔ؟‬

‫ﺇﻧﺠﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬
‫ﳏﺎﻣﻴﲔ ﻗﺎﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ ﰲ ‪ ٧‬ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺎﺕ ﻟﻴﻐﻄﻲ ﺍﻵﻥ ﳎﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‬
‫• ﺑﺪﺃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﴩﻭﻉ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﹾ‬
‫)‪ ٢٤‬ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ(‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌـﴩﻭﻉ ‪ ٣‬ﳏﺎﻣﲔ ﺗﺪﺭﺑﻮﺍ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺒ ﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺎ ﻭﻣﺴـﺎﻋﺪ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ‬
‫ﰲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺑﲈ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﺍﳌﺴـﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﺳـﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺳﻮﺀ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺘﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫• ﳛﻈﻰ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ‬
‫• ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻋـﺪﺩ ﺍﻟـﱪﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻤﻨﻮﺣـﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﺨﻔﻀﺖ ﻣـﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﺒـﺲ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ ﻭﺗﻢ ﲢﻮﻳـﻞ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳـﺒﺎﺕ ﺭﻏـﻢ ﻗﻠـﺔ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓـﺮ ﻛﻤﺒﻮﺩﻳﺎ ﻋـﲆ ﻗﺎﻋـﺪﺓ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﴩﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﴬﻭﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫• ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﺎﱄ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ‪:‬‬

‫‪Justice for Children: Detention as a Last Resort, Innovative Practices in the East‬‬
‫‪Asia and Pacific Region UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Region, 2003‬‬

‫‪٤١‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫‪ -٢‬ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻭﻧﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺃﻗﺴـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻼﻭﻱ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻼﻭﻱ ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺁﻱ ﺃﻭﻑ ﺫﻱ ﺗﺸﺎﻳﻠﺪ ﰲ ﺑﻼﻧﺘﲑ ﻭﻣﻼﻭﻱ ﻛﲑﺭ ﰲ ﺯﻭﻣﺒﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ )‪(CELA‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻟﻴﻠﻮﻧﻐﻮﻱ ﻭﻳﻮﺙ ﻭﻭﺗﺶ ﺻﻮﺻﺎﻳﺘﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺰﻭﺯﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ‪ :‬ﻣﻼﻭﻱ ﻭﺗﹸﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻳﻀ ﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺑﻨﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﲡﺮﺑﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﻼﻭﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﴍﺍﻛﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﻥ ﻭﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺤﺎﻛﻢ‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﻼﻭﻱ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﱰﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺪ ﹸﴍﻉ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﻨﺬ‬
‫ﺃﻳﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﺎﻳﻮ ‪ ٢٠٠٠‬ﻭﻳﻀﻢ ‪ ٢٧‬ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻧ ﹰﺎ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴ ﹰﺎ ﻣﺪﺭﺑ ﹰﺎ ﻳﻐﻄﻮﻥ ‪ %٨٤‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴـﺠﻮﻧﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻟﻠﴩﻃﺔ ﻭﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﳏﺎﻛﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺟﺮ￯ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﲔ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺤﺎﻛﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻗﺴـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻴـﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻗﺴـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺃﻧﺸـﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳـﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﹸﺒﲔ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﴏ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﻥ ﻳﻮﻣﻴ ﹰﺎ ﻭﺭﺷﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺸـﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴـﺠﻨﺎﺀ )ﳛﴬ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺷـﺔ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ ٢٠٠‬ﺳﺠﲔ(‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻤﺪ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﻮﻥ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺴﺠﻨﺎﺀ ﻻﺳـﺘﻴﻔﺎﺀ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪﺋﺬ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﻮﻥ ﻃﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪٤٢‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﻳﺰﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺴـﺠﻮﻧﲔ ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩﻱ ﻛﲈ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻬﻤﲔ ﻭﺍﳊﻀﻮﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ‬

‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻘـﺎ ﳌﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻮﻙ‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺃﻗﺴـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸـﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺴـﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﲢﺖ ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﴩﻃـﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺠﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﻛـﺰ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﻭﻣﻊ ﻣﻨﺘﺪ￯ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﳛﻘـﻖ ﺍﳌﺴـﺎﻋﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﻮﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺸـﺘﺒﻪ ﻓﻴﻬـﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﹸﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻮﴆ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺑﺎﲣﺎﺫ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻔـﻞ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ )ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺻﻐﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻋـﱰﺍﻑ ﺑﺎﳋﻄﺄ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﻨﲔ ﺃﻡ ﻻ‪ .‬ﻭﳛﴬ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻳﻀ ﹰﺎ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﻟﻀﲈﻥ‬
‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔـﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺜﲑ ﹰﺍ ﻣﺎ ﲡﺪ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﻧﻔﺴـﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﺟـﺰﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﰲ ﻗﻀﺎﻳـﺎ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﻟﻐﻴﺎﺏ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﴆ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻤﺪ ﺍﳌﺴـﺎﻋﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﻮﻥ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌـﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻗﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﻤﻬﲈ ﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜـﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻀﻄﻠﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﻟـﺢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣـﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺒـﺎﻁ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﻮﻥ ﺣﻴﺜـﲈ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﺪﻭﺍ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻼﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺪ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﲈﺭﺳﺔ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺔ؟‬

‫ﺇﻧﺠﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﲔ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺣﺮﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻏﺎﻟﺒ ﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺸـﺠﻊ ﺍﳌﲈﺭﺳـﺔ‬
‫ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﺒﻜﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺸـﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋـﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴـﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻌـﺎ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳـﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﺸـﻜﻞ ﺃﴎﻉ ﻭﺑﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻛﲈ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﴩﺍﻛﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﺪﲏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﲈ ﻳﲇ ﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺇﻧﻌﺎﺵ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻃﻌﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻊ‬

‫‪٤٣‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫• ﺗﺸـﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﳑﺜﲇ ﺍﻻﺩﻋـﺎﺀ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻗﻮﺍﺋـﻢ ﺗﻀﻢ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺰﻭﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﲏ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬
‫• ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﳌﺴـﺠﻮﻧﻮﻥ ﺑﺸـﺄﻥ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﳉﻴﺪ ﳊﻘﻮﻗﻬﻢ‬
‫• ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﳌﺤﺘﺠﺰﻳﻦ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﲏ ﺭﻫﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﲣﻔﻴﻀ ﹰﺎ ﻫﺎﻣﺎ‬
‫• ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺗﺸـﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺠﺎﻝ‬
‫ﲡﺎﻭﺯﻩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﴩﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﴬﻭﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺑـﲔ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳـﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧـﻮﻥ ﺑﲈ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ‬
‫• ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﲔ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﻭﻣﻜﺜﻒ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ‪:‬‬

‫‪Index of Good Practices in Reducing Pre-trial Detention [PRI], Paralegal‬‬
‫‪Advisory Service Brochure and Training Manual‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﲔ ﰲ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﲈﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻭﻧﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ‪:‬ﺭﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻣﻮﺭﻳﺘﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﻏﻴﻨﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻘﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻓﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺾ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﻲ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺷﺪ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺣﺎﺳﻢ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻲ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻪ ﻛﻠﲈ ﺳﻤﺢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﺷﺪﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﲆ ﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﻈﻮﻅ ﺃﻭﻓﺮ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻤﺮ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﰲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﲢﱰﻡ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻛﻠﲈ‬
‫ﺣﻈﺮ ﳏﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺷﺪ ﺍﺟﺘﲈﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﰲ ﻗﺴـﻢ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ ﻋﲆ ﺃﴎﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺮ ﻗﻠﲈ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﴩﻃـﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸـﺄﻥ‪ ،‬ﹸﳛﺘﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻻ ﺳﻴﲈ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺜﲑ ﺭﻓﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺤﲇ ﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﴎﺍﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻓﻮﺭ ﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺟﺮ￯ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺘﻌﻴﲔ ﳏﺎﻣﲔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﲔ ﻭﻣﺮﺷـﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﲔ ﻭﺗﺪﺭﻳﺒﻬﻢ ﺳﻌﻴ ﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﳌﻺ ﺍﻟﺜﻐـﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﲈﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻃﻔـﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ‬
‫ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﲠﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﲔ ﻓﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺾ ﻋﲆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴـﺎﻋﺪﻭﻥ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﻋـﲆ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳـﺮ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋـﻦ ﺃﺑﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﳊﺒﺲ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ ﻛﲈ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﻛﻠﲈ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ‪.‬‬

‫‪٤٥‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻭﻳﺒـﺪﺃ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﻲ ﻣﻨـﺬ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻠـﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺆﺧـﺬ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺴـﻢ ﺍﻟﴩﻃـﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺤﻀﻮﺭﻩ‬
‫ﴐﻭﺭﻱ ﻟﻀﲈﻥ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺃﴎﺗﻪ ﻋﲆ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺣ ﹼ‬
‫ﻼ ﻏﲑ ﺭﺳـﻤﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﺑﺴـﻴﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﻣـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﳖﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﱪﺭ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﺭﻫﻦ ﺍﳊﺒﺲ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ ﻋﻮﺽ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺷﺪ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻲ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﻼﻉ ﲠﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﴍﻳﻄﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬
‫ﰲ ﺃﴎﻉ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺸـﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻻ ﺳﻴﲈ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺘﻤﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﱰﺓ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ‬
‫ﰲ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺘﺒﻨﻰ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺎﺳـﺔ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺗﺪﺭﻳـﺐ ﻭﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺸـﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺒﺪﺃﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺸـﻮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﳛﺴﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺨﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺨﺼﺼﻮﻥ‬
‫ﰲ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺪ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﲈﺭﺳﺔ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺔ؟‬

‫ﺇﻧﺠﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬
‫• ﺑﻔﻀﻞ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳚﺮﺩ ﻣـﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺭﺑـﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻋﻤﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﻮﻥ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺷﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻳﺘﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﺮ￯ ﺍﻟـﴩﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﻮﻥ ﺑﺸـﻜﻞ ﻋـﺎﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﺍﳌﺮﺷـﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﲔ ﺃﻗـﻞ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺩﻓﻌﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺭﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﳍﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻤﻬﺎ "ﺟﻮﻥ ﻓﺎﻝ ﺟﻮﻥ" ﳊﲈﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﴩﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﴬﻭﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫• ﺳﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺩ‪ :‬ﲡﺪ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻷﳖﺎ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﲢﻈﻰ ﺑﺜﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﴩﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﲔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﲔ‪.‬‬

‫‪٤٦‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﲏ‬

‫• ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺴـﻤﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﺤﻀﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻣﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺴـﻢ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ؛‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﺧﺮ￯ ﹸﻳﺴـﻤﺢ ﺑﺤﻀﻮﺭﻩ ﻛﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻣﺴـﺘﻤﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧ ﹰﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ‪ ٢٤‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﲆ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﰲ ﻗﺴـﻢ ﺍﻟﴩﻃﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﺧﺮ￯ ﻻ ﹸﻳﺮﺧﺺ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﳊﻀﻮﺭ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺷﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻴﲔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ‪:‬‬

‫)‪Terre Des Hommes: Legal and Social/Educational Programs for Minors (France‬‬
‫‪2 in Conflict with the Law Workshop to Provide an Overview of Best Practices‬‬

‫‪Lyon 9 April 2001 - 4 May 2001‬‬

‫‪٤٧‬‬

‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ‬

‫‪٤٩‬‬


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