299ppm .pdf



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Appendix: apportioning the
responsibility for global warming
The following table1 shows the increases in organic matter required to reduce
atmospheric carbon dioxide levels to the magic “two nines” (299 ppm) where
the problems of global warming and climate change end. Atmospheric carbon
dioxide used to be 280 ppm. It’s now climbing past 380 ppm.
The measure of a country’s obligation must be determined by how much
carbon it is responsible for extracting from deep within the Earth and adding
it to the planet’s biosphere. It is imperative that every country must cease consuming fossil-carbon-based materials and adding more carbon to the biosphere.
However, our immediate global warming problems are caused by the carbon
dioxide that is there now, and that quantity of carbon we are stuck with. So our
immediate and urgent requirement is to realign the proportions of carbon within
the biosphere. Atmospheric carbon must become soil organic carbon. We have
no other option. Each country must accept its individual responsibility and make
that realignment happen.

The Two Nines Table—299 ppm
% contrib. = country’s percentage contribution to global warming through fossil
fuel consumption, 1950–2000
ppm = country’s contribution to global warming in parts per million of atmospheric carbon dioxide
land = crop and pasture land available to fix global warming, in millions of
hectares (1 hectare = about 2.5 acres)
OM = organic matter percentage point rise, in the top 12 inches of the country’s
crop and pasture land, to end global warming
1

This table and Appendix is excerpted from Priority One: Together We Can Beat Global
Warming by Allan J. Yeomans (published 2007 by Biosphere Media, www.biospheremedia.org,
ISBN 0979479932).

1

2

Priority One: Together We Can Beat Global Warming

Country
World
Europe
Albania
Austria
Belarus
Belgium
Bosnia
Bulgaria
Croatia
Czechoslovakia
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Macedonia
Moldova
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russia
Serbia
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Ukraine
United Kingdom

% contrib.
100
37.4
0.02
0.32
0.43
0.72
0.08
0.36
0.09
0.86
0.32
0.11
0.26
2.38
6.01
0.27
0.39
0.01
0.15
1.87
0.06
0.1
0.05
0.08
0.82
0.15
2.0
0.16
0.75
9.8
0.22
0.29
0.06
0.98
0.39
0.22
2.7
3.8

ppm
80
30
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
5
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
0
1
8
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
3

land
5096
474
1.12
3.39
8.92
1.54
2.10
5.31
3.13
4.33
2.67
0.72
2.13
29.7
16.75
8.51
5.89
2.31
4.41
15.6
2.48
3.50
1.25
2.53
1.97
1.23
18.1
4.21
14.7
203
5.61
2.50
0.50
30.0
3.29
1.54
41.7
16.9

OM
1.6∗
5.9
1.5
7.0
3.6
35
2.8
5
2.25
15
8.9
11
9
6
27
2.35
4.9
0.34
2.6
9.0
1.9
2.0
2.8
2.4
31
9.4
8.4
2.9
3.8
3.6
2.9
9.2
9.5
2.5
8.8
10.8
4.8
17

3

Priority One: Together We Can Beat Global Warming

Country
Europe excl. Russia
North America
Canada
United States
Cent.
Amer.
&
Caribbean
Belize
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominican Republic
El Salvador
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Trinidad and Tobago
South America
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Guyana
Paraguay
Peru
Suriname
Uruguay
Venezuela

% contrib.
27.6
29.3
2.21
27.13
1.57
0.001
0.01
0.15
0.04
0.01
0.02
0.004
0.01
0.03
1.18
0.01
0.02
0.05
2.65
0.55
0.03
0.94
0.15
0.23
0.05
0.008
0.009
0.11
0.01
0.03
0.54

ppm
22
24
2
22
1

land
272
470
64.5
412
143

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.137
2.86
6.59
3.68
1.70
4.55
1.60
2.91
0.51
107
7.04
2.23
0.133
630
178
36.9
262
15.0
45.7
8.03
1.77
25.0
30.7
0
14.9
22.0

OM
7.61
4.7
2.6
4.9
0.82
0.70
0.35
1.68
0.83
0.63
0.35
0.19
0.29
5.1
0.83
0.11
0.60
28
0.32
0.23
0.05
0.29
0.77
0.38
0.50
0.32
0.03
0.26

0.16
1.8

4

Priority One: Together We Can Beat Global Warming

Country
Oceania
Australia
Fiji
New Zealand
Papua New Guinea
Solomon Islands
Asia excl. Middle East
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Cambodia
China
Georgia
India
Indonesia
Japan
Kazakhstan
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kyrgyzstan
Laos
Malaysia
Mongolia
Myanmar
Nepal
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
Sri Lanka
Tajikistan
Thailand
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
Viet Nam

% contrib.
1.31
1.17
0.003
0.12
0.008
0.0005
22.4
0.028
0.21
0.05
0.0005
0.002
9.17
0.04
2.33
0.54
4.75
1.1
0.64
0.89
0.05
0.001
0.22
0.032
0.03
0.004
0.23
0.19
0.12
0.03
0.06
0.3
0.18
0.64
0.11

ppm
1
1
0
0
0
0
18
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
2
0
4
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0

land
OM
467
0.21
446
0.20
0.475
0.53
17.4
0.51
0.906
0.70
0.112
0.34
1323
1.3
1.4
1.5
4.6
3.4
9.1
0.5
0.6
0.06
5.3
0.03
560
1.23
3.0
1.0
181
0.96
45.3
0.9
5.1
70
208
0.4
2.65
18
1.97
34
10.7
0.32
1.85
0.06
7.89
2.1
132
0.02
10.5
0.2
5.0
0.06
27.0
0.65
12.2
1.2
.002 4360
2.4
0.8
4.34
1.0
20.4
1.1
32.4
0.43
27.3
1.8
9.44
0.9

5

Priority One: Together We Can Beat Global Warming

Country
Middle East & N.
Africa
Afghanistan
Algeria
Egypt
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Libya
Morocco
Oman
Saudi Arabia
Syria
Tunisia
Turkey
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Sub-Saharan Africa
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Central Africa
Chad
Congo
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Cˆote d’Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia
Ghana

% contrib.
3.54
0.01
0.20
0.31
0.71
0.22
0.15
0.03
0.15
0.04
0.11
0.083
0.033
0.52
0.11
0.050
0.52
0.13
0.03
1.77
0.02
0.003
0.007
0.002
0.0006
0.01
0.001
0.001
0.004
0.02
0.02
0.0006
0.0008
0.009
0.009
0.0008
0.016

ppm
3
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

land
465
37.8
38.1
2.99
60.5
10.1
0.59
1.1
0.16
0.34
15.8
30.3
0.93
174
13.6
9.79
41.6
0.59
17.4
1016
57.3
3.32
26.1
10.4
2.36
8.84
4.98
49.1
10.2
22.7
20.0
0.34
7.47
31.0
5.15
0.72
14.8

OM
0.57
0.02
0.39
7.8
0.87
1.6
19.3
2.4
70
9.4
0.53
0.21
2.6
0.22
0.62
0.38
0.94
17
0.14
0.13
0.02
0.06
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.08
0.01
0.001
0.03
0.064
0.064
0.14
0.008
0.023
0.13
0.08
0.08

6

Priority One: Together We Can Beat Global Warming

Country
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World

% contrib.
0.005
0.0008
0.03
0.0004
0.005
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.007
0.01
0.002
0.003
0.14
0.001
0.01
0.003
0
1.3
0.02
0.01
0.003
0.005
0.02
0.06
100

ppm
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
80

land
12.3
1.60
26.2
2.34
2.60
27.3
4.33
35.4
39.0
48.6
38.7
16.5
72.0
1.85
8.09
2.79
44.5
99.6
133
40.6
3.59
12.4
34.9
20.5
5096

OM
0.03
0.04
0.09
0.01
0.13
0.02
0.06
0.004
0.01
0.02
0.004
0.02
0.14
0.06
0.10
0.08
0
0.98
0.01
0.02
0.06
0.03
0.05
0.22
1.6∗

S OURCES :
Percentage contributions, 1950–2000, were calculated from
table 8 (p. 204) of World Resources 2005: The Wealth of the Poor—
Managing Ecosystems to Fight Poverty (World Resources Institute).
Cropland and pastureland figures were taken from table 11, p. 216.


We can allow for a nominal 10% extra to cover the rise in the greenhouse gases
other than carbon dioxide that also derive from fossil carbon sources. Then to
cure global warming the percentage point increase in organic matter content in
the top 12 inches of the world’s agricultural soils needs to average 1.6%.



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