Fichier PDF

Partage, hébergement, conversion et archivage facile de documents au format PDF

Partager un fichier Mes fichiers Convertir un fichier Boite à outils Recherche Aide Contact



Enquete Route .pdf



Nom original: Enquete Route.pdf
Titre: Enquête de l'association 40 millions d'automobilistes du 11112016_ quelles sont les routes les plus dégradées de France ?
Auteur: salexandre

Ce document au format PDF 1.4 a été généré par PDFCreator 2.0.1.0, et a été envoyé sur fichier-pdf.fr le 21/11/2016 à 18:54, depuis l'adresse IP 88.175.x.x. La présente page de téléchargement du fichier a été vue 222 fois.
Taille du document: 2.3 Mo (52 pages).
Confidentialité: fichier public




Télécharger le fichier (PDF)









Aperçu du document


FICHES
DÉPARTEMENTALES




d ‹Ž

³ ³ ³ Һ ²
²
L’ÉTAT DES ROUTES CONSTATÉ AU 1ER MARS 2016.

'9 8Ì9<£;!;9 932; 68Ì9'2;Ì9 6!8 )$,'9 &Ì6!8;'1'2;!£'9T $£!99Ì'9 6!8 38&8' &<
$3&' 29'' &< &Ì6!8;'1'2; $388'9632&!2;W
3<8 $,!7<' &Ì6!8;'1'2;T £! )$,' &Ì6!8;'1'2;!£' (!-; Ì;!;։V
j ' £ZÌ;'2&<' l'2 0-£31Ë;8'9T !< Šˆ &Ì$'1#8' ‰‡ˆˆ‰¥m &< 8Ì9'!< 83<ধ'8 &<
&Ì6!8;'1'2;‰Ž U
j < 231#8' &' 9-+2!£'1'2;9 &Ì639Ì9 6!8 £'9 <9!+'89 &' £! 83<;' &!29 £'
&Ì6!8;'1'2; 9<8 £' 9-;' 2;'82'; >>>W/!-1!£!1!83<;'W$31Š‡։U
j ' #<&+'; $329!$8Ì 6!8 £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; !<? &Ì6'29'9 &' =3-8-'Šˆ '; £' $3Û;
6!8 ,!#-;!2;։U
j 2 +839 6£!2 l;Ì13-+2!+' $316£';  -££<9;8!ধ32m 9<8 £! 83<;' $329-&Ì8Ì'
$311' £! 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì' &< &Ì6!8;'1'2;։U
j 2 !6'8%< l;Ì13-+2!+'9 8Ì9<1Ì9m &'9 &'<? !<;8'9 83<;'9 $329-&Ì8Ì'9 $311'
£'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &< &Ì6!8;'1'2;։U

‰¥

¬ £Z'?$'6ধ32 &'9 &Ì6!8;'1'2;9 ŽŠ l <@!2'm '; Ž‹ l ! Ì<2-32m 63<8 £'97<'£9 £'9 &'82-Ë8'9 &322Ì'9 &-9632-#£'9

&!;'2; &< Šˆ &Ì$'1#8' ‰‡‡ŽW l=3-8 )$,' f 6WŽ‹m
‰Ž

' 231#8' &' 0-£31Ë;8'9 1'2ধ322Ì $3168'2& Å £! (3-9 £' 8Ì9'!< !<;383<ধ'8T £'9 83<;'9 2!ধ32!£'9T &Ì6!8;'1'2;!£'9

'; $311<2!£'9 lÅ £Z'?$'6ধ32 &' !8-9T 7<- 2' &-9639' 7<' &Z<2' =3-8-' $311<2!£'mW
Š‡

31#8' &' 9-+2!£'1'2;9 8'$'29Ì9 6!8 £Z!993$-!ধ32 9<8 £' 9-;' 2;'82'; !< ˆ'8 1!89 ‰‡ˆ¤W

Šˆ

3;!£ +£3#!£ &'9 &Ì6'29'9 &' (32$ধ322'1'2; '; &Z-2='9ধ99'1'2; £-Ì'9 Å £! =3-8-' &Ì6!8;'1'2;!£' 68Ì=<'9 !< #<&+';

68-1-ধ( &'9 $329'-£9 &Ì6!8;'1'2;!<? 63<8 £Z!22Ì' ‰‡ˆŒ '; Å £! =3-8-' $311<2!£' 68Ì=<'9 !< #<&+'; 68-1-ধ( &' £! -££'
&' !8-9 63<8 £Z!22Ì' ‰‡ˆ¤
Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

LES 3 ROUTES LES PLUS DÉGRADÉES PAR DÉPARTEMENTS
³;'2&<'T '2 0-£31Ë;8'9T &< 8Ì9'!< 83<ধ'8 &!29 £' &Ì6!8;'1'2;W
31#8' &' 9-+2!£'1'2;9 &Ì639Ì9 6!8 £'9 <9!+'89 63<8 £' &Ì6!8;'1'2;W

Ӈ‡ˆӈ

ˆŠ։‡‹‡ 01

‰‰‡ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z -2 ! $329!$8Ì ŒŽTŽ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ŽŒ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
2;'89'$ধ32 8!2&' 83<;'։c։ <' &'9 '<6£-'89T 38#323& e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !<8'2; U

1

a։ 83-9'1'2; -2)2-1'2; &!2+'8'<? 9<8 £! 83<;' '2 &-8'$ধ32 &' '££'+!8&'T
!< 2-='!< &< ,!1'!< ! 8-££'W £ '?-9;' <2' 68-38-;Ì Å &83-;' 1!97<Ì' 6!8 <2'
,!-'։U 7<!2& 32 2' $322!Ñ; 6!9 £' £-'<T £! 68-38-;Ì Å &83-;' 9<868'2& &Z!<;!2;
6£<9 7<Z'££' '9; -2=-9-#£'W <'£7<'9 0-£31Ë;8'9 6£<9 £3-2T 9<8 $'ħ' 1Í1'
83<;'T <2' !<;8' =3-' ='2!2; &' £! &83-;' '9; 1!87<Ì' 6!8 <2 9;36W <'£7<'9 0-£31Ë;8'9 6£<9 £3-2T Å
23<='!< <2' !<;8' 68-38-;Ì Å &83-;'W ' 9$,Ì1! 83<ধ'8 1!27<' $£!-8'1'2; &' $3,Ì8'2$'W։b

2

¥ŒT 8#'2; e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì8Ö1' U
a։ -'2 7<' 1! =3-;<8' 93-; !99'A ,!<;'T '2

3

,'1-2 &< 3-9 &' £! !1'T !@!; e
9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 !;,-'< U

'168<2;!2; $' &39 &ZÇ2' Å ‰‡։01c, l63<8 <2' A32'

a։ <9;' !=!2; £' $83-9'1'2; !='$ '9 '82'9T <2'

£-1-;Ì' Å Š‡։RmT /Z!- #-'2 $8< 7<' /Z!££!-9 £!-99'8 132 6!8'f

&Ì(381!ধ32 -1638;!2;' &'9 !$$3;'1'2;9 683=37<'

$,3$W b

<2' +8399' #399' !< 1-£-'< &' £! 83<;'W։b

Ӈ‡‰ӈ

ˆˆ։Š‰‰ 01

ˆŽ¥ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z -92' ! $329!$8Ì Š‰T¤ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ŒŽ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
Ž‰ŒT 3<;' &' 3<A-'89T 32&Ìf9<8f -92' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!2d
-'88' U

1

a։ 3<;' 68-2$-6!£' 7<- ;8!='89' £' =-££!+' '2;8' !-££@f9<8f -92' '; 3-99329W
' 1!$!&!1 '9; &Ì(381Ì !< 2-='!< &< =-8!+'T )99<8Ì !='$ !ø!-99'1'2; Å &'
231#8'<? '2&83-;9W։b

2

¤T 99-+2@f£'f 'ধ; e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
<-¡¡¡!<1' U

3

ˆ‡‡ŠT !8'22'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !;8-$0 U
a։ ! $,!<99Ì' '9; &' 6£<9 '2 6£<9 &Ì(381Ì'

a։ ! 83<;' 68-2$-6!£' &< =-££!+'T '2;8' £! 1!-8-' ';

'; &'6<-9 £32+;'169T /!1!-9 8Ì6!8Ì' 3< 8'(!-;'W '£!

£ZÌ$3£'T '9; &!29 <2 Ì;!; 6-;3@!#£'W ' 8'=Í;'1'2; '9; Å

+Ì2Ë8' <2 (32& 93238' ;8Ë9 Ì£'=Ì !< 6!99!+' &'9

8'(!-8' '2ধË8'1'2;W։b

=3-;<8'9 '; $!1-329 &!29 £! ;8!='89Ì' &< =-££!+'T '; $'£!
;8Ë9 '2 !132; &< 6!99!+' 'ø'$ধ(W։b




| 51

Ӈ‡Šӈ

ˆ‰։ˆ‹ˆ։01

¥¤ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z ££-'8 ! $329!$8Ì ‰‰TŒ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ¤‹ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
<' &< 32; &' 3-9T 3<£-29 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!2 U

1

2

a։ ! 83<;' '9; $316£Ë;'1'2; &Ì(381Ì'W։b

3<;' &' 8-$!&';T 38-+'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 32!;,!2 U

3

<' !@132; 32&'£'<?T <99'; e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 <¡-' U

a։ '9 $32&<-;'9 &Z'!< 32; Ì;Ì 8'(!-;'9T $' 7<- £!-99' 9<8

a։ '89 £' 632; '; '2 (!$' &< 638;!-£ '2 #!9 &< $-1'ধË8'T

<2 $Ö;Ì &' £! $,!<99Ì g։&Ì/Å 6!9 ;8Ë9 £!8+'։g <2' #!2&'

-£ @ ! <2 Ì2381' 2-&f&'f63<£'W։b

£Ì+Ë8'1'2; &Ì2-='£Ì' '; 6£'-2' &' +8!=-££329W b

Һ Ӈ‡‹ӈ

։‰ˆ¤ 01

¥Ž 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &'9 £6'9 &' !<;'f 83='2$' ! $329!$8Ì ‰¥T¥ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å
£Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆŠ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ŒŒ‹T '2;'83£ l <8#!29m e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '28-0! U

1

a։ £ (!<; !#93£<1'2; 8'+3<&8322'8 $'ħ' 83<;' 7<- '9; ;8Ë9 !#Ñ1Ì'W ££' '9;
6£'-2' &' )99<8'9T &' #399'9T &' 2-&9f&'f63<£'W 'ħ' 83<;' ;8!='89' £' =-££!+'
&' '2;'83£T 1!-9 =< 7<Z'££' &Ì6'2& &< =-££!+' &' <8#!29T $'£<-f$- 2' 9Z'2
68Ì3$$<6' +<Ë8' 1!£+8Ì £'9 1<£ধ6£'9 &'1!2&'9 &'9 '2;'83£!-9W։b

2

ŽŒ‡T
38$!£7<-'8 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 2&8Ì U
a։ ,!<99Ì' &Ì(381Ì'T &'9 9'$;'<89 /!1!-9

3

ŠT ,3!8& e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ¡!<&' U
a։ 3<;' Ì;83-;' '; ;8Ë9 9-2<'<9' '2;8' ,3!8&

8'9;!<8Ì9 &'6<-9 &'9 &Ì$'22-'9W $$-&'2;3+Ë2'T

'; ,!16;'8$-'8 l!<$<2' =-9-#-£-;Ì &!29 £'9 231#8'<?

Ì;83-;'T $'ħ' $,!<99Ì' 2Z'9; 6£<9 !&!6;Ì' Å £!

=-8!+'9mW 3-29 !$$-&'2;3+Ë2' 7<' £! ˆT 1!-9

$-8$<£!ধ32 !$;<'££'W։b

2Ì$'99-;' <2' 68<&'2$' !$$8<'W։b

5 Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

Һ Ӈ‡Œӈ

‹։¥‡Š 01

ˆˆ‡ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &'9 !<;'9f £6'9 ! $329!$8Ì ‰‰TŽ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆŒ¥ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
Ž‹‰T ! !<$,'T '2;!=32 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !;,'8-2' U

1

a։ '6<-9 ‰‰ !29 7<' /Z,!#-;' &!29 $' =-8!+'T <2' 13@'22' &Z<2' &-A!-2' &'
=Ì,-$<£'9 )2-; $,!7<' !22Ì' &!29 132 ;'88!-2X։b

2

Ž‹‹T 32;f&'f
8!66'T
38'9;f !-2;f
<£-'2 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 <-¡¡!<1' U

3

,'1-2 &' !9 &' £!-9T 8-!2%32 e
9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 Ì!;8-$' U

a։ ' #8'( 6!99!+' &< 32;f&'f
8!66' &!29 £! &'9$'2;'

a։ -&9f&'f63<£' ;3<; £' £32+ &' $'ħ' $,!<99Ì'W

&< 3£ &' !29' '9; ;3;!£'1'2; &Ì(32$ÌT $' 7<-

,!7<' !22Ì' &' 1!<=!-9 8!)9;3£!+'9 932; (!-;9։R։b

1!£1Ë2' 239 1Ì$!2-7<'9 1Í1' Å ;8Ë9 (!-#£' !££<8'W
' 6£<9T $'£! $!<9' &'9 2-&9f&'f63<£' '2 ,-='8։V £'9
$,!99'f2'-+' 9' ,'<8;'2; Å £Z-88Ì+<£!8-;Ì &< #-;<1' '2
£Z!88!$,!2;W։b

Һ Ӈ‡¤ӈ

¤։‰‰ 01

Œ‡¤ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &'9 £6'9f !8-ধ1'9 ! $329!$8Ì ‡T¥ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &'
£! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ¤‹ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

3<;' &' £! 3<#-Ë8'T !9;!+2-'89 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 @8-!1 U
a։ 3<;' &' £! 3<#-Ë8'T '2 &-8'$ধ32 &' '='29T £! 83<;' '9; Ì;83-;' l-£ 2Z@ !
&Z!-££'<89 6!9 &' ;8!-; !< 1-£-'< &' £! 83<;' '2 !=!£ &< =-8!+'m '; &!29 £' =-8!+'T
;3<9 £'9 /3<89 &'9 =Ì,-$<£'9 932; +!8Ì9W £ 2Z@ ! !<$<2' =-9-#-£-;Ì 7<!2& 32
&'9$'2& &' !9;!+2-'89 63<8 8'68'2&8' £! ‰‡‰։U 32 9' 8';83<=' 2'A Å 2'A
!='$ &Z!<;8'9 =Ì,-$<£'9 7<- 132;'2; ='89 '='29W 3<; £' 132&' 9' ;83<='
!£389 #£37<Ì '; £'9 1!23'<=8'9 932; &-ă$-£'9 Å $!<9' &'9 =Ì,-$<£'9 9;!ধ322Ì9 £' £32+ &' £! 83<;'W 2
/3<8T £'9 !$$83$,!+'9 9'832; 6£<9 +8!='9T 9<8;3<; 9- <2' 13;3 !88-=' '2 (!$'X b

2

,'1-2 &< !£#397<';T 2ধ#'9 e
9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 -+<'¡ U

3

,'1-2 &'9 !9ধ2'9T 2ধ#'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì
6!8 -+<'¡ U

a։ 31#8'<9'9 )99<8'9 '; (!Ò'2%!+' !=!2$Ì &<

a։ ,!<99Ì' '?;8Í1'1'2; &Ì(381Ì'T ;83<9 '; 2-&9f

8'=Í;'1'2; &' £! $,!<99Ì' &!29 $'ħ' 8<'W։b

&'f63<£'W -8$<£!ধ32 -2;'29'T =-8!+'9 '; 1!<=!-9'
=-9-#-£-;ÌW։b




| 53

² Ӈ‡ӈ

։‰‡ 01

ˆŽŽ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z 8&Ë$,' ! $329!$8Ì ‹‡T 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ‰‹ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ŒŒ¥T !-2;f !<8-$' Z #-' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!2 U

1

a։ 3<;' Ì;83-;'T #31#Ì'T #38&9 &Ì+8!&Ì9 3Ù &'<? =Ì,-$<£'9 9' $83-9'2;
&-ă$-£'1'2;W -8!+' &!2+'8'<?W -;<!ধ32 &Ì232$Ì' 6!8 £! !-8-' !<68Ë9 &'
£Z³7<-6'1'2;W ?' &'='2< -1638;!2; 63<8 £Z!$$Ë9 Å <2' 83<;' ;3<8-9ধ7<' !<
;322!+' £-1-;Ì '; !='$ &'9 632;9 9<#1'89-#£'9W 3<8 £! 6!8$3<8-8 '2 =Ì£3T /'
8'1!87<' 93<='2; &'9 8Ì;83=-9'<89 '; &'9 '2/3£-='<89 &' 83<' &!29 £' (399ÌW
38ধ32 &' 83<;' &'='2<' -2!&!6;Ì' !='$ <2' &'29-;Ì &' =Ì,-$<£'9 6£<9 -1638;!2;'T 7<- 68Ì9'2;' <2
&!2+'8W։b

2

,'1-2 &'9 -9;'9T '8239$f£Ë9f
2232!@ e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 !22-$0 U

3

ŒŠŠT Ö;' &< -2T !-2;f '8!@ e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 3@ U

a։ 'ħ' 83<;' 2' 6399Ë&' 6!9 &Z'283#ÌW £ 9<ă8!-; &'

a։ ' !-2;f '8!@ Å ! 3<99-Ë8'T $'ħ' ŒŠŠ '9; ;8Ë9

£! +3<&8322'8T 1!-9 £' 1!-8' 2' ='<; 6!9W £ 68Ì(Ë8'

&!2+'8'<9'T $!8 ;8Ë9 (8Ì7<'2;Ì' &!29 £'9 &'<? 9'29W

+3<&8322'8 <2' !-8' &' 9;!ধ322'1'2; 63<8 $!16-2+f

'9 &Ì6!99'1'2;9 932; 7<!9- -16399-#£'9T $!8 -£ @ !

$!8W։b

#'!<$3<6 &' $!1-329 '; &' =-8!+'9 9!29 =-9-#-£-;ÌW։b

Ӈ‡¥ӈ

¤։‹‹¤ 01

ˆ‡Ž 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &'9 8&'22'9 ! $329!$8Ì Š‰ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆˆ‡ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

ˆˆ‡T '8;32$3<8; e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 3Ρ U
a։ < $83-9'1'2; ' !8!&-9 /<97<ZÅ £Z'2;8Ì' &' '8;32$3<8;T £! 83<;' '9;
<ধ£-9Ì' 6!8 £'9 #<9 9$3£!-8'9 '; £'9 $!1-329T 1!-9 -£ '9; -16399-#£' &' 9Z@
$83-9'8W։b

2

Ž‹T <A!2$@ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
8!2%3-9 U
a։ 389 &' £! ;8!='89Ì' &' £! =-££'T £'9 2-&9f&'f

63<£'T )99<8'9T ;83<9 '; #399'9 9' 9<$$Ë&'2;W։b

3

Š‹T -££'89f '1'<9' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
,8-9;Ë¡' U

a։ < 2-='!< &< $'2;8' $311'8$-!£T £' 1!87<!+' !< 93£
'9; 68!ধ7<'1'2; -2=-9-#£' 6!8 ;'169 &' 6£<-' £! 2<-;
9<8 £Z!<;383<;'W։b

Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

Ӈˆ‡ӈ

¤։Ž‡Ž 01

ˆŠ‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z <#' ! $329!$8Ì ‰‰T¤ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ‰ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
‹ŠT 8-'£f9<8f !89' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 8<23 U

1

a։ '6<-9 6£<9-'<89 13-9T £! $,!<99Ì' '9; &Ì(381Ì' 6!8 &'9 2-&9f&'f63<£'T
!-29- 7<' &'9 132ধ$<£'9 &' +8!=!;9 '; &' #3<' 7<- 932; &Ì639Ì9 9<8 £!
$,!<99Ì' 6!8 &'9 =Ì,-$<£'9 &' ;8!=!<? 6<#£-$9W ¬ $!<9' &' 2-&9f&'f63<£'T /Z!-
$!99Ì <2' /!2;' &' 132 =Ì,-$<£'W։b

2

<' &'9 !83;9T 83@'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
8>!2 U

<' 3<£311-Ë8'T 83@'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 '!2d
8!2%3-9 U

3

a։ '9 2-&9f&'f63<£'T &Ì(381!ধ329T 2-='!<? &'

a։ <' 6!=Ì' Å £Z38-+-2'T 6!8 '2&83-;9 &'9 ;8!$'9 &'

+3<&8329 &-øÌ8'2;9W 3<; £' 132&' 83<£' !< 1-£-'< &'

#-;<1'T &' 231#8'<? ;83<9WWW։b

£! 83<;' 9- 6'89322' 2Z!88-=' '2 (!$' '; £'9 9<96'29-329
93<ø8'2;W։b

Ӈˆˆӈ

ˆˆ։ŠŒ‰ 01

ˆˆˆ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z <&' ! $329!$8Ì Œ‹T 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ‹ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

ˆˆŒT Ì6-'<? e9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!2d 3<-9 U
a։ 3<;' ;8Ë9 &Ì(381Ì' '; Ì;83-;'T !<$<2' #!2&' #£!2$,'T '168<2;Ì' 6!8
&'9 $!1-329 ‹¥ 7<- =32; Å <2' 9;!ধ32 &Z'1#3<;'-££!+' 9-;<Ì' '2 6£'-2'
$!16!+2'W Z<2' (!%32 6£<9 +Ì2Ì8!£'T ;3<;'9 £'9 83<;'9 &' £Z <&' 932;
1!<=!-9'9T 6!9 '2;8';'2<'9 l£'9 ;83<9 '; 2-&9f&'f63<£' 932; $31#£Ì9 !='$ <2
a#3<$,'f;83<9b 7<- (!-; <2' #399'mW ' 2Z'9; 6!9 63<8 8-'2 7<Z<2 (!#8-$!2; &'
62'<9 =-'2; ;'9;'8 9'9 62'<9 9<8 $'9 83<;'9 &Ì(32$Ì'9։R։b

2

‹ˆ¥T !££Ë£'9 &Z <&' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
@¡=-'
U

3

='2<' ,!8£'9 &' !<££'T -13<? e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!2d !8-' U

a։ 3<;'9 232 8'(!-;'9T #399'£Ì'9T !='$ !#9'2$'

a։ ! 83<;' '9; ;8Ë9 !#Ñ1Ì'T )99<8Ì' '; #38&Ì' &'

;3;!£' &' 1!87<!+'W #9'2$' &' ;83ħ3-8 &!29 £'9

6£!;!2'9 9!29 £! 13-2&8' 683;'$ধ32W։b

$311<2'9X 2 9' $83-8!-; &!29 £'9 !22Ì'9 Œ‡։R։b




| 55

Ӈˆ‰ӈ

ˆ¤։¤ˆŽ 01

¤Œ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z ='@832 ! $329!$8Ì ‹ŒT‰ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆŒ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
='2<' &< ¥ 1!-T W W &' -££'(8!2$,'f&'f 3<'8+<' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
!8$ U

1

a։ 3<;' Å +8!2&' $-8$<£!ধ32 &' 63-&9 £3<8&9T '2 ;8Ë9 1!<=!-9 Ì;!;W։b

2

='2<' &' !@£';T -££'(8!2$,'f&'f
3<'8+<' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -¡¡-!1 U

3

-'<f&-; Les IssardsT 8!29!$ e 9-+2!¡Ì
6!8 '23Ñ;
U

a։ 31#8'<? ;83<9 '; 8!$$38&9 !='$ 6£!7<'9 1Ì;!££-7<'9

a։ '9 2-&9f&'f63<£' 9<8 £! £!8+'<8 $316£Ë;' &' £! 83<;'

7<- 2' 932; 6£<9 Å 2-='!<W։b

'; <2' £32+<'<8 &Z'2=-832 ‰‡‡ 1Ë;8'9W։b

Һ Һ ӇˆŠӈ

ˆ‰։ŒˆŽ 01

ˆ։Œ¤‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &'9 3<$,'9f&<f ,Ö2' ! $329!$8Ì ˆŒŽT‹ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2
&' £! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; Ž '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

,'1-2 &'9 £!6-'89T !8&!22' e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 !;8-$' U
a։ 2$-'22' 83<;' &' $!16!+2' &'='2<' 9<8(8Ì7<'2;Ì' 9<-;' Å £! $8Ì!ধ32
&Z<2' 83<;' -1638;!2;' Å 683?-1-;ÌW ! 83<;' '9; &'='2<' #'!<$3<6 ;836
Ì;83-;'T 6!9 &' 9-+2!£-9!ধ32 !< 93£T 683#£Ë1' &' =-9-#-£-;Ì '2 =-8!+' !='$
£Z-2;'89'$ধ32 &< ,'1-2 &' £! !8&'W ZÌ;!; +Ì2Ì8!£ &' £! 83<;' '9; &Ì6£38!#£'։V
2-&9f&'f63<£'T #!9f$3;Ì9 &Ì+8!&Ì9T 231#8'<9'9 ;8!$'9 &' 8Ì6!8!ধ329X։b

2

Œ‡T <#!+2' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '23-; U
a։ ! $,!<99Ì' '9; &Ì(381Ì' 9<8 £'9 &'<? 9'29

3

3<£'=!8& &< !8Ì$,!£ <-2T !89'-££'
e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 '2-9 U

&' $-8$<£!ধ32 l‹ =3-'9 !< ;3;!£mW ! =3-;<8' 9' $31638;'

a։ 2 &-8'$ধ32 &' ! -132'T !< 1-£-'< &< $!88'(3<8 Å

$311' 9<8 <2 &39 &ZÇ2'W ³;!2; 6!8(3-9 '2 13;3T /'

('<?T &'=!2; £Z Ö;'£ &< &Ì6!8;'1'2;T +8399' )99<8'

83<£' $316£Ë;'1'2; Å &83-;' 63<8 Ì=-;'8 ;3<; 8'#32&W։b

&!2+'8'<9' 63<8 £'9 &'<?f83<'9W։b

Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

Ӈˆ‹ӈ

ˆ‰։¤‰¥ 01

‹ˆ¥ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< !£=!&39 ! $329!$8Ì ‰Ž 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ‹ˆ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
,'1-2 &< !1'£T '81!2=-££' e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 -9'd !8-' U

1

a։ ' $,'1-2 &< !1'£ '9; 8'16£- &' 2-&9f&'f63<£' =8!-1'2; 683(32&9 ';
&' 6£<9 '2 6£<9 £!8+'9W £ @ '2 ! 6!8;3<;W '£! (!-; &'<? !29 7<Z32 ,!#-;' Å
'81!2=-££' '; -£ 2Z@ ! ;3</3<89 8-'2 &' (!-;W 'ħ' 83<;' '9; &!2+'8'<9' ';
!#Ñ1' £'9 =3-;<8'9W ' &3-9 93<='2; (!-8' 8Ì+£'8 £' 6!8!££Ì£-91' '; 1'9 62'<9
9Z!#Ñ1'2; #'!<$3<6 6£<9 =-;'W։b

2

='2<' &'9 '=-9'9T !#3<8+ e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -!2' U

,'1-2 &'9 2$£39T Ì2'8=-££'f9<8f
'8 e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 !83¡-2' U

3

a։ 'ħ' 83<;' '9; &!29 <2 Ì;!; Ì63<=!2;!#£' &'6<-9

a։ 82-Ë8'9T ;83<9T #399'9T 3<;8' £'9 231#8'<?

&'9 !22Ì'9W 2 @ (!-; &'9 8<9ধ2'9 8Ì+<£-Ë8'1'2;T 7<-

8!£'2ধ99'<89 1!£ 6!=Ì9T &!2+'8'<? '2 6!8ধ$<£-'8 63<8

9!<;'2; ;3<; !<99- 8Ì+<£-Ë8'1'2;W <Z!ħ'2&f;f32 63<8

£'9 &'<?f83<'9W։b

£! 8'(!-8' $316£Ë;'1'2;։S։b

Ӈˆ¤ӈ

ˆ‹։‡Ž¥ 01

ˆŽ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! ,!8'2;' ! $329!$8Ì ‰ŒT 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ‡ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
‰T £-'<f&-; Chez SiretT -2!89 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !<8'2; U

1

a։ 3<;' &Ì(32$Ì' 6!8 £'9 ;8!=!<? &' £! T 6<-9 £' 8!$$38&'1'2; !< 9@9;Ë1'
&ZÌ=!$<!ধ32 &'9 '!<? ';$WWW !9 &' ;83ħ3-8 2- &' £<1-Ë8'T !£389 7<' &'9
'2(!2;9 £Z<ধ£-9'2; $,!7<' 93-8 Å 6-'&9W !9 &' £-+2' #£!2$,' !< 93£WWW 3<;'
;8Ë9 6!99!2;'T 1!-9 £!-99Ì' Å £Z!#!2&32W։b

2

¤ŽŽT <' &' -13+'9T 32;#832 e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 8-$ U

3

='2<' <£'9
'88@T 2+3<£Í1' e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ¡-2' U

a < $'2;8'f=-££' Å £! 6-9$-2'T £! 83<;' '9; $316£Ë;'1'2;

a։ 2;8' £! £!$' !-2;f !8ধ2 '; £! <' &' 32;138'!< V

&Ì(381Ì'W '9 )99<8'9 !66!8!-99'2; '; &'9 2-&9f&'f

;8Ë9 1!<=!-9 Ì;!; &' £! 83<;' Å £! 9<-;' &'9 231#8'<9'9

63<£' 932; '2 (381!ধ32W '9 1!87<!+'9 !< 93£ 932;

9!-+2Ì'9 (!-;'9 &' (!%32 8Ì6Ì;Ì' '; 8'#3<$,Ì'9 Å £!

'ø!$Ì9W b

=!f=-;'W։b




| 57

Һ Ӈˆӈ

ˆ։¤‹ˆ 01

‰¥ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! ,!8'2;'f !8-ধ1' ! $329!$8Ì ‹¤TŠ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2
&' £! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ˆ‰ŒT <' &< 8!2& -££!+'T !-2;f !A!-8'f9<8f ,!8'2;' e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !=-'8 U

1

a։ < $3<89 &'9 ;8!=!<?T £! ;3;!£-;Ì &' £Z!-8' &' 83<£'1'2; ! Ì;Ì '2£'=Ì' ';
8'16£!$Ì' 6!8 &< ;3<;f='2!2; 8'$3<='8; &Z<2' 6'££-$<£' &' #-;<1' £Ì+'8W '9
&Ì+8!&!ধ329 932; -1638;!2;'9 '; 2' (32; £Z3#/'; &Z!<$<2' 8'1-9' '2 Ì;!;
l9'<£'1'2; <2 6'< &' +8!=-££329 &' ;'169 '2 ;'169mW։b

2

‰‹ˆT <' &< '16£'T !-2;f <9;f
<A!$ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !=-'8 U

3

ŽŠ T <' &< 2A' 3='1#8'T

3<8!9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!2d ,8-9;36,' U

a։ ,!<99Ì' 6£'-2' &' ;83<9T #399'9T -88Ì+<£!8-;Ì (38;'

a։ ! !-8-' ! 6£!2;Ì -£ @ ! 7<'£7<'9 !22Ì'9 &'9 6-29

&' £ZÌ;!; &' £! 83<;'T 7<!9- -168!ধ$!#£'W։b

1!8-ধ1'9 68Ë9 &' £! 83<;'W '9 8!$-2'9 683=37<'2; &'9
#399'9 9<8 £! 83<;'T 7<- 9Z!16£-)'2; &' 6£<9 '2 6£<9
!< )£ &'9 9!-9329W 31#8' &Z!<;313#-£-9;'9 (32; &'9
Ì$!8;9 63<8 £'9 Ì=-;'8W։b

Ӈˆ¥ӈ

Ž։¥¥‰ 01

ˆŠˆ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< ,'8 ! $329!$8Ì ‰Š 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ‰ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

<' 3<-9 !££';T 3<8+'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 U U
a։ 'ħ' 83<;' '9; &!29 <2 Ì;!; 6-;3@!#£'։V ;8!=!<? 9<8 ;8!=!<? &'6<-9 ˆ‡ !29T
1!87<!+'9 '2 6!+!-££'T )99<8'9 '; 2-&9f&'f63<£'W 3<8 <2' '2;8Ì' &' =-££'T
$Z'9; 6'< &' &-8' 7<' $Z'9; ;8Ë9 &!2+'8'<?։R։b

2

<' '38+' !2&T !-2;f 1!2&f
32;832& e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ,!2;!¡ U

3

T ! <-£'8-'T !2!£ £!;Ì8!£ Å £! 3-8'T
'88@ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !2-'¡ U

a։ 'ধ;' 8<' 3Ù £! $,!<99Ì' '9; ;8Ë9 Ì;83-;' '; '2

a։ ' ;!£<9 &< $!2!£ 9Z'ø32&8'W 2 1<8 '2 #Ì;32 ! Ì;Ì

1!<=!-9 Ì;!;W -8$<£!ধ32 Å &3<#£'f9'29T 6!9 &'

$329;8<-;T 1!-9 -£ 9Z!ø!-99' !<99- 1!£+8Ì £'9 6!£6£!2$,'9

;83ħ3-8T !='$ 6!99!+' &' $!89T &' $!1-329W '!<$3<6

'; 8Ì;8Ì$-; &!2+'8'<9'1'2; £! $,!<99Ì' 3Ù 6!99'2;

&' 6'89322'9 Ç+Ì'9 &'1'<8'2; &!29 $'ħ' 8<'W։b

#'!<$3<6 &' 63-&9 £3<8&9W ! 9-;<!ধ32 '9; -29;!££Ì'
&'6<-9 ¥ 3< ˆ‡ !29։R։b

5 Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

² ӇˆŽӈ

ˆˆ։‹¥‹ 01

ˆŠŠ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! 388ËA' ! $329!$8Ì ‰‰T 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; Žˆ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ˆ‡¥ŽT 8-='f£!f !-££!8&' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ,-¡-66' U

1

a։ 3<;' $316£Ë;'1'2; &Ì(381Ì'T 6£'-2' &' #399'9T !='$ &' +839 2-&9f&'f
63<£' 9<8 ;3<;' £! ˆ‡¥Ž '; 23;!11'2; ='89 £Z-2;'89'$ধ32 !='$ £! <' !?
&' !89 3Ù $Z'9; ;8Ë9 &!2+'8'<?W '£! '9; '2 £ZÌ;!; &'6<-9 ‹ !29 7<' /' 9<-9 Å
8-=' '; 8-'2 2Z'9; (!-; 63<8 @ 8'1Ì&-'8T 1!£+8Ì £'9 -16Ö;9 £3$!<? 7<- 932; ;8Ë9
-1638;!2;9 9<8 8-='W։b

2

ˆ‹ŽT Ì+<8f£'f ,Ç;'!< e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
,-¡-66' U

2;'89'$ধ32 Š¥։c։ ˆ¤‰T 392!$ e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
8!2$-9 U

3

a։ ' Ì+<8f£'f ,Ç;'!< Å <#'89!$T £! 83<;' '9; Ì;83-;'

a։ £ @ ! &Ì/Å '< 6£<9-'<89 !$$-&'2;9 138;'£9 Å $!<9'

'; 9-2<'<9'W '9 #38&9 &' $,!<99Ì' 932; &Ì+8!&Ì9 ';

&< ;3<82'fÅf+!<$,' '; &' 9'9 #38&<8'9 '2 #Ì;32W

;8Ë9 -29;!#£'9W։b

£ (!<&8!-; (!-8' <2 832&f63-2; '; 2-='£'8 £' ;'88!-2
!+8-$3£' &ZÅf$Ö;ÌW։b

½ Z Ӈ‰ˆӈ

ˆ‰։‰ŒŠ 01

ŠŒ‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! Ö;' &Z 8 ! $329!$8Ì ‹‡Tˆ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ‹ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

ˆ‡Ž T 3<;' &' !-2;f ,-£-#'8;T '=8'@f ,!1#'8ধ2 e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 ,8-;36,' U
a։ 3<;' £-ħÌ8!£'1'2; &Ì(32$Ì' &'6<-9 &' 231#8'<9'9 !22Ì'9T £'9 9'8=-$'9
&' £! =3-8-' 2' (32; 7<' &' 6'ধ;'9 8';3<$,'9 &Ì8-93-8'9W
!<;f-£ !ħ'2&8' <2
!$$-&'2; 138;'£ 63<8 8Ì!+-8։S։b

2

2;'89'$ধ32 Ž‡Š c Ž‹T 3<;' &'
<ø'@ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ,31!9 U

3

2;'89'$ধ32 Ž¥ˆ c ˆˆŒ T £313; e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ¡-9' U

a։ 3<;' Ì;83-;' '; &Ì(32$Ì'T =-8!+' &!2+'<8'<?

a։ £ (!<&8!-; <2 a։9;36։b '; 232 <2 a։$Ì&'Af£'f6!99!+'։b

68Ì9'2;!2; &' 231#8'<? 2-&9f&'f63<£'W։b

!-29- 7<Z<2' £-+2' #£!2$,' '; 232 &'9 63-2ধ££Ì9։V £'9
=3-;<8'9 &3<#£'2; 9<8 £! =3-' &' +!<$,' '; (32; &32$
(!$' Å £Z!<;313#-£-9;' 7<- 9Z'2+!+' 9<8 £! Ž¥ˆW ¬ ;83-9
8'68-9'9T /Z!- &Û 1' 1'ħ8' 9<8 £Z!$$3;'1'2; $!8 &'9
=3-;<8'9 2Z!=!-'2; 6!9 '< £' ;'169 &' 9' 8!#!ħ8' '2
(!$'W £ '9; $'8;!-2 7<Z-£ @ !<8! <2 !$$-&'2; +8!=' 9- 8-'2
2Z'9; (!-;W b




| 59

½ Z Ӈ‰‰ӈ

ˆŽ։Ž¤ 01

‹ˆ¥ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &'9 Ö;'9 &Z 8138 ! $329!$8Ì ‹ˆTŒ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ¤ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
<'
'<2;'<2 Ì3T '8839f <-88'$ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì8Ö1' U

1

a։ !29 £! 132;Ì' &'
'<2;'<2 Ì3T £! 83<;' '9; 6£'-2' &' )99<8'9T £'9 #38&9
&' £! $,!<99Ì' 932; !88!$,Ì9 '; -29;!#£'9T &32$ &!2+'8'<?W '<£ £' 1!87<!+'
! Ì;Ì 8'(!-; Å 2'<(W։b

2

Š¤¤T £-'<f&-; ! -+3ࣅË8'T £'£-2f
8-=!+3< e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!2 U

3

<' !8Ì$,!£
3$,T <-2+!16 e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !8-'d ¡!<&' U

a։ 836 &' $!1-329 6!99'2; 6!8 $'ħ' 83<;' Ì;83-;'T

a։ ! 8<' '9; $316£Ë;'1'2; &Ì(381Ì'W !£+8Ì £'9 &-='89

$' 7<- 683=37<' &'9 )99<8'9 &!29 £'9 6-+2329 &'9

!/3<;9 &' #-;<1' 63<8 ;'2;'8 &' 8Ì6!8'8 £! $,!<99Ì'T

1!-9329 '; <2' 2<-9!2$' 93238' -1638;!2;'W։b

&'9 )99<8'9 8Ì!66!8!-99'2;W։b

Ӈ‰‹ӈ

ˆ¥։ŽŠŽ 01

ˆŒ‹ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! 38&3+2' ! $329!$8Ì ‹ŒTˆ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ‡Œ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

ˆ‡T '8+'8!$ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ='9 U
a։ ' 68'2&9 $'ħ' 83<;' &'<? (3-9 6!8 /3<8 &'6<-9 Š‡ !29W ££' '9; &!29 <2 Ì;!;
&Ì6£38!#£' V &Ì(381Ì'T 8!6-Ì$Ì'T '22'-+Ì' £Z,-='8T 231#8'<? 2-&9f&'f63<£'W
'9 !$$-&'2;9 @ 932; ;8Ë9 (8Ì7<'2;9W Z!8+'2; &'9 8!&!89 &'=8!-; 9'8=-8 Å 9!
8'1-9' '2 Ì;!;։R Z'9; <2' ,32;'W։b

2

3<;' !63£Ì32T Ì+832&'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 39'6, U

3

¥ ŒT !£-2&' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '82!8& U
a։ <8 £Z'29'1#£' &' £! 83<;'T 1!27<' &'

a։ ' £Z-2;'89'$ধ32 !='$ £! Š /<97<ZÅ £! $311<2'

#-;<1'T 2-&9f&'f63<£'T &Ì(381!ধ329 &' £! $,!<99Ì'T

&' 38+'9T £! $,!<99Ì' 2Z'9; 6£<9 '2;8';'2<' &'6<-9

;83ħ3-89 Å £Z-&'2ধ7<' '; $' 2Z'9; 6!9 £! 9'<£' =3-'

6£<9 &' ˆ‡ !29։V )99<8'9T &Ì(381!ধ329T 2-&9f&'f63<£'T

$32$'82Ì'։R։b

8'=Í;'1'2; (38;'1'2; &Ì+8!&Ì '; &!2+'8'<?W։b

Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

Ӈ‰Œӈ

Ž։Œ‰ˆ 01

¥¥ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< 3<#9 ! $329!$8Ì Š‰T 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ¤‡ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
<' &' !=!<?T !2$'2!@ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì8Ö1' U

1

a։ 3<;' ;8Ë9 &Ì+8!&Ì' &!29 9! 6!8ধ' 132;!2;' l&Ì(381Ì'T )99<8'9T 2-&9f&'f
63<£'WWWmWb

2

‹‹T -'<?f ,!8132& e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
Ì+-9 U

3

‡T 3<-££'@f£'9f -+2'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
Ì#!9ࣅ'2 U

a։¬ ,!<;'<8 &< £3ধ99'1'2; &'9 !<;9d 3-9T <2'

a։ 2;8' £! #3<£!2+'8-' '; £' $3-ø'<8T -£ @ ! <2 &39 &ZÇ2'

;8!2$,Ì' ! Ì;Ì 1!£ 8'#3<$,Ì' £389 &'9 ;8!=!<? &'

,389 2381'9W ¬ Š‡։01c,T 32 '?6£39' ;3<;։R։b

8!$$38&'1'2;9 !<? 8Ì9'!<? &< £3ধ99'1'2;W £ @ ! &32$
<2' (38;' &-øÌ8'2$' &' 2-='!< '2;8' £' +3<&832 &' £!
83<;' '; $'£<- &' £! 8Ì6!8!ধ32 1!£ 8Ì!£-9Ì'W։b

½ Ӈ‰¤ӈ

ˆˆ։ŒŠ‡ 01

ŠŒˆ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! 8Ö1' ! $329!$8Ì ‹¤T 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; Ž‰ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

ˆŽŠT ,'1-2 &< !87<-9 &' !#!993£'T <£'ħ' e 9-+2!¡Ì '82!8& U
a։¬ £! 938ধ' 9<& &' <£'ħ'T &'6<-9 !< 13-29 <2' &-A!-2' &Z!22Ì'9T &'9
6!22'!<? a։$,!<99Ì' &Ì(381Ì' 9<8 ‰։01։b 932; '2 6£!$' 63<8 9-+2!£'8 £!
&Ì(381!ধ32 &' £! 83<;' 7<- '9; !<99- ;836 Ì;83-;' 6!8 8!6638; !< ;8!)$W 'ħ'
83<;' '9; '168<2;Ì' 6!8 £'9 +'29 &' £Z'2$£!=' &' !£8Ì!9 7<- 9' 8'2&'2; ='89
=-+232W ££' 6'81'; &ZÌ=-;'8 £! ;8!='89Ì' &Z 8!2+'W։b

2

2;'89'$ধ32  c ˆˆˆ!T ³;3-£'f9<8f
,Ö2' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì9!8 U

3

2;'89'$ধ32 ˆŽ c Šˆ‡T 32; &'
!88'; e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 <$-' U

a։ 2;'89'$ধ32 ;8Ë9 &!2+'8'<9'։R 2 6£'-2 =-8!+'T '££'

a Z'2;8Ì' &< =-££!+' '9; 9-+2!£Ì' 9<8 £! Šˆ‡T 1!-9 6!9

$3<6' <2' 83<;' Å &'<? =3-'9 !='$ Ì2381Ì1'2; &'

9<8 £! ˆŽW 2 '2;8' &!29 £' =-££!+' 9!29 £' 9!=3-8T

$-8$<£!ধ32W £ (!<; !#93£<1'2; (!-8' <2 832&f63-2;W։b

Å Ž‡։01c, !< £-'< &'9 Œ‡։01c, 8'7<-9 l!='$ ;3<9 £'9
&!2+'89 7<' $'£! $31638;'mW 2 6!22'!< &Z'2;8Ì' '9;
2Ì$'99!-8'W b




d ¤ˆ

Ӈ‰ӈ

ˆŠ։ŒŠ 01

‰¤Œ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z <8' ! $329!$8Ì ‹‡T¥ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ¤ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
,'1-2 &' Ì!2=-££'T !-2;f !8$'£ e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 9!#'¡¡' U

1

a։ -ă$-£' &ZÌ=-;'8 £'9 231#8'<? 2-&9f&'f63<£' 7<- 9' (381'2;
7<3ধ&-'22'1'2; &!29 £! 8<' 7<- &'9$'2& 9<8 !-2;f !8$'£ &'6<-9 7<' £! <'
&' ,!1#8!@ '9; '2 ;8!=!<?W Ì9<£;!;։V <2 62'< Ì$£!;Ì։R ' 6£<9T -£ '9; (38;
&-ă$-£' &' 9' $83-9'8 '2 =3-;<8' 9!29 Ì=-;'8 £'9 ;83<9 &' £! $,!<99Ì'W։b

2

<' &< 6<-;9T '8=-££'f£!f !16!+2' e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 3,2 U

3

3<£'=!8& &< !8&-2 £Z³=Í7<'T ³=8'<?
e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 !8-' U

a։ 'ħ' 83<;' '9; ;'££'1'2; &Ì(381Ì' 6!8 '2&83-;9

a։ ! 8<' '9; =8!-1'2; &Ì(381Ì'T -£ @ ! &'9 2-&9f&'f

7<' &' £!8+'9 *!7<'9 9' (381'2; Å £! 13-2&8' !='89'W

63<£' 6!8;3<;W '£! ! Ì;Ì £! 9$Ë2' &' #'!<$3<6 &'

'9 '2+-29 !+8-$3£'9 @ £!-99'2; &'9 ;8!$'9 #3<'<9'9 ';

$,<;'9 Å 6-'&W !29 6!8£'8 &'9 ;83ħ3-89 6!9 &83-;9 &<

&Ì(381'2; !<99- £'9 #'8+'9W։b

;3<;T $Z'9; =8!-1'2; Ì2'8=!2; '; &!2+'8'<?W։b

Һ Һ Ӈ‰¥ӈ

ˆŠ։‰Ž¤ 01

‰‰‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z <8'f';f 3-8 ! $329!$8Ì ŠˆT¤ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

'9 8!2&9 !=-££329T !-2;f³£-6, e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 !;,'8-2' U
a։ £ @ ! <2' 9<$$'99-32 &' =-8!+'9 9!29 !<$<2' 9-+2!£-9!ধ32 7<- 932; 8Ì'££'1'2;
Å Ž‡ &'+8Ì9 Å $!<9' &'9 1<89 &'9 1!-9329W ! (!-; 6'<8W '9 ,!#-;!2;9 £'
9!='2;T 1!-9 7<Z'2 '9;f-£ &'9 !<;8'9։S ' 2' $3168'2&9 6!9 63<87<3- -£9 2'
932; 6!9 9-+2!£Ì9W 8!='։RRR։b

2

ŠŠŽWˆˆT <' &'
8'92!@T ,!8;8'9 e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !?'2$' U

3

<' &' 3='9T ' 3-9 !-2;f !8ধ2T
32$ÌT 32;!-2=-££' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '28@ U

a։ 3<;' &Ì(381Ì'T #'!<$3<6 &' 2-&9f&'f63<£'T £'9

a։ 39 &ZÇ2' -168'99-322!2;։R 16399-#£' &' 6!99'8 Å

=3-;<8'9 =-#8'2;X !9 &-+2' &' ,!8;8'9W։b

Š‡։01c,T 3#£-+Ì &' £' 6!99'8 '2 ˆË8' =-;'99'W 8Ì9'2$'
&' 1!87<'9 &Z3<ধ£9 !+8-$3£'9 9<8 $' &39 &ZÇ2'
;'££'1'2; £! ,!<;'<8 '; £Z!2+£' 932; -1638;!2;9W։b

Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S


² Ӈ‰Žӈ

ˆ¤։Ž‡‹ 01

¤‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &<
-2-9;Ë8' ! $329!$8Ì ‰ŽTŠ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; Š‰ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
3-' &Z!$$Ë9 !< 38;T 38£!-? e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !8+3; U

1

a։ 3<;' $316£Ë;'1'2; !#Ñ1Ì'T Å 8'(!-8' $316£Ë;'1'2;T $!8 6£'-2' &'
8!)9;3£!+'9 1!£ 'ø'$;<Ì9W։b

2

3<;' &' !8£!2T £-'<f&-; Kerozar e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !2&8-2' U

3

<' &' !-2;f ='9T £3<+32='£-2 e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !2-'¡ U

a։ 2 6£<9 &< #38& &' 83<;' $316£Ë;'1'2; &Ì(32$ÌT £'

a։ '<? $,-$!2'9 9<$$'99-='9 8Ì;8Ì$-99!2; £! $,!<99Ì'

1-£-'< '9; 6£'-2 &' ;83<9T £! $,!<99Ì' '9; $316£Ë;'1'2;

'; -2&<-9!2; <2' $-8$<£!ধ32 !£;'82Ì'T !='$ 68-38-;Ì !<

&Ì(381Ì'W £ @ ! 93<='2; &'9 !$$83$,!+'9 $!8 £! 8<' '9;

=Ì,-$<£' 132;!2; 63<8 £! 68'1-Ë8' ';T ‰‡ 1Ë;8'9 6£<9

;836 Ì;83-;'W։b

£3-2T 68-38-;Ì !< =Ì,-$<£' &'9$'2&!2; 63<8 £! &'<?-Ë1'։R
2 232f9'29 !#93£<X !2+'8'<?։R։b

ӇŠ‡ӈ

ˆ‰։Œˆˆ 01

ˆŒ‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< !8& ! $329!$8Ì ŒT¤ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ¥ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
Ž‡ˆT £-'<f&-; Hameau de LandesT !-2;f 8-=!9 &' ,!16$£39 e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 <&8'@ U

1

a։ £ 9Z!+-; &Z<2' &Ì6!8;'1'2;!£' ;8Ë9 (38;'1'2; '168<2;Ì'W ££' 9' ;83<=' 9<8
<2 ;'88-;3-8' ;3<8-9ধ7<' '; '9; £! /32$ধ32 63<8 £'9 '2;8'68-9'9 &< 9'$;'<8
'2;8' 23;8' ;'88-;3-8' '; £! =!££Ì' &< ,Ö2'W Z3Ù <2 231#8' -1638;!2;
&' $!1-329 9'1-f8'1387<'9 7<- ;8!29-;'2;W ' 1<£ধ6£'9 !$$-&'2;9 932;
9<8='2<9T $!8 6£<9-'<89 =3-;<8'9 32; &Ì/Å +£-99Ì 9<8 $'ħ' $,!<99Ì'W։b

2

ˆ‹¤T Mas de l’ÉcoleT 3#-!$f
3$,'99!&3<£' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 8-+-ħ' U

3

<' &'9 !88-Ë8'9T 327<-Ë8'9f !-2;f
-2$'2; e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì#!9ࣅ'2 U

a։ 3<;' !#Ñ1Ì' 9<-;' Å &'9 (<-;'9 &Z'!< '; 1!£ 8'1-9'

a։ ' 231#8'<? 2-&9f&'f63<£' 932; 9-;<Ì9 9<8 $'ħ'

'2 Ì;!;W։b

83<;'W 3897<Z-£9 932; 8Ì6!8Ì9T -£9 8'=-'22'2; 7<'£7<'9
13-9 6£<9 ;!8&W։b




d ¤Š

Һ ӇŠˆӈ

ˆŒ։¥¤Ž 01

ŠŒ‹ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! !<;'f !8322' ! $329!$8Ì ¥‡TŒ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &'
£! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ¤‰ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
<' &' £! -8'T !+2!$f9<8f !8322' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 9!#'¡¡' U

1

a։ 'ħ' 8<' '9; 9-;<Ì' '2 A32' -232&!#£'W ££' '9; ;3;!£'1'2; &Ì(32$Ì'W
£ 2Z@ ! !<$<2 6!22'!< &' 9-+2!£-9!ধ32 a։!$$3;'1'2;9 &!2+'8'<?։bW '9
$'2;!-2'9 &' =3-;<8'9 6!99'2; 6!8 £Å ;3<9 £'9 /3<89 63<8 9' 8'2&8' 9<8 £' 9-;'
&Z Ì83$329;'££!ধ32W ! 6£<6!8; &< ;'169T '££'9 83<£'2; !< 1-£-'< &' £! 83<;'
63<8 Ì=-;'8 £'9 2-&9f&'f63<£'W։b

2

3<£'=!8& '!2 8<2,'9T 3<£3<9' e
9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 Ì#!9ࣅ'2 U

3

2;'89'$ধ32 <' &'9 -29։c։ <' &'9
$!/3<9T 32;#'832 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 39Ì' U

a։ <8 £Z'29'1#£' &' $' #3<£'=!8&T £! $,!<99Ì' '9;

a։ !87<!+' $316£Ë;'1'2; 'ø!$ÌW '9 +'29 2'

'?;8Í1'1'2; &Ì(381Ì'։V -£ '9; ;3<; #322'1'2;

9Z!88Í;'2; 6£<9 !< 832&f63-2; W !2+'8 ։b

-16399-#£' &' 83<£'8 9!29 !#Ñ1'8 £' =Ì,-$<£'T +Í2'8
9'9 3$$<6!2;9W ' 9<-9 !1#<£!2$-'8 '; 6!99' &32$ 132
;'169 Å Ì=-;'8 2-&9f&'f63<£' '; #3<$,'9 &ZÌ+3<; 9<8
£Z'29'1#£' &' £Z!++£31Ì8!ধ32W։b

ӇŠ‰ӈ

ˆ‡։‹ 01

ˆŠ‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< '89 ! $329!$8Ì ‰ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆŠ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

3<£'=!8& &'9 3<1!&-Ë8'9T Z 9£'f 3<8&!-2 e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 !2@ U
a։ ,!<99Ì' ;8Ë9 !#-1Ì' l6£<9 &' 8'=Í;'1'2;T 2-&9f&'f63<£'T )99<8'9T
$,!<99Ì' &Ì(381Ì'T 1!87<!+' 'ø!$ÌT &<9 !<? 6!99!+'9 8Ì6Ì;Ì9 &'9
$!1-329T !<? 6£<-'9 &-£<=-'22'9 '; !< 232f'2;8'ধ'2mW 'ħ' 83<;' '9; '2
683/'; &' 8Ì('$ধ32 &'6<-9WWW !-9 $Z'9; ;3</3<89 8'638;ÌW։b

2

ˆ‹T £-'<f&-; Au PérissonT ' 83<-£f
32;#'8; e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 <¡-'2 U

a։ -&9f&'f63<£'T ;83<9T &Ì(381!ধ329X։b

3

Š‰T ' 3<+! e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 <¡-'2 U
a։ 3<;' $316£Ë;'1'2; &Ì(381Ì'W ! !

(!-; &'9 #399'9 9<8 6£<9-'<89 0-£31Ë;8'9։R 2' =3-;<8'
@ ! Ì;Ì &Ì;8<-;'W։b

Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

ӇŠŠӈ

‰‡։¤¤Š 01

¤¥‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! -832&' ! $329!$8Ì ¥¤TŒ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; Œ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
3<£'=!8& !2-'£ -+2'!<?T 2&'8239f£'9f !-29 e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8
-&-'8 U

1

a։ 3<;' ;3;!£'1'2; &Ì+8!&Ì'T ;83<9T Ì£Ì=!ধ32 &' £! $,!<99Ì' 9<8 6£<9-'<89
$'2ধ1Ë;8'9 &' ,!<; '; 6£<9-'<89 1Ë;8'9 &' £32+W 2' 83<;' 6£<9 7<'
&!2+'8'<9' !='$ 6'8;' &' $32;8Ö£' '; 3#£-+!ধ32 &' 9' &Ì638;'8W։b

2

££Ì' &' 8-9;3£T £!$' &'9 <-2$32$'9T
38&'!<? e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!22' U

a։ ' 8'=Í;'1'2; &' $'ħ' 8<' '9; '2 ;8Ë9 1!<=!-9 Ì;!;։V

3

ˆˆ¤T !2&-8!9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
8Ì&Ì8-$ U
a։ < 2-='!< &< 632; a։ ' !ধ/'!2։bT £'

8'=Í;'1'2; ! (32&< '; 8'2& £! 83<;' ;8Ë9 +£-99!2;'W։b

-£ @ ! &'9 )99<8'9T £'9 !+'2;9 &' £! =3-8-' 9' $32;'2;'2;
&' 1'ħ8' <2' 23<='££' $3<$,' &' +3<&832 6!8
'2&83-;W Ì9<£;!;։V £! $,!<99Ì' '9; -88Ì+<£-Ë8' '; £'9
1!87<!+'9 !< 93£ 932; 'ø!$Ì9W։b

³ ӇŠ‹ӈ

ˆ‰։¤Š‰ 01

Š‹Ž 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z Ì8!<£; ! $329!$8Ì Ž¥TŒ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; Ž‡ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
='2<' &Z +&'T 31Ì83£9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 2&8Ì U

1

a։ 'ħ' !='2<' ! <2 8'=Í;'1'2; &' 93£ 7<- 8'99'1#£' Å <2 $,!2ধ'8 7<- ! Ì;Ì
#31#!8&Ì։R '9 ;83ħ3-89 '?-9;'2;T 1!-9 6'89322' 2' £'9 <ধ£-9' $!8 32 63<88!-;
9' $83-8' 9<8 <2 ;'88!-2 &' $8399W '9 8-='8!-29 7<- =32; !1'2'8 £'<89 '2(!2;9
Å £ZÌ$3£' lÅ 683?-1-;Ìm '168<2;'2; £! $,!<99Ì' &Ì(381Ì'WWW Z'9; &!2+'8'<?։R։b

2

,'1-2 &' £! 8!7<ÌT Ë;' e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8
¡!-2 U

3

ˆˆ‰!T 3<£'=!8& &' £! -#'8;ÌT
£!6-'89 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!2d
8!2%3-9 U

a։ ! $32)+<8!ধ32 9-2<'<9' &< ,'1-2 &' £! 8!7<Ì

a։ 31#8'<? 2-&9f&'f63<£' '; $,!<99Ì' &Ì;Ì8-38Ì'

'; &' £Z 2+£38'T £! &Ì$£-=-;ÌT £ZÌ;83-;'99' &' £! $,!<99Ì'

'2;8!Ñ2!2; &'9 Ì$!8;9 &!2+'8'<? &' £! 6!8; &'9

l13-29 &' ‹T‰‡ 1Ë;8'9 &' £!8+'<8 6!8 '2&83-;9m

!<;313#-£-9;'9 '; &'9 &'<?f83<'9W։b

932; ;3;!£'1'2; -2!&!6;Ì'9 Å £Z-2;'29-( ;8!)$ 7<- £'
6!8$3<8;W։b




d ¤Œ

Һ Һ ӇŠŒӈ

ˆ¤։‰ˆŠ 01

‹‹Š 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z ££'f';f -£!-2' ! $329!$8Ì ¥ŠT 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ¥ˆ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
3<£'=!8& &'9 !£!8&9T !-2;f !£3 e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 -&-'8
U

1

a։ ! #!2&' &' 83<£'1'2; '9; $316£Ë;'1'2; &Ì(32$Ì' '; -£ @ ! &'9 2-&9f&'f
63<£' 9<8 ;3<;' £! £32+<'<8W 2 !?' ;8Ë9 (8Ì7<'2;Ì 6!8 £'9 ,!#-;!2;9W 32;' Å
£! =-££' &' !-2;f !£3 63<8 £ZÌ;!; &' $'ħ' 83<;'W։b

2

<' &'9 32+8!-9T ! ,!6'££' &'9

3<+'8';A e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -2$'2; U

3

<' &' £! <2!<&-Ë8'T ! <'8$,' &'
8';!+2' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ,8-9;36,'8 U

a։ 3<;' 6!99!+Ë8' ;8Ë9 &Ì(381Ì' '; 9!29 !1Ì2!+'1'2;

a։ 3<; <2 $Ö;Ì &' £! 83<;' '9; !ø!-99ÌT -£ 2Z@ ! 1Í1'

6-Ì;329W ££' '9; 23;!11'2; <ধ£-9Ì' 6!8 &'9 6'89322'9

6£<9 &' 8'=Í;'1'2;W -ă$-£' &' 9' $83-9'8 9!29 83<£'8

'2 (!<;'<-£ 83<£!2; '; 6!8 &'9 (!1-££'9 7<- &3-='2;

&!29 £'9 6-'88'9T 9!29 6!8£'8 &'9 2-&9f&'f63<£'W !9 &'

6!8;!+'8 £! $,!<99Ì' !='$ £'9 =Ì,-$<£'9W։b

;83ħ3-8 232 6£<9WWW։b

ӇŠ¤ӈ

ˆˆ։ˆŽ‰ 01

‹‹ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z 2&8' ! $329!$8Ì ‹ˆT¤ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ¤ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

<' &'9 !&8329T ,Ç;'!<83<? e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
8Ì&Ì8-$ U
a։ 3<;' (!-;' &' 6-Ë$'9 9<$$'99-='9T '££' 2Z! /!1!-9 Ì;Ì (!-;' 8Ì'££'1'2; 9<8
$'9 6!8ধ'9։R։b

2

<' ,!2;'/3;T 993<&<2 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
³¡3&-' U

3

Œ‹T 3<£-+2@ 3;8'f !1' e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 ¡!<&' U

a։ <' &Ì(32$Ì' &Z<2 #3<; Å £Z!<;8'W 3-' '2 9'29

a։ Ì6!8;'1'2;!£' ;8Ë9 Ì;83-;' '; 9-2<'<9'T 3Ù £!

<2-7<'W։b

=-9-#-£-;Ì '9; 6£<9 7<' £-1-;Ì'W £ (!<&8!-; '2;8';'2-8 £!
=Ì+Ì;!ধ32 9!<=!+' 7<- #3<$,' £! =<' '; 639'8 &'9
#!88-Ë8'9 &' 9Ì$<8-;Ì Å $'8;!-29 '2&83-;9W։b

Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

Һ Һ ӇŠӈ

ˆˆ։¥ŽŽ 01

‹ˆ¥ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z 2&8'f';f 3-8' ! $329!$8Ì ŠŽ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ¤‹ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
<' &Z 2;8!-+<'9T 3<89 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !;,-'< U

1

a։ ! <' &Z 2;8!-+<'9T 7<- '9; 6!99!2;'T ! &' 231#8'<9'9 &Ì(381!ধ329
&!2+'8'<9'9 63<8 £'9 =3-;<8'9 '; £'9 $@$£-9;'9W '9 &Ì(381!ধ329 (32; 7<'
£! 83<;' '9; #8<@!2;' &Ë9 7<Z<2' 8'1387<' 3< <2 $!1-32f6£!;'!< 6!99'W։b

2

¥ˆT -=8!@ &' 3<8!-2' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
@8-¡ U

3

<' &' £! 3<9;'8-'T 32;£3<-9f9<8f
3-8' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì832-7<' U

a։ 2 632; Å =3-' <2-7<' 6!9 '2;8';'2< '2 938ধ' &'

a։ ,!<99Ì' &Ì(381Ì'T 231#8'<? 2-&9f&'f63<£'W ¬ £!

=-8!+'T £-1-;Ì Å Š‡։01c,T 1!-9 <2-7<'1'2; 9<8 £' 632;T

£-1-;' &< 68!ধ$!#£'T 1!£+8Ì 6£<9-'<89 &'1!2&'9 &'

&32$ $!8!1#3£!+'9 (8Ì7<'2;9W 3<;' ;8Ë9 Ì;83-;' 3Ù -£

8Ì23=!ধ32 Å £! !-8-' &'6<-9 &' 231#8'<9'9 !22Ì'9W։b

(!<; 9'88'8 £' $3;Ì 1!-9 6!9 ;836T £'9 !$$3;'1'2;9 Ì;!2;
683(32&9։bW

² ӇŠ¥ӈ

ˆ¤։Œ‹ 01

Š‹ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z 9Ë8' ! $329!$8Ì Ž‹T‹ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; Œ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
<' £(8'& &' -+2@T 8'23#£' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì8!¡& U

1

a։ < $83-9'1'2; &' £! <' £(8'& &' -+2@ '; &' £! <' ;!£-2+8!&T -£ @ !
<2 !ø!-99'1'2; &' £! 83<;'T &'9 )99<8'9T &'9 #!2&'9 #£!2$,'9 '2 8'£-'(
'?;8Í1'1'2; +£-99!2;'9 l23;!11'2; '2 13;3T /Z!- &Ì/Å $,<;Ì Å $'; '2&83-;WWWmW։b

2

ˆ‡Ž‡T ,!6!8'-££!2 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
-'88' U

3

,'1-2 &' £! ,-$!2'T '@£!2 e
9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 '!2 U

a։ ' £! 638ধ32 £32+'!2; £' =-££!+' /<97<Z!< 6!22'!<

a։¬ £! /32$ধ32 '2;8' £' ,'1-2 &' £! ,-$!2' '; £!

&' 938ধ' &' $311<2'T £! $,!<99Ì' '9; ;8Ë9 &Ì(381Ì'

&Ì6!8;'1'2;!£'T -£ @ ! <2 2-&f&'f63<£' !< $'2;8' &'

'; 232 '2;8';'2<'։V #399'9T )99<8'9T $8'<?W Z'9;

£! $,!<99Ì'W։b

&!2+'8'<? 63<8 £'9 &'<?f83<'9W։b




d ¤

ӇŠŽӈ

ˆ‡։‹‰ 01

ˆŠ‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< <8! ! $329!$8Ì ‹‰ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆŒŒ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
Š‰‰T 3<;' &' !16!8-9T ,!16=!29 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '8=Ì
U

1

a։ ! 83<;' '9; ;8Ë9 &Ì(381Ì'T !='$ &' 231#8'<9'9 8'68-9'9 &' +3<&832T
+£-99!2;'9 £Z,-='8W 2 6!99!+' Å 2-='!< ;8Ë9 Ì;83-; 2Ì$'99-;' <2' (38;'
!ħ'2ধ32T !='$ &' +8399'9 *!7<'9 &Z'!< 6'81!2'2;'9 &!29 <2 =-8!+' Å !2+£'
&83-;W ' 231#8'<9'9 =3-;<8'9 (32; &'9 938ধ'9 &' 83<;' $,!7<' !22Ì'W։b

2

‰‰T 3£322' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !?-1' U
a։ <9;' !68Ë9 £' 632; 7<- 6!99' 9<8 £Z ŠŽT

3

Š‰¤T 3<;' &'9 !9$!&'9T 3<$-'8 e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -&-'8 U

+8399' &Ì(381!ধ32 9<8 £! 83<;' l#399' 232 9-+2!£Ì'

a։ ! 83<;' '9; ;8Ë9 &Ì(381Ì'T !66!8'11'2; Å $!<9'

'; 6'< =-9-#£' 9<8 <2' 6!8ধ' &' £! $,!<99Ì'm 7<- ! (!-££-

&' 8!$-2'9 &Z!8#8'9 68Ì9'2;9 9<8 £! +!<$,' &' £!

1' 683/';'8 &!29 £' &Ì$38 Å 13;3W ' 683$,!-2 2Z!<8!

83<;'W 'ħ' $,!<99Ì' 9' &Ì(381' &' 6£<9 '2 6£<9 !<

6'<;fÍ;8' 6!9 £! $,!2$' &' 8'9;'8 !99-9 9<8 9! 9'££'W։b

)£ &'9 !22Ì'9W 8T £' 9-;' ;3<8-9ধ7<' &'9 !9$!&'9
&< Ì8-9932 !$$<'-££' 6!8(3-9 /<97<ZÅ <2 1-££-'8 &'
=Ì,-$<£'9 7<3ধ&-'22'1'2;X։b

Ӈ‹‡ӈ

ˆˆ։‹ŽŒ 01

ˆˆ‡ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &'9 !2&'9 ! $329!$8Ì ‹‹ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ‡¥ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ŠŒ‰T !88-=-Ë8'f !-2;f !=-2 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !8ࣅ2' U

1

a։ 38ধ32 '2;8' 3<;' &' 3<;'; '; 3<;' &' 3<@1-83T 93-; '2=-832 ˆT¥։01
&< #3<8+W 3<;' ;8Ë9 31#8!+Ì'T '2 ,-='8 ='8+£!9 (8Ì7<'2;T 83<;' Ì;83-;' !='$
$,!16 '2 $32;8'#!9 '; 6!99!+' &' $!1-329 7<- =32; '; =-'22'2; &' £Z<9-2'W
! 639' &Z<2' +£-99-Ë8' '9; ;8Ë9 =-='1'2; 93<,!-;Ì'W։b

2

¤Š‹T 3<;' &' 9!#8'9T 32;f&'f
!89!2 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
8!2%3-9 U

3

3<;' &' !8;,'9T '<+!9 e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 !<8'!23 U

a։ ! 83<;' '; £'9 ;83ħ3-89 932; '2 6-;'<? Ì;!;T

a։ 'ধ;' 83<;' Ì;83-;' &'99'8=!2; <2 £@$Ì' !+8-$3£' ';

$316£Ë;'1'2; !ø!-99Ì9W։b

9'8=!2; &' 8!$$3<8$- 63<8 6£<9-'<89 6'ধ;'9 $311<2'9W
2 @ $83-9' $311' 32 6'<; &'9 '29'1#£'9 83<ধ'89W
' 6£<9 &!2+'8'<?T $Z'9; 6!8 ;'169 ,<1-&'։V £'9 #!9f
$Ö;Ì9 932; -29;!#£'9 '; £! 83<;' ;8Ë9 9-2<'<9'W £<9-'<89
!$$-&'2;9 32; '< £-'<W։b

Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

Һ Һ Ӈ‹ˆӈ

Ž։¥¤¥ 01

ˆŽ¥ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< 3-8f';f ,'8 ! $329!$8Ì ‰‹T‰ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
<' &Z <='8+2'T £3-9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ³8-$ U

1

a։ 'ħ' 8<'T '2 9'29 <2-7<'T Å &'<? =3-'9 '; (38; ;8!)$ &'99'8=!2; &'<? £@$Ì'9
'; £' $'2;8' !&1-2-9;8!ধ( &' £! =-££'T '2;8' !<;8'9T '9; (38;'1'2; &Ì+8!&Ì'T
Å ;'£ 63-2; 7<' 93<='2; £'9 #<9 68'22'2; £! =3-' &' +!<$,' 13-29 !#-1Ì'W
66!8'11'2;T !<$<2' -2;'8='2ধ32 2Z'9; 68Ì=<' 63<8 8'(!-8' £' 8'=Í;'1'2;T
7<- '9; &Ì+8!&Ì &'6<-9 (38; £32+;'169W։b

2

<' &' -££'#8Ë1'T £3-9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
'8@!1 U

3

ˆ‡ˆT 3<A32 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 9!#'¡¡' U
a։ 3<;' &Ì(32$Ì' 6!8 £'9 6!99!+'9 -2$'99!2;9

a։¬ 6!8ধ8 &< '$£'8$ 8-=' /<97<ZÅ £ZÌ$3£' &' -££'f 3-2;T

&' 63-&9 £3<8&9 7<- Ì=-;'2; £' 8Ì9'!< !<;383<ধ'8W

£! $,!<99Ì' '9; &Ì(381Ì'T 32 '9; 3#£-+Ì &' 9' 8'638;'8

$!2&!£' 7<- &<8' &'6<-9 &'9 !22Ì'9W ' 329'-£

9<8 £Z!<;8' =3-'W։b

&Ì6!8;'1'2;!£ 8!)9;3£' &' ;'169 '2 ;'169 '; 1'; &'9
6!22'!<? &' £-1-;!ধ32 &' =-;'99' l9Û8'1'2; 63<8 9'
&Ì8'96329!#-£-9'8 '2 $!9 &Z!$$-&'2;mW։b

Ӈ‹‰ӈ

ˆ‰։‹Š‹ 01

‹‰ˆ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! 3-8' ! $329!$8Ì ‹‰ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; Œ‹ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

ˆˆT !-2;f Ì!2& e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!2 U
a։ 2 7<-ħ!2; !-2;f Ì!2& '2 &-8'$ধ32 &' Z³;8!;T £! 83<;' ! Ì;Ì 8'+3<&8322Ì'
6!8 <2' )2' $3<$,' $31639Ì' &Z<2' 683/'$ধ32 &' +3<&832 £-7<-&' '; 9<-=-'
6!8 £ZÌ;!£'1'2; &Z<2' $3<$,' &' +8!=-££329W 'ħ' $3<$,' 9Z'9; &-993$-Ì'T Å £!
938ধ' &' £Z,-='8 &'82-'8T &' £Z!2$-'2 8'=Í;'1'2; '; (381' &' +8!2&'9 #!2&'9
&Ì$3££Ì'9W <$<2' 8Ì6!8!ধ32 Å $' /3<8 !£389 7<Z<2 23<='£ ,-='8 !88-='W։b

2

‹ŽT։ !-2;f -£!-8'f93<9f ,!8£-'<։e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ¡-=-'8 U

3

' 32; &' ,-29f 9;T !-2;f -2$'2;
&' 3-99'; e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 ¡'?!2&8'
U

a։¬ £! 938ধ' &' £! $311<2' '2 &-8'$ধ32 &'9 '8$,'9T

a։ !29 £' =-8!+'T <2 2-&f&'f63<£' -168'99-322!2;T

-£ @ ! <2 =-8!+' Å +!<$,' 232 9-+2!£Ì 7<- 9<868'2& ';

7<!2& 32 =-'2; &< 3;'!< &-8'$ধ32 !-2;f -2$'2; &'

7<- 6'<; '2;8!-2'8 <2 9!<; '2 $32;8'#!9W £<9-'<89

3-99'; !=!2; £! #!8+' !<;313#-£'W։b

!$$-&'2;9 32; &Ì/Å '< £-'< Å $'; '2&83-;W։b




d ¤Ž

Һ Ӈ‹Šӈ

ˆ‡։¤‹¤ 01

ˆ‡ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! !<;'f 3-8' ! $329!$8Ì ‰T‰ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆˆ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ˆŠŒT ,31'£-? e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ,8-9ࣅ2' U

1

a։¬ 6!8ধ8 &' !(!8+'T 9<8 ‰ 0-£31Ë;8'9 '2=-832X։b

a։ ,!<99Ì' &Ì(381Ì' '; 6!8ধ'££'1'2; '2(32$Ì' 9<8

Šˆ c ='2<' '!22' &Z 8$ c ='2<'
&< !£ '8;T !£9f68Ë9f ' <@ e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8
!#-'2 U

£'9 #!9f$Ö;Ì9T $Ö;Ì 8!=-2W։b

a։ 8Ë9 &' £ZÌ+£-9'T &!29 £' =-8!+' &'=!2; £! 1!-8-'T

2

‰¤T 38'@f9<8f 8A32 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
!8$ U

3

&'=!2; £' $'2;8' $<£;<8'£ !< 2-='!< &' £Z!88Í; &' #<9X
;36 !<? &39 &ZÇ2' ,389 2381'9։R։b

Һ Ӈ‹‹ӈ

ˆ։‰Œ‹ 01

ˆ։‡¥ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! 3-8'f ;£!2ধ7<' ! $329!$8Ì ‹ŒT‰ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &'
£! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ŠŠ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
£!$' !8Ì$,!£
3$,T !2;'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
¡38-!2 U

1

a։ <8 $'ħ' 638ধ32T Œ $3<£3-89։V ‰ 63<8 ;3<82'8 Å +!<$,'T ‰ 63<8 ;3<82'8 Å
&83-;' '; <2 8Ì9'8=Ì !<? #<9W '9 1!87<!+'9 !< 93£ $311'2$'2; Å 2' 6£<9 9'
=3-8T 9<8;3<; 63<8 £'9 !<;313#-£-9;'9 7<- =-'22'2; &' £! +!<$,'W £ @ '9; ;8Ë9
(!$-£' &' 9' 8';83<='8 9<8 £! =3-' &' #<9 '2 =3<£!2; ;3<82'8 Å &83-;'W։b

2

ˆ¤ŒT 9'29 !2;'9 c !22'9T 938ধ'
2€‰‡ e9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !22-$0 U

3

3<;' &' £! -££-Ë8'T ,3<!8Ìf9<8f
3-8' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì#!9ࣅ'2 U

a։ Z'9; <2 =-8!+' '2 Ì6-2+£'W Z@ !- (!-; <2' '1#!8&Ì' Å

a։ 2' 1!8' 9' 9-;<' Å £Z'2&83-; £' 6£<9 Ì;83-; '; 9-2<'<?

‹Œ։01c, 9<8 $,!<99Ì' 13<-££Ì' '; !668-9 6!8 £'9 =3-9-29

&' $'ħ' 83<;'W -&9f&'f63<£' '2 '?$Ë9T 83<;'

7<' /ZÌ;!-9 £! ;83-9-Ë1' &' £! /3<82Ì' '; 7<Z'2 13@'22'T

&Ì(381Ì' !='$ &'9 ;83<9W !£'ħ'9 &' 8!)9;3£!+' £ZÌ;Ì

-£ @ !=!-; <2 !$$-&'2; 6!8 9'1!-2'։R։b

7<- 2' ধ'22'2; 6!9 £Z,-='8 '; 7<- $8'<9'2; '2$38' 6£<9
£! 83<;'W։b

! Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

Ӈ‹Œӈ

ˆˆ։Šˆˆ 01

ŠŠ‡ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< 3-8'; ! $329!$8Ì ŠŠTŒ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ‹Ž '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
<' &' 3#932T 8£Ì!29 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '8$'=!¡ U

1

a։ ! $,!<99Ì' '9; '2 ;8Ë9 1!<=!-9 Ì;!; 9<8 7<!9-1'2; ;3<;' £! £!8+'<8 '; ;3<;'
£! £32+<'<8 &' £! 8<'W։b

2

<' 2!;3£'
8!2$'T
£'<8@f£'9f
<#8!-9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì&8-$ U

a 3<;' £! 6!8ধ' 238& &' £! 8<' '9; '2=!,-' &' )99<8'9W։b

3

<' &' £Z A32'T ! ,!66'££' !-2;f
'91-2 e9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì8Ö1' U

a։ 'ħ' 8<' '9; £32+<' &Z'2=-832 Œ‡‡ 1Ë;8'9 '; '9;
;3</3<89 8Ì6!8Ì' 6!8 &'9 8<9ধ2'9W 3<8 Ì=-;'8 £'9
!$$-&'2;9T £! 1<2-$-6!£-;Ì £Z! £-1-;Ì' Å Š‡։01c,W ££'
'9; 9-;<Ì' '2 6£'-2' $!16!+2' '; 2Z'9; 1Í1' 6!9
68!ধ$!#£' '2 =Ì£3W։b

Ӈ‹¤ӈ

ˆ‰։‹¤Ž 01

ˆ‰Ž 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< 3; ! $329!$8Ì ‰‡Tˆ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆˆˆ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

¤ŒŠT !#!9ধ&'f !82,!$ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì8!8& U
a։ '9 =Ì,-$<£'9 l231#8'<?m ='2!2; &' !,389 '; =3<£!2; ;3<82'8 Å +!<$,'
&3-='2; !ħ'2&8' 7<' £'9 =Ì,-$<£'9 ='2!2; &Z +'2 93-'2; 6!99Ì9 63<8 63<=3-8
;3<82'8W £9 932; &32$ Å £Z!88Í; ;!2&-9 7<' &'9 =Ì,-$<£'9 !88-='2; &!29 £'<8 &39
Å <2' =-;'99' &' ¥‡ Å Ž‡։01c, '; 2' £'9 =3-'2; 6!9 Å £Z!88Í; '2 8!-932 &Z<2'
!#9'2$' ;3;!£' &' =-9-#-£-;ÌW £ 2Z@ ! !<$<2' 9-+2!£-9!ধ32 63<8 68Ì='2-8 &'
$'ħ' #-(<8$!ধ32W '9 1!87<'9 &' $3<69 &' (8'-29 !< 93£ 932; 6'81!2'2;9T -£ @ ! &!2+'8 &' 138;W։b

2

¥ˆˆT !,389 e9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì¡-2' U
a։ < 832&f63-2; &' '+3<8& /<97<ZÅ £!

3

¥‡ˆT Ì2-'8+<'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
11!2<'¡¡' U

938ধ' &Z!++£31Ì8!ধ32 '2 &-8'$ধ32 &' '8$<Ë9T 32

a։ -8!+' '2 Ì6-2+£' Å $,'='<? !@!2; &Ì/Å Ì;Ì £' ;,ÌÇ;8'

&Ì231#8' &' 1<£ধ6£'9 2-&9f&'f63<£'W։b

&' 6£<9-'<89 !$$-&'2;9W £ '9; 9-;<Ì &!29 <2' A32' Å
Œ‡։01c,T 1!-9 Å $'ħ' =-;'99' £Z!$$-&'2; '9; -2Ì=-;!#£'W b




| 71

Һ Һ Ӈ‹Žӈ

ˆŒ։¤Ž‹ 01

‰‹‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< !-2'f';f 3-8' ! $329!$8Ì Š¥TŠ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ‹ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ŒˆT 3<;' &' !2;'9T Û89f 8-+2Ì e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 8'2&!2 U

1

a։ ! 83<;' '9; &Ì(381Ì'T £'9 &39 &ZÇ2' 932; &!2+'8'<? l6!9 )?'9mT £! =-9-#-£-;Ì
63<8 £'9 6'89322'9 !88-=!2; &Z!<;8'9 8<'9 8'/3-+2!2; $'££'f$- '9; 1!<=!-9'W
311' $Z'9; <2' 83<;' 3Ù £'9 #<9 6!99'2;T -£ (!<&8!-; !1Ì2!+'8 &'9 6£3;9 '2
#Ì;32 £' £32+ &'9 ;83ħ3-89T $!8 £'9 =3-;<8'9 9;!ধ322Ì'9 9<8 £! $,!<99Ì' '; 9<8
£'9 ;83ħ3-89 +Ë2'2; £! #322' $-8$<£!ধ32 '; £! 9Ì$<8-;Ì &'9 <9!+'89W։b

2

ŠT ! '1#83££'f9<8f 32+<'2Ì' e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !;8-$0 U

3

<' #£ÌT 2+'89 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
'2/!1-2 U

a։ 2' 1-2$' $3<$,' &' #-;<1' ! Ì;Ì 8'1-9' 9<8 £'9

a։ 'ħ' 8<' ;8Ë9 6!99!2;' ! 9<#- &' 231#8'<? ;8!=!<?

#38&9 +!<$,' '; &83-; &' $'ħ' $,!<99Ì'T 1!-9 £' ধ'89

63<8 £' 8'23<='££'1'2; &'9 ;<@!<? &' +!A '; &Z'!<W

$'2;8!£ 2Z! 6!9 Ì;Ì 8'(!-;W Ì9<£;!;։V £Z!?' $'2;8!£ &' £!

</3<8&Z,<-T £! $,!<99Ì' 9Z!ø!-99' Å &' 231#8'<?

83<;' $329'8=' <2 $!2!£ &Z'!< 7<- 9' ;8!29(381' '2

'2&83-;9W։b

6!ধ23-8' '2 ,-='8W։b

ӇŒ‡ӈ

ˆ‹։Œ¥¥ 01

ˆ¤ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! !2$,' ! $329!$8Ì ¤‡TŒ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆˆ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ŽŽŽ T 3-' &' £! -#'8;ÌT -££'&-'<f£'9f 3Σ'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
!8-'d !<8' U

1

a։ 2' 6!8ধ' &' £! 8<' ! Ì;Ì 8'(!-;' '2 ‰‡ˆ‰T 1!-9 £' 8'9;' &'1'<8' <2'
$!;!9;836,'։V #399'9T )99<8'9T 2-&9f&'f63<£'X Z'9; &311!+' &' 2Z!=3-8 (!-;
£' ;8!=!-£ 7<ZÅ 13-ধÌ &!29 $'ħ' 8<' $311'8%!2;'։R։b

2

,'1-2 &'9 'ধ;'9
3<8$,'9T ,'8#3<8+f
$;'=-££' e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 ¡-=-'8 U

3

<' &' £! !27<'T +2'!<? e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 '!2 U

a։ 39 &ZÇ2' ,389 2381'9։R £ '9; -2&-7<Ì Š‡։01c,T

a։ ! 8<' '9; &!29 <2 Ì;!; &Ì6£38!#£'W ¬ 6£<9-'<89

1!-9 9- =3<9 6!99'A Å $'ħ' =-;'99'T =3<9 '?6£39'A

8'68-9'9T £! !-8-' ! Ì;Ì $32;!$;Ì'T 9!29 8Ì9<£;!;W ££'

;3<;W ¬ £Z!6683$,' &' $' &39 &ZÇ2' '; #-'2 9Û8 '2 £'

$329ধ;<' 63<8;!2; <2 &'9 !?'9 £'9 6£<9 <ধ£-9Ì9 63<8 9'

(8!2$,-99!2;T -£ '9; !-9Ì &' =3-8 7<' £'9 2381'9 2Z32;

8'2&8' Å £Z 29ধ;<; !-2;f ÖW։b

!<$<2'1'2; Ì;Ì 8'96'$;Ì'9W։b

7 Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

ӇŒˆӈ

ˆ‡։Š¥ˆ 01

‰‰Œ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! !82' ! $329!$8Ì ‹¤Tˆ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; Ž '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
<!- &' !82'T ³6'82!@ e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 -$,'¡ U

1

a։ 311' 93<='2;T $'ħ' 83<;' ! Ì;Ì 8'#3<$,Ì' Å £Z!-&' &' 8';3<$,'9
9<$$'99-='9 '; ;8Ë9 1!£ (!-;'9T 8Ì9<£;!2; <2' $,!<99Ì' ;3<;' #399'£Ì'T
&!2+'8'<9' '; 6!8ধ$<£-Ë8'1'2; 63<8 £'9 &'<?f83<'9 &'=!2; (8'-2'8 9<8 $'
1!<=!-9 Ì;!; &' 9<8(!$' !=!2; £' 6!99!+' 6-Ì;329 63<8 9Z!88Í;'8 !< 9;36 /<9;'
!68Ë9W։b

2

Ž¥‡T ³63@' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 38-22' U
a։ £

2Z'?-9;'

!<$<2

9-+2!£'1'2;

&'

3

£!$' &< Ì2Ì8!£ 3<8!<&T '-19 e
-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 31!-2 U

£Z-2;'89'$ধ32 1'2!2; Å '-2'f !<83@W 3<9 ,!#-;329

a։ ! 6£!$' &'=!2; 311'8@ '; 8'/3-+2!2; 6£<9-'<89

<2' ('81' -93£Ì' '2 #38& &' £! Ž¥‡ '; '2 (!$' &'

#3<£'=!8&9 '9; &!29 <2 Ì;!; £!1'2;!#£' &'6<-9

£Z-2;'89'$ধ32 3<;' &' -£!2W '6<-9 23;8' !88-=Ì'T -£

6£<9-'<89 !22Ì'9W -&9f&'f63<£' '; !<;8'9 8<9ধ2'9

@ ! '< 6£<9-'<89 !$$-&'2;9T '; 23<9 $8!-+2329 Å $,!7<'

8'16£-99'2; £! 6£!$'։R։b

(3-9 7<' 23<9 &'=329 !$$Ì&'8 Å 23;8' 1!-932W։b

Һ ӇŒ‰ӈ

¤։‡‰ 01

¤Š 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! !<;'f !82' ! $329!$8Ì Šˆ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ¤‹ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
2;'89'$ধ32 ='2<' '!2f -'88' -1#!<& c <' &' !=3-'T
!-2;f -A-'8 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -&-'8 U

1

a։ !88'(3<8 !='$ &'9 ('<? ;8-$3£38'9 ;8Ë9 (8Ì7<'2;ÌW ' 8'=Í;'1'2; '9;
(38;'1'2; &Ì+8!&Ì 6!8 £' 6!99!+' &'9 =Ì,-$<£'9 l&32; £'9 231#8'<?
$!1-329mW '£! &'=-'2; =8!-1'2; &!2+'8'<?W։b

2

3<;' &' '!<$,'1-2T !-2;f !8ধ2f
£Ë9f !2+8'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !¡Ì8-' U

3

2;'89'$ধ32 ˆŽ¤ ։c։ ‹T !££-+2-$3<8;
e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '82!8& U

a։ 2;8' '!<$,'1-2 '; !-2;f !8ধ2T $Z'9; <2' 6'ধ;'

a։ !29 £' =-££!+'T -£ @ ! &'9 683;<#Ì8!2$'9 &' +3<&832

83<;' 7<- 2Z'9; 6!9 8Ì6!8Ì' !68Ë9 &'9 ,-='89 8-+3<8'<?W

9<8 £! 83<;'T 683=37<Ì'9 6!8 £' 6!99!+' &' $!1-329

££' '9; $329;'££Ì' &' ;83<9 '; -£ '9; ;8Ë9 &-ă$-£' &' 9Z@

9<-;' !<? ;8!=!<? &' £! #!9' ˆˆŠW։b

$83-9'8W ! $-8$<£!ধ32 ! Ì;Ì £-1-;Ì' Å Š‡ 63<8 6!££-'8 £'
683#£Ë1'W !-9 '9;f$' £! 93£<ধ32։S։b




| 73

ӇŒŠӈ

¥։‡‹ 01

¥¥ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! !@'22' ! $329!$8Ì ˆ¥T‰ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; Œ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
<' !+'2;!T !=!£ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -'88' U

1

a։ 'ħ' 8<' '9; &Ì(381Ì' &'6<-9 (38; £32+;'169 '; 9<-;' Å &' 231#8'<?
;8!=!<? 7<Z'££' ! 9<#-9W <$<2 'ø38; 2Z! Ì;Ì (!-; 63<8 £! 8'1'ħ8' '2 Ì;!;W
' 231#8'<9'9 8<'9 Å 6!99!+' -1638;!2; Å !=!£ 932; &!29 £' 1Í1' Ì;!;W։b

2

ˆ¤‰T <' '8;,' !8$3<T ,!2+Ì e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -'88' U

3

ˆˆ‡T 32+8-'8 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 3+'8 U
a։ 'ħ' 83<;' 2Z'9; 6!9 &< ;3<; !+8Ì!#£' 63<8

a։ 'ħ' '2;8Ì' &' =-££!+' '9; '2 ;8Ë9 1!<=!-9 Ì;!;T !='$

$'<? 7<- £Z'168<2;'2; ;3<9 £'9 /3<89W ££' '9; &Ì+8!&Ì'

&'9 8-='9 '2 &Ì='89 '; <2 8'=Í;'1'2; &Ì(381ÌW։b

&'6<-9 6£<9-'<89 !22Ì'9T 8Ì6!8Ì' 6!8 &'9 a։8<9ধ2'9։bW։b

Һ Һ ӇŒ‹ӈ

¥։ˆ¥ˆ 01

ŠŽ¤ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! '<8;,'f';f 39'££' ! $329!$8Ì ‹ˆT‹ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2
&' £! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ŒŒ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ˆ‰T 38$@ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ¡-=-'8 U

1

a։ 3<;' (38;'1'2; &Ì(381Ì'T !='$ !$$3;'1'2; 6!8 '2&83-;9 7<- 9Z'2 =!
'2 1-'ħ'9WWW -97<'9 &Z!7<!6£!2-2+ £3897<Z-£ 6£'<; #'!<$3<6։V &< (!-; &'9
&Ì(381!ধ329T &' +8399'9 Ì;'2&<'9 &Z'!< 9' (381'2;W ' 6£<9T $Z'9; <2'
83<;' !='$ &'9 =-8!+'9 ;8Ë9 683232$Ì9 l7<- 2' 932; 7<' ;8Ë9 6'< 9-+2!£Ì9։RmW '
1!87<!+' !< 93£ 2Z'9; 6!9 232 6£<9 &'9 6£<9 =-9-#£'9W։b

2

ˆŒ¤T <&<2f£'f 31!2 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
3!2 U

3

ŒŽT <2Ì=-££' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '8=Ì U
a։ 2 !££!2; ='89 !$$!8!;T £! $,!<99Ì' '9;

a։ ,!<99Ì' '2 ;8Ë9 ;8Ë9 1!<=!-9 Ì;!; 9<8 <2' £32+<'<8

&Ì+8!&Ì' 9<8 <2' &-A!-2' &' 0-£31Ë;8'9։V ;83<9T

!=3-9-2!2; £'9 Œ‡‡։1T <2' ,388'<8 63<8 2Z-1638;' 7<'£

1!$!&!1 !='$ &'9 8!$$38&9T 9'29!ধ329 &' 83<£'8 9<8

=Ì,-$<£' £Z'168<2;!2;W։b

&' £! ;Ö£' 32&<£Ì'T =Ì,-$<£' 7<- 9!<;'X։b

! Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

ӇŒ¤ӈ

ˆ¤։ˆ‹ 01

‹¥‹ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< 38#-,!2 ! $329!$8Ì ¤ˆTŒ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ¥ˆ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ˆ¤ŒT £3'8'2T 9'29 <#8!@f !22'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !;'¡¡ U

1

a։ 38ধ32 &' 83<;' !='$ 8'=Í;'1'2; ;8Ë9 &Ì+8!&ÌT &Ì$3££Ì '; !='$ &'9 )99<8'9W
!2+'8'<? 63<8 £'9 =3-;<8'9 1!-9 '?;8Í1'1'2; &!2+'8'<? 63<8 £'9 &'<?f
83<'9։R։b

<' &'9 '2,-89T !-2;f -'88' &'
<-#'832 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !9$!¡
U

a։ '9 83<;'9 932; 8!6-Ì$Ì'9 '; 8!6-Ì$Ì'9 ';WWWW 2 9'

‰‹T #8';'££' &' 938ধ' ='89 ‰‹
£3'81'£T 9'29 38-'2;f £3'81'£e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ,8-9ࣅ!2 U

$83-8!-; 9<8 <2 $,'1-2 &' ;'88' '2 (38Í;W 3<8 <2 £-'<

a։ 3<8#' &' 938ধ' ;8Ë9 +£-99!2;' 6!8 83<;' ,<1-&'

;3<8-9ধ7<'T $' 2Z'9; 6!9 #8-££!2;W։b

l#!88-Ë8'9 &' 9Ì$<8-;Ì ;!6Ì'9 !< 13-29 <2' (3-9 6!8

2

3

13-9mT 1!-9 32 68Ì(Ë8' $,!2+'8 £'9 #!88-Ë8'9 7<' &'
8'(!-8' £! 83<;'T /<97<Z!< /3<8 3< <2' =3-;<8' )2-8! 9<8
£! ‹ =3-'9 '2 $32;8'#!9X ' 683#£Ë1' &<8' &'6<-9
6£<9 &' Œ !29W։b

ӇŒӈ

ˆ‡։Ž¤ 01

ŒŽ‹ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! 39'££' ! $329!$8Ì ŠŒT¥ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; Š‹ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

3<;' &Z <#-+2@T 89f !7<'2'?@ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ?'¡ U
a։ ! 83<;' '9; $316£Ë;'1'2; &Ì£!#8Ì' '; &!2+'8'<9'։V $,!<99Ì' &Ì(381Ì'T
2-&9f&'f63<£'T )99<8'9T ;8Ë9 Ì;83-;' l32 &3-; 9' 1'ħ8' 9<8 £' #!9f$Ö;Ì &!29
£'9 ;83<9 ;8Ë9 683(32&9 63<8 £!-99'8 6!99'8 £! =3-;<8' '2 (!$'mT !#9'2$' &'
9-+2!£-9!ধ32X։b

2

<' &< Ì2Ì8!£ ';1!2T ';A e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '8=Ì U

3

Œ‰T £3<!2+' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ,31!9 U
a։ ,!<99Ì' &!29 <2 Ì;!; &Ì6£38!#£' 9<8

a։ 3<;' ;8Ë9 6!99!2;' ;8<øÌ' &' 2-&9f&'f63<£'T 6!8(3-9

£' 632; &' £Z 82' l'2;8' £3<!2+' '; 31#!9mT &'

8'$3<='8;9 &' #399'9 &' 1!$!&!1T '; $' &'6<-9 &'9

231#8'<9'9 382-Ë8'9T £' 1!87<!+' !< 93£ '9; -2=-9-#£'

!22Ì'9T &32$ ;!2;Ö; <2 ;83<T ;!2;Ö; <2' #399'T !='$

£3897<Z-£ 6£'<;W -9-#-£-;Ì 7<!9- 2<££' &' 2<-;T £' $3$0;!-£

;3<;' £! 63££<ধ32 93238' 7<' $'£! -16£-7<'W։b

6!8(!-; 63<8 9' 6£!2;'8WWW։b




| 75

ӇŒ¥ӈ

Ž։‰ 01

ˆŠ¤ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! -Ë=8' ! $329!$8Ì ‰‡ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ¥Ž '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ˆŒˆT ! 3<+'T -££-'89f£'f '$ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -32'¡ U

1

a։ 2;8' !8A@ '; £!1'$@T £! $,!<99Ì' '9; ;836 Ì;83-;'T &Ì(381Ì'T £'9 #!9f
$Ö;Ì9 ;8Ë9 &!2+'8'<? '; -£ 2Z@ ! 6!9 &' 8'(<+'W ¬ $'; 'ø';T 23<9 !=329 $8ÌÌ
<2' !993$-!ধ32 &32; /' 9<-9 £' 638;'f6!83£'W։b

2

='2<'
'!2f !$7<'9
3<99'!<T
!8'22'9f !<A'££'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -$3¡!9 U

3

¤T <!+'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ,-'88@ U
a։ 2;8' 2;,-'2 '; <!+'9T £' 8'=Í;'1'2;

a։ ! 83<;' '9; $316£Ë;'1'2; &Ì(32$Ì'։R Z'9; ;8Ë9

'9; &Ì('$;<'<?։V '2 Ì;ÌT £' +3<&832 (32& '; -£ @ ! &'9

&!2+'8'<? $!8 %! a։#!£!2$'։b &' &83-;' Å +!<$,'W։b

Ì6!2&!+'9 &' +8!=-'89W !2+'8'<? 63<8 £'9 13;39 ';
£'9 6!8'f#8-9'։R։b

ӇŒŽӈ

ˆŒ։¥Š‰ 01

ˆ։ˆ¤‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< 38& ! $329!$8Ì Ž‹TŽ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; Š¤ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
<' &'9 8Ì9T 9;!-8'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !?-1' U

1

a։ < 2-='!< &< 6@£Ö2' Ì£'$;8-7<'T <2' 9<$$'99-32 &' 6'ধ;9 '; 13@'29 2-&9f
&'f63<£' ;3<; £' £32+ &' $'ħ' 8<'W 32;9 &' ;'88' /<9;' Å $Ö;Ì &' £! 83<;'W
3897<Z-£ 6£'<;T £! #3<' $3<£' 9<8 £! 83<;'W 32;'<?W։b

2

<' &< 6'ধ; $!16T 3<ধ$,'9 e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !=-& U

a։ 3<;'

!='$

#'!<$3<6

&'

3

='2<' '$£'8$T !<;132; e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 -$3¡!9 U

2-&9f&'f63<£'T

a։ < 2-='!< &< 2<1Ì83 ‹T $Z'9; £! 9'<£' 6!8$'££' &'

68-2$-6!£'1'2; 9<8 Š‡‡։1 '; 9!29 8'=Í;'1'2; 9<8 £'9

;3<;' £Z!='2<' 7<- 2Z! 6!9 Ì;!-; 8'(!-;'W £ @ ! 6£'-2 &'

$3;Ì9T !£389 7<' £' $83-9'1'2; 3#£-+' £' 6!99!+' 9<8

;83<9T &' #399'9 '; 1Í1' &'9 683/'$ধ329 &' 138$'!<?

$' $3;ÌW։b

&' 1!$!&!1W։b

! Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

Ӈ¤‡ӈ

ˆ‰։Œ‰¤ 01

‰¤ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z -9' ! $329!$8Ì ‡T¤ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ¥Œ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
¤‡T 8!2&(8'923@ e9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -2$'2; U

1

a։ 'ħ' 83<;' 7<- ;8!='89' &'9 $,!169 '9; '2 1!<=!-9 Ì;!; &'6<-9 &'9 !22Ì'9W
' 6£<9T £! 83<;' '9; Ì;83-;' '; $31638;' <2 =-8!+' &!2+'8'<?W £ @ ! '2=-832 Š
!29T &'9 a։8<9ধ2'9։b 32; Ì;Ì !/3<;Ì'9 9<8 £'9 #38&9 &' £! 83<;' 7<- Ì;!-'2; '2
;8Ë9 1!<=!-9 Ì;!;W !-9 &'6<-9T &'9 2-&9f&'f63<£' 9' 932; (381Ì9 ;3<; £' £32+
'2;8' £! 83<;' '; $'9 a։8<9ধ2'9։bW։b

2

<' &'9 !8;9 '; 1Ìধ'89T -!2$3<8; e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!2 U

3

Ž‰ŠT 382'£ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -$0!'¡ U
a։ <

8'9;!<8!2;

/<97<ZÅ

£!

#!27<'։V

a։ <' Å (38;' 6'2;' ;8!='89!2; $'ħ' =-££'W -&9f&'f

!ø!-99'1'2; '; 2-&9f&'f63<£' &' $,!7<' $Ö;Ì &' £!

63<£'9T 1<£ধ6£'9 6£!7<'9 &' +3<&832 !/3<;Ì'9 9<8

83<;'T 7<- 3#£-+'2; £'9 !<;313#-£-9;'9 Å 83<£'8 !< 1-£-'<

6£<9 &' Œ‡‡։1W 3<;' &!2+'8'<9'W <$<2' !$ধ32 &'

&' £! $,!<99Ì'W '9 =3-;<8'9 @ £!-99'2; £'9 !138ধ99'<89

£! !-8-'W։b

'; £'9 62'<9 &'6<-9 Œ !29 1-2-1<1W։b

Ӈ¤ˆӈ

ˆˆ։Ž¥ 01

Žˆ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z 82' ! $329!$8Ì Š¤TŽ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ‰Š '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
‹ŠT ! 37<'T Ì2-£f <#'8;f9<8f 82' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ³¡-9' U

1

a։ 3<;' 9<8 £!7<'££' 32 '2$,!Ñ2' £'9 =-8!+'9 &!2+'8'<?T Å 6'-2' 9-+2!£Ì9 6!8
<2 6!22'!< '; 232 683;Ì+Ì9 6!8 &'9 +£-99-Ë8'9 &' 9Ì$<8-;ÌW £ 2Z@ ! 1Í1' 6!9
&' 1!87<!+' 9<8 £'9 #38&9 &' £! $,!<99Ì' 63<8 9' 8'6Ì8'8 £! 2<-; '; '2 $!9
&' 6£<-' 3< &' #83<-££!8&W։b

2

<'
'8&-2!2& &' 3@'8'9T 38;!+2'
!< '8$,' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 6,Ì¡-' U

3

£!$' &' £! Ì6<#£-7<'T !+23£'9 &'
£Z 82' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !22-9 U

a։ ! $,!<99Ì' '9; ;3<;' )99<8Ì' '; £'9 ;83ħ3-89 ;836

a։ !9;' $,!16 &' 8<-2'9 7<' $' $!88'(3<8։V 2-&9f&'f

Ì;83-;9 2' 6'81'ħ'2; 6!9 £' 6!99!+' &'9 63<99'ħ'9

63<£'T )99<8'9T 8!6-Ë$'1'2;9 7<- &Ì9;!#-£-9'2; £'9

3< (!<;'<-£9 83<£!2;9W։b

=Ì,-$<£'9X 3<; @ '9;։R։b




| 77

Һ Һ Ӈ¤‰ӈ

ˆŒ։Š¤ 01

‡ˆ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< !9f&'f !£!-9 ! $329!$8Ì Ž¤Tˆ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ¤‹ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
2;'89'$ধ32 <' £Ì8-3;։c։ <' '82!8& ,3$,3@T ³£'<f&-;f
'!<>'ħ' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ³8-$ U

1

a։ ;36 &'='2< -2<ধ£' &'6<-9 7<' £! 8<' '82!8& ,3$,3@ ! Ì;Ì 1-9' '2 9'29
<2-7<' -£ @ ! 6£<9-'<89 !22Ì'9W։b

2

3<89 831'2!&' '22'&@T 8<!@f£!f
#<-99-Ë8' e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 !;,-'< U

3

<' &< 32; &' -'88'T Ì;,<2' e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ³8-$ U

a։ '(!-8' ;3<;' £! 83<;' '; £'9 ;83ħ3-89T '; !< 6£<9 =-;'T

a։ ,!<99Ì' ;3;!£'1'2; &Ì13£-'։R '9 8<9ধ2'9 (!-;'9T

$!8 %! (!-; £32+;'169 7<' %! &<8' '; $Z'9; &' 6-8'

1!-9 7<- 2' (32; 'ø'; 7<' £! 68'1-Ë8' 9'1!-2' &'

'2 6-8'։RRR ! 83<;' 2Z'9; 1Í1' 6!9 6£!;'T %! (!-; &'9

1-9' '2 6£!$'T 6<-9 7<- !++8!='2; £! 9-;<!ধ32 &' £!

!22Ì'9 7<Z'££' '9; $311' %!T -£9 8'(32; &'9 6'ধ;9

$,!<99Ì'W '9 2-&9f&'f63<£' ;8Ë9 683(32&9 (32; £'<8

#3<;9 Å $,!7<' (3-9T 1!-9 $' 2Z'9; 1Í1' 6!9 6£!;։R։b

!66!8-ধ32W 2 =8!- &!2+'8 63<8 £'9 &'<?f83<'9 '; £'9
!<;8'9 =Ì,-$<£'9W։b

Һ Һ ½ Ӈ¤Šӈ

‰‡։‡‹‰ 01

ˆŒ‹ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< <@f&'f Ö1' ! $329!$8Ì Œ¤Tˆ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ¥¤ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
2;'89'$ধ32 3<£'=!8& <9;!='
£!<#'8;։c։ 3<£'=!8& 3#'8;
$,<1!2։c։ <' &' £Z 8!&3< e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ¡!-2 U

1

a։ 839 $!88'(3<8 !='$ &'9 ('<? ;8-$3£38'9W £ @ ! <2' 938;' &' 832&f63-2; $'2;8!£
'; £3897<' £'9 +'29 ;3<82'2; Å +!<$,'T -£9 3<#£-'2; 7<' $'<? 7<- !88-='2; 9<8
£'<8 &83-;' 932; !< ('< ='8; $311' '<?W։b

2

<' &'9 !+<'ħ'9T '9 !8;8'9 &'
'@8' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
'82!2& U

3

‹ŒT <+'83££'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !1-'2 U
a։ 'ħ' 83<;' '9; Ì;83-;' '; ;3<9 £'9 ;3<82!2;9

a։ 31#8'<? 2-&9f&'f63<£' 9<8 '2=-832 ˆ‡‡ 1Ë;8'9W

932; ;8Ë9 &!2+'8'<?W ' 6£<9T -£ 2Z@ ! !<$<2 8!-£ &'

! 9-;<!ধ32 ! Ì;Ì 9-+2!£Ì' !<68Ë9 &< 1!-8' '; &<

9Ì$<8-;ÌT £' +3<&832 '9; &Ì+8!&Ì 9<8 Œ 0-£31Ë;8'9 !='$

8'96329!#£' &' £! =3-8-'T 1!-9 8-'2 2Z! Ì;Ì 68-9 '2

&'9 2-&9f&'f63<£' '; <2 'ø'; !$$38&Ì32W։b

$329-&Ì8!ধ32W։b

7 Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

³ ³ Һ Ӈ¤‹ӈ

ˆ¤։‰‰‰ 01

‰‰‡ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &'9 @8Ì2Ì'9f ;£!2ধ7<'9 ! $329!$8Ì ¤ŽT¥ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2
&' £! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ‡‰ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
='2<' &'9 -£!9T !< e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 <8Ì¡-'2 U

1

a։ 39 &ZÇ2' #'!<$3<6 ;836 ,!<; '; 63-2;< l£' 6£<9 ,!<; &' !< Å 1!
$322!-99!2$'mW 2 '9; 3#£-+Ì &' 8Ì&<-8' 9! =-;'99' Å ˆŒ։01c, 63<8 £' 6!99'8
9!29 '2$31#8'W։b

2

ˆ‹¤T <#'8ধ2 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !?-1' U
a։ ' £!8+'9 )99<8'9 6!8!££Ë£'9 !< &'='89 9<8

3

ŽT '&'<-? e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ,-'88@ U
a։ -8!+' ;8Ë9 !$$'2;<ÌT 2- 9-+2!£ÌT 2- 9Ì$<8-9ÌT

;3<;' <2' =3-' &' $-8$<£!ধ32T $!<9!2; <2 -1638;!2;

7<- 68Ì9'2;' <2 &Ì='89 $329-&Ì8!#£'W ' 231#8'<?

!ø!-99'1'2; &' £! $,!<99Ì' '; 683/';!2; £'9 =Ì,-$<£'9

$!1-329 @ 32; $,!=-8Ì։R ' 6£<9T !<$<2' Ì=!$<!ধ32

='89 £' &Ì='89W։b

&Z'!< 'ă$!$' ’ 6!ধ23-8' Å $,!7<' 6£<-'T 1Í1' '2
=3-;<8'։R։b

Һ ³ ³ Ӈ¤Œӈ

¤։‹Š¥ 01

ˆˆŽ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &'9 !<;'9f @8Ì2Ì'9 ! $329!$8Ì Š‰TŽ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &'
£! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆŠŽ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

££Ì' &< ,Ç;'!<T !8#!A!2f '#! e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -2$'2; U
a։ 3<;' £! 83<;' '9; ;8Ë9 !#Ñ1Ì'T 231#8'<? 2-&9f&'f63<£' '; )99<8'9W <$<2
!1Ì2!+'1'2;W։b

2

ŽŠŽT <' &< <-; !- ˆŽ‹ŒT
!22'1'A!2 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 <¡-'2 U

3

2;'89'$ধ32 ‰¤ c Œ‰¤ T 32;3<99Ì
e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 <¡-'2 U

a։ 3<;' $316£Ë;'1'2; &Ì(381Ì' &'6<-9 &'9 !22Ì'9

a։ £ (!<&8!-; <2 9;36 9<8 £! Œ‰¤ W ' 231#8'<?

1!-2;'2!2;W 2 9' $83-8!-; 9<8 <2' 6-9;' &' 8!££@' '2

!$$-&'2;9 @ 32; '< £-'<T $!8 6'< &' =-9-#-£-;ÌT 1!-9

6£'-2 1-£-'< &' £! =-££'T -2!$'6;!#£'W։b

68-38-;Ì Å &83-;'WWW։b




| 79

³ ³ Һ Ӈ¤¤ӈ

Œ։Ž‡Ž 01

‰ˆˆ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &'9 @8Ì2Ì'9f 8-'2;!£'9 ! $329!$8Ì ‹Ž 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2
&' £! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ‡Œ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
='2<' <£-'2 !2$,3;T '86-+2!2 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -$,!8& U

1

a։ < 2-='!< &< 832&f63-2; &< -&£ '2 '2;8!2; &!29 '86-+2!2T £! $,!<99Ì'
'9; ;8Ë9 &Ì(381Ì'T !ø!-99Ì' '; 68Ì9'2;' &' 231#8'<? 2-&9f&'f63<£' '; &'9
*!7<'9 -1638;!2;'9 '2 $!9 &' 6£<-'T 3#£-+'!2; £'9 <9!+'89 Å 9' &Ì638;'8 9<8
£! +!<$,'W։b

2

,'1-2 &' £! !£!27<'T 8+'£Ë9f9<8f
'8 e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 ,-'88@ U

3

ˆŠT !<8'-££!9f !9f ££!9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
!;8-$0 U

a։ ! $,!<99Ì' '9; 6!8ধ$<£-Ë8'1'2; &Ì(381Ì' 9<8 £'9

a։ 3<; £' £32+T £! 83<;' '9; ;8Ë9 Ì;83-;'W ! 2<-;T 32 2'

#38&9T £'9 =Ì,-$<£'9 8-97<'2; Å ;3<; -29;!2; &ZÍ;8'

=3-; 6!9 £'9 $Ö;Ì9 &' £! 83<;'W։b

&Ì9;!#-£-9Ì9 6!8 $'9 &Ì+8!&!ধ329W։b

Һ Ӈ¤ӈ

Ž։‰Œ 01

‹¥‹ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< !9f ,-2 ! $329!$8Ì ‹¤ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ‹ˆ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
<' &< 38; &< ,-2T ;8!9#3<8+ e9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 <$ U

1

a։ ø32&8'1'2;9T &Ì(381!ধ329 '2 !?' '; 6'86'2&-$<£!-8'9 Å £! =3-'T #399'9 ';
$8'<? 9<8 £'9 ;8!='89Ì'9 &' 8!-£9W։b

2

3<;' &'
389;,'-1T !+<'2!< e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !83¡-2' U

3

<' &'9 $,!99'<89T $,-£ধ+,'-1 e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 <&3¡6, U

a։ 'ধ;' 83<;' &' $!16!+2' Ì;83-;' '; '2 ;8Ë9 1!<=!-9

a։ 3<;' &Ì(32$Ì'T !#9'2$' &' ;83ħ3-8T &39 &ZÇ2'

Ì;!;T 6£'-2' &' 2-&9f&'f63<£'W։b

!ø!-99Ì9WWW 3<;' ;8Ë9 &!2+'8'<9'T (8Ì7<'2;Ì' 6!8 &'
231#8'<? '2(!2;9 9<8 £' $,'1-2 &' £ZÌ$3£'W։b

Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

Һ Ӈ¤¥ӈ

¤։Ž‡‡ 01

ˆŠ‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< !<;f ,-2 ! $329!$8Ì ŠŒT‰ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ‹¤ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
‹¤¤T <'>'2,'-1 e9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !9-¡' U

1

a։ ! $,!<99Ì' '9; #38&Ì' &Z!8#8'9W ! 83<;' ! $322< 6!9 1!£ &Z!$$-&'2;9T
&32; 6£<9-'<89 138;'£9 $'9 &'82-Ë8'9 !22Ì'9W ! 1-9' '2 6£!$' &' +£-99-Ë8'9
&' 9Ì$<8-;Ì &'=!2; £'9 !8#8'9 6'81'ħ8!-; &' £-1-;'8 £! 138;!£-;Ì 9<8 $'ħ'
638ধ32W։b

2

<' &< $,Ç;'!<f(38;T 3<£;A e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 ,-¡-66'
U

3

3<;' &Z 2+'89,'-1T 3£1!8 e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 3)!2 U

a։ Z-2;Ì+8!£-;Ì &' £! 8<' '9; &!29 <2 Ì;!; &' &Ì£!#8'1'2;

a։ 2;8' £! 31Ì&-' &' £Z 9; '; £Z 2;'81!8$,ÌT -£ @ !

!=!2$Ì։V 2-&9f&'f63<£'T #399'9T ;83<9W '9 =Ì,-$<£'9 ';

&'<? ('<? Å ˆ‡‡։1 &ZÌ$!8;T '; -£ !88-=' 7<' £Z32 &3-='

£! 9Ì$<8-;Ì 932; 1-9 Å 8<&' Ì68'<=' 9<8 $'; !?' ;8Ë9

!ħ'2&8' Œ 3< ¤ 1-2<;'9 63<8 63<=3-8 6!99'8 3<;8' $'9

(8Ì7<'2;ÌW '9 93£<ধ329 <8+'2;'9 932; Å 1'ħ8' '2

&'<? ('<?W Z'9; ;8Ë9 &Ì8!2+'!2;W։b

6£!$'։R։b

½ Ӈ¤Žӈ

ˆˆ։‹‹Œ 01

Ž‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< ,Ö2' ! $329!$8Ì Š¥T 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ¥¤ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
2;8Ì' &< ;<22'£ <' &' £! -££'ħ'T @32 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '< U

1

a։ ! 9-+2!£-9!ধ32 &' £-1-;!ধ32 &' ,!<;'<8 '9; -2!&!6;Ì' !< =< &' £! (8Ì7<'2$'
&'9 !$$-&'2;9W 2' 93£<ধ32 $329-9;'8!-; Å 8'16£!$'8 £' 638ধ7<' ;3</3<89
3<='8; '; &Ì(!-££!2; 6!8 <2 (!-9$'!< &' &Ì;'$ধ32 $3<6£Ì Å &'9 *!9,9 g։=3-8' Å
<2' !£'8;' 93238'։g $311' $' 7<- 9' (!-; 9<8 £'9 !<;383<;'9W։b

2

32;Ì' &' -2&8@T 32;$,!88!f9<8f
<8&-2' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -$,'¡ U

3

<' &'9 37<'£-$3;9T -329 e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 3¡Ë2' U

a։ ' 8'=Í;'1'2; 7<- =-'2; &ZÍ;8' 8'(!-;T $Z'9; <2' ;Ö£'

a։ <' Ì;83-;' 9!29 1!87<!+' !< 93£ '; 9!29 Ì$£!-8!+'T

32&<£Ì' '2;8' £' +-8!;3-8' Å £! 938ধ' &' !8!8' '; £'

6!9 &' ;83ħ3-8 !£389 7<' #'!<$3<6 &' /'<2'9

+-8!;3-8' Å £! 938ধ' &' 32;$,!88!։R։b

'168<2;'2; $'ħ' 83<;' Å 6-'&W 83<9 '2 (381!ধ32W։b




| 81

Һ ½ Ӈ‡ӈ

¥։ŠŠˆ 01

¥¥ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! !<;'f !Ö2' ! $329!$8Ì Š¤T¤ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ‹¥ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
='2<' '!2 !<8Ë9T Ì8-$3<8; e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !<8'2; U

1

a։ 32 ,!#-;!ধ32 9' 9-;<' &!29 <2 =-8!+' &!2+'8'<? 3ÙT &Z<2 $Ö;Ì $311'
&' £Z!<;8'T -£ @ ! ;8Ë9 6'< &' =-9-#-£-;ÌW 68Ë9 6£<9-'<89 6Ìধধ329 '2=3@Ì'9 Å
329-'<8 £' !-8' 63<8 &'1!2&'8 <2 !1Ì2!+'1'2; &' $' =-8!+'T 8-'2 2' 9'
(!-; !£389 7<Z-£ @ ! &Ì/Å '< 6£<9-'<89 !$$-&'2;9W։b

2

Œ T 3£31#-'8 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!2 U
a։ 3<8 6!99'8 93<9 £! =3-' ('88Ì'T -£ @ ! <2

‹ŒT ! 8!2&' Ì9-' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
3ø83@ U

3

=-8!+' '2 a։ ։bT Ì;83-; '; 9!29 =-9-#-£-;Ì &!29 <2 9'29

a։ ! 83<;' '2;8' ! 8!2&' Ì9-' '; !<=-+2'@f£'9f

$311' &!29 £Z!<;8'T $' 7<- 3#£-+' £'9 63-&9 £3<8&9T

'91'9 '9; 6!8ধ$<£-Ë8'1'2; &Ì(381Ì'T &' 231#8'<9'9

231#8'<? 9<8 $'; !?' 6-2!£f '9!2%32T Å 138&8' 9<8

8!66329'9 32; &Ì/Å Ì;Ì (!-;'9T $'ħ' 638ধ32 1Ì8-;'8!-;

£! #!2&' #£!2$,' $32ধ2<'W։b

&ZÍ;8' 8'(!-;' !< 6£<9 =-;'W։b

½ Һ Һ Ӈˆӈ

ˆŒ։ŽŠ‹ 01

ˆŒ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! !Ö2'f';f 3-8' ! $329!$8Ì ŠT‰ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &'
£! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ¤Œ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

2;'89'$ধ32 <' ,!8£'9 <13<£-2 c <' -$;38 <+3T <? e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '2/!1-2 U

!$' Å £Z'2;8'68-9' &' 1!;Ì8-'£9 &Z'2;8'ধ'2 &'9 '96!$'9 ='8;9T &'9 2-&9f&'f
63<£' 6!8 &-A!-2'9T 7<- 9' $8'<9'2; Å $,!7<' 6!99!+' &'9 8-='8!-29 '2 =3-;<8'
'; &'9 63-&9 £3<8&9 938;!2; &' £! 9;!ধ32f9'8=-$'W։b

2

Š¥T !-2;f ,8-9;36,' '2 8'99' e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
8Ì&Ì8-$ U

3

T -2;'89'$ধ32 !-2;f <#-2f'2f
,!83£!-9։c։ 3£'9=8'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8

a։ '9 6!=Ì9 &' #-;<1' 6!8ধ'£9 32; Ì;Ì !6639Ì9 9<8 £!

Ì1- U

83<;' '?-9;!2;'W ¬ 6'-2' ‰ 13-9 !68Ë9 7<' £'9 ;8!=!<?

a։ Z'2;8'68-9' 7<- 8Ì!£-9' £! 1-9' '2 ‰?‰ =3-'9 ! -29;!££Ì

32; Ì;Ì 'ø'$;<Ì9T &'9 6'£!&'9 '; 2-&9f&'f63<£' 932;

&'9 #382'9 '2 #Ì;32 &' 6!8; '; &Z!<;8' &' £! =3-'

!66!8<9 9<8 68!ধ7<'1'2; ;3<;' £! £32+<'<8 &' £!

!$;<'££'W '9 #382'9 932; ;836 8!6683$,Ì'9T £'9 63-&9

83<;'W։b

£3<8&9 9' $83-9'2; Å Œ‡։$1 9'<£'1'2;W։b

Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

Ӈ‰ӈ

ˆŠ։ˆ 01

ŠŠ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! !8;,' ! $329!$8Ì ‹¤TŒ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ¥‡ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
<' &' £! '-2;<8'T !
£Ë$,' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ¡'?-9 U

1

a։ <-;' Å &'9 ;8!=!<? 8Ì$'2;9 &Z'2(3<-99'1'2; '; <2 8'=Í;'1'2; 7<- &'=-'2;
Ç+ÌT $'ħ' 8<' '9; &'='2<' <2 $!£=!-8' 63<8 239 =Ì,-$<£'9 '; 23;8' 9Ì$<8-;ÌW
'£! $32$'82' £! 8<' &!29 9! ;3;!£-;ÌT &' £! <' &' £! !ধ32 /<97<Z!<
3<£'=!8& !1#'ħ!W։b

2

‰‹T -8Ì '2 ,!16!+2' e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 ³8-$ U

3

<' &Z 8+'2;32T ££322'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 ,8-9ࣅ!2
U

a։ ! 83<;' '9; &Ì(381Ì'T &'9 138$'!<? &' 8'=Í;'1'2;

a։ ,!<99Ì' &Ì(381Ì' 6!8 £'9 ;8!=!<? &' &Ì#<;

932; !88!$,Ì9T $' 7<- 8'2& $'ħ' 83<;' Ì;83-;' '2$38'

&Z!22Ì'T 9<8 £!7<'££' 9' (381'2; &'9 2-&9f&'f63<£' &Ë9

6£<9 &!2+'8'<9'W։b

7<Z-£ 6£'<;W £ 2Z@ ! 6£<9 &' 1!87<!+' !< 93£W։b

ӇŠӈ

¥։‡¥ 01

Ž‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! !=3-' ! $329!$8Ì ¤TŠ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆŒ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
3<;' &' !-2;f !;<82-2T 322!A e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì#!9ࣅ'2 U

1

a։ 3<; !< £32+ &' £! 132;Ì' &< $3£ &'6<-9 322!AT +839 2-&9f&'f63<£'T
$,!<99Ì' a։;38&<'։bT a։;83<Ì'։bT Ì;83-;' '; 6'< &' =-9-#-£-;ÌW 3897<Z-£ 6£'<;T
$'ħ' 83<;' &'=-'2; +£-99!2;'W 8'(T '££' $<1<£' Ì2381Ì1'2; &' &!2+'89 Å
'££' ;3<;' 9'<£'T 9<8 1Í1' 6!9 <2 0-£31Ë;8'W <'9 £! £32+<'<8 '; £ZÌ;83-;'99'
&' $'ħ' 83<;'T £! 8'(!-8' 6!8!Ñ; 63<8;!2; !-9Ì '; 8!6-&'W։b

2

3<;' &Z <ধ+2@T 322!A e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
'!2d !<¡ U

3

3<;' &' -A'832T -££@f9<8f 9Ë8' e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì='8-2' U

a։ 2;8' £! 83<;' &Z -?f£'9f !-29 '; £' ,'1-2 &'

a։ ! 83<;' '9; ;8Ë9 Ì;83-;'T &Ì(381Ì'T )99<8Ì'T £'9

,!16£32+T £! 83<;' '9; $316£Ë;'1'2; &Ì(381Ì'T £'9

=-8!+'9 9'88Ì9 9<8 ‰ 0-£31Ë;8'9W։b

2-&9f&'f63<£' 9<$$Ë&'2; !<? &39 &ZÇ2' '; $!99-9T £'9
;8!2$,Ì'9 932; 1!£ 8'#3<$,Ì'9X 2 &Ì231#8' 6£<9
&' ¥‡ #399'9։R։b




| 83

Һ Ӈ‹ӈ

Ž։‡¥ 01

Š‰¤ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! !<;'f !=3-' ! $329!$8Ì ˆ‡‹TŽ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &'
£! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆŠ‹ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
3<;' &< ,!16 &' £Z £'T ,!=!23& e -+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !=-& U

1

a։ ' 2' $3168'2&9 6!9 7<' $'9 ‰‡‡։1 &' 83<;' &'=!2; £! &Ì$,'ħ'8-' 2' 93-'2;
6!9 Ì£!8+-9 '; 8Ì!1Ì2!+Ì9W ' $83-9'1'2; @ '9; &-ă$-£' '2 =3-;<8' '; ;8Ë9
&!2+'8'<?W ' 6£<9T -£ @ ! #'!<$3<6 &' $-8$<£!ধ32 9<8 $'; !?' ;8!29='89!£։R '
8'=Í;'1'2; '9; )99<8Ì '; '2 ;8Ë9 1!<=!-9 Ì;!; !='$ &'9 ;83<9 '; &'9 #399'9։R։b

2

Ž‡T !2-2+'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -¡¡'9 U
a։ ! 83<;' &Ì6!8;'1'2;!£' &-;' a։9;8<$;<8!2;'։b

'9; &Ì(381Ì' '; )99<8Ì' &!29 ;3<9 £'9 9'29T ;836

3

<' &'9 £6'9T ,3232f£'9f !-29 e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !1 U

a։ '9 2-&9f&'f63<£' ;3<; £' £32+ &' £! 8<'W։b

93<1-9' !<? $@$£'9 +'£c&Ì+'£T !<? 63-&9 £3<8&9T 9!29
'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! $3<$,' &' 9<8(!$' l2' 6!8£329 6!9 &' £!
9;8<$;<8' &' $,!<99Ì' -2'?-9;!2;'XmW։b

ӇŒӈ32

ˆ։¤‰Œ 01

ŒŒ‡ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £! -££' &' !8-9 ! $329!$8Ì ˆ‰¥T‰ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T
93-; Œ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

<!- &Z 89!@T !8-9 e9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 @¡=-' U
a։ '=!2; £' 1-2-9;Ë8' &'9 ø!-8'9 Ì;8!2+Ë8'9T £! $,!<99Ì' '9; )99<8Ì'T 6£'-2'
&' 2-&9f&'f63<£' '; &' 8!$$38&9 '2 =3-' &' &'9;8<$ধ32W Z'9; ;8Ë9 &!2+'8'<?T
'2 6!8ধ$<£-'8 63<8 £'9 &'<?f83<'9W։b

2;'89'$ধ32 <' &' £Z ?639ধ32։c։ <'
&' 8'2'££'T !8-9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
!?'2$' U

a։ ' £! 6£!$' !-2;f <+<9ধ2 !< 3<£'=!8& &'

a։ ' $!88'(3<8 &-9639' &Z<2' 68-38-;Ì Å &83-;' 63<8

3<8$'££'9T £' 3<£'=!8& &' !£'9,'8#'9 '9; ;8<øÌ &'

£'9 +'29 ='2!2; &' £! <' &' £Z ?639-ধ32T /!1!-9

2-&9f&'f63<£'W։b

2

3

3<£'=!8& !£'9,'8#'9T !8-9 e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!2 U

8'96'$;Ì' 6!8 $'<? !88-=!2; <' &' 8'2'££'W !<=!-9'
=-9-#-£-;ÌT $!8 '16£!$'1'2; £-=8!-932 !='$ ;8Ë9 93<='2;
&'9 $!1-329 +!8Ì9 '16Í$,!2; &' =3-8 $' 7<- !88-='W։b

' 8Ì9'!< 83<ধ'8 6!8-9-'2 8'£Ë=' &Z<2 $!9 &' +'9ধ32 6!8ধ$<£-'8 V $32;8!-8'1'2; !<? !<;8'9 &Ì6!8;'1'2;9 (8!2%!-9T £'

Š‰

Ì6!8;'1'2; &' !8-9 2Z'?'8$' 6!9 £! $316Ì;'2$' a։=3-8-'։bT &!29 £! 1'9<8' 3Ù £Z-2;Ì+8!£-;Ì &< 8Ì9'!< 83<ধ'8 6!8-9-'2
'9; $!;Ì+38-9Ì '2 =3-8-' $311<2!£'W Z'9; &32$ Å £! 9'<£' -££' &' !8-9 7<' 8'=-'2; £! 8'96329!#-£-;Ì &' £Z'2;8'ধ'2 ';
&' £Z!1Ì£-38!ধ32 &'9 83<;'9W
Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

Һ Ӈ¤ӈ

ˆŒ։¥Œ¤ 01

ˆ։‰Ž‡ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! '-2'f !8-ধ1' ! $329!$8Ì ¤‡T‹ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &'
£! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ‹ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
£!$' '82!8& -993;T 3<'2 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì&8-$ U

1

2

a։ ! 83<;' £! 6£<9 63<88-' &' 3<'2X 2 ;8<$ &' (3<։R։b

<' &Z '<&'£-132;T
£3$7<'9
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !1-'2 U

e

3

='2<' 2&8Ì !<83-9T !8'2ধ2 e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !;,-! U

a։ 2' 83<;' $311<2!£' 7<- 2Z'9; 6!9 '2;8';'2<'W !

a։ - #!88-Ë8' &' 9Ì$<8-;ÌT 2- 8!£'2ধ99'<8 &'=!2; £' £@$Ì'

&Ì+8!&!ধ32 '9; 9;<6Ì)!2;'T !$;<'££'1'2; &!29 <2

,31!9 382'-££' '; £' $3££Ë+' !;,'8-2' '82!8&T $'

Ì;!; &' &Ì£!#8'1'2; ;8Ë9 !=!2$ÌW ££' '9; &'='2<'

7<- 1'; £! =-' &'9 Ì£Ë='9 '2 &!2+'8W £ @ ! 1Í1' '< <2

-168!ধ$!#£'W։b

!$$-&'2; £' ˆŠ 23='1#8' &'82-'8։R։b

Һ Һ Ӈӈ

ˆ‰։ˆ¤‹ 01

ˆ։Œ‡ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! '-2'f';f !82' ! $329!$8Ì ‹¥T‹ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &'
£! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ŠŒ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

ŠT '2;8' £!@'f 3<-££@ '; '!<? e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !¡Ì8-' U
a։ ! 83<;' 68Ì9'2;'T &!29 £'9 &'<? 9'29T &' 231#8'<? 2-&9f&'f63<£'W ,!7<'
!22Ì'T &'9 8<9ধ2'9 932; (!-;'9T 7<- 2' ধ'22'2; 6!9 '; $'£! &!29 £'9 &'<? 9'29
&' $-8$<£!ধ32W Z!- &Ì/Å £!-99Ì <2 62'< '; /' 6£!-29 £'9 13;!8&9 7<- $-8$<£'2; 9<8
$'ħ' 83<;'W ! ,32;' 7<' 8-'2 2' 93-; (!-;։R։b

2

ŠŒT
'88-Ë8'9f'2f 8-' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
-'88' U

3

‹‡T !
'8;Ìf93<9f 3<!88' e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 ;Ì6,!2' U

a։ ! $,!<99Ì' '9; $316£Ë;'1'2; &Ì(381Ì' '; 6£'-2'

a։ '<? =-8!+'9 ;8Ë9 +£-99!2;9 '; ;8Ë9 &!2+'8'<? 9'

&' #399'9W < (<8 '; Å 1'9<8'T &'9 #£3$9 '2ধ'89 9'

9<$$Ë&'2;W £ 2Z@ ! 6!9 &' #32 9@9;Ë1' &' +£-99-Ë8' &'

&Ì;!$,'2; 9<8 £'9 #!9f$Ö;Ì9W <'£7<'9 a։8!)9;3£!+'9։b

9Ì$<8-;Ì 3< &Z!138ধ99'1'2; &' $,3$ '2 $!9 &' 938ধ'

32; Ì;Ì (!-;9T 1!-9 2Z32; Ì=-&'11'2; 6!9 ;'2< '; -£9 2'

&' 83<;'W։b

6'81'ħ'2; 6!9 <2' #322' !&,Ì8'2$'W։b




| 85

Ӈ¥ӈ

¤։ŒŒ‹ 01

‹ˆŒ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &'9 ='£-2'9 ! $329!$8Ì ˆ‡‰T‹ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
<' &< #3<; &< !8$T 32;'9932 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -2&@ U

1

a։ < 2-='!< &< 2<1Ì83 ‰‹ &' £! <' &< #3<; &< !8$ Å 32;'9932T <2 +839
2-&f&'f63<£' 8'2& £! $-8$<£!ধ32 &!2+'8'<9'W ' 8'9;' &' £! 83<;' '9; !<99- '2
1!<=!-9 Ì;!;T (!-; &' 8<9ধ2'9 7<- &Ì(381'2; £! $,!<99Ì'W։b

2

ˆ¥¤T 3$7<'2$3<8; e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
'2Ì U

3

8!2&' <'T ÌA-Ë8'9f9<8f '-2' e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ,-¡-66' U

a։ < 2-='!< &< $83-9'1'2; !='$ £! Š‡ '; £Z ˆŠT £!

a։ 'ħ' 83<;' '9; Ì;83-;'T !='$ &'9 !$$3;'1'2;9 232

9-+2!£-9!ধ32 !< 93£ '9; 'ø!$Ì'W Z'9; (38; +Í2!2;T $!8

9;!#-£-9Ì9W £ '9; &-ă$-£' &' 9' $83-9'8W Z!- &Ì/Å Ì$£!;Ì

-£ @ ! Š #!2&'9 &' 83<£'1'2; '; -£ &'=-'2; &-ă$-£' &'

<2 62'< '2 83<£!2; 9<8 <2 83$,'8 7<- Ì;!-; 6!8ধ &'

8'96'$;'8 9! =3-' &' $-8$<£!ধ32T 9<8;3<; 7<!2& £'9

£Z!$$3;'1'2; 9<-;' Å &'9 6£<-'9 -1638;!2;'9W։b

$32&-ধ329 1Ì;Ì3 932; 1!<=!-9'9W։b

Һ ² ӇŽӈ

ˆ‰։Ž‹ˆ 01

Žˆ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &'9 '<?f Ë=8'9 ! $329!$8Ì ‰ŽTˆ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ¤ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ˆ‡T <' &Z³$,-8ÌT !-2;f !?-8' e -+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ,31!9 U

1

a։ '9 6'89322'9 7<- !88-='2; &Z³$,-8Ì 6!8 £! ˆ‡ '; ='<£'2; ;3<82'8 Å +!<$,'
='89 £' ,'1-2 &' £Z³+8!@ &3-='2; 9Z'2+!+'8 $Ö;Ì +!<$,' !=!2; &' =3-8 9- <2
=Ì,-$<£' !88-=' '2 9'29 -2='89'W £ (!<&8!-; 9!29 &3<;' <2 1-83-8 Å £Z!2+£' 63<8
=3-8 £'9 =Ì,-$<£'9 !88-='8W £<9-'<89 !$$-&'2;9 &Ì/Å Ì=-;Ì9 &' /<9;'99' 6!8 £'9
8-='8!-29W։b

2

<' &< !-8'T ! 8Ë$,' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
!1<'¡ U

3

‹‡T 8!,'$7 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '2Ì U
a։¬ £! 938ধ' &' 8!,'$ 9<8 Ž։01T £! $,!<99Ì'

a։ '<? 8!£'2ধ99'<89 &' ;@6' ;8!6ÌA3Ò&!£ 7<- 2'

'9; &!29 <2 Ì;!; £!1'2;!#£'։R ' 8'=Í;'1'2; '9; 6£'-2

8'96'$;'2; 6!9 £! £32+<'<8 &' 8!16!2;T 2- £! ,!<;'<8

&' )99<8'9T £'9 #38&9 &' $,!<99Ì' &Ì(32$Ì9 -2;'8&-9'2;

&< 6£!;'!<W 389 &' £! &'9$'2;'T £' #!9 &' £Z!=!2; &'

&' 9Z'2 !6683$,'8 93<9 6'-2' &' 938ধ8 &' £! 83<;'W։b

=3-;<8' ;!6' £' 93£W։b

Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

Ӈ¥‡ӈ

ˆˆ։‹¤‰ 01

Œ‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! 311' ! $329!$8Ì ‰T‹ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ‹ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
Ž‰‡T 8<' -'88' 83993£'ħ'T 38'<-£ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '8+' U

1

a։ 'ħ' 8<' &< $'2;8' =-££' '9; -232&Ì' Å $,!7<' 38!+' &'6<-9 7<' &'9
;8!=!<? 32; Ì;Ì 1!£ (!-;9W <'£7<'9 8-='8!-29 938;'2; !='$ &'9 1!;8!7<'9
63<8 '16Í$,'8 £'9 =Ì,-$<£'9 &' 6!99'8։R - 8-'2 2Z'9; (!-;T $'£! 9' ;'81-2'8!
6!8 <2 &8!1'X։b

2

8!2&' 8<' &< 6'ধ; !-2;f '!2T 32;f
&'f ';A e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 <¡-'2 U

3

ˆT 3$!&' &Z 1-'29 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
!<;,-'8 U

a։ £ 9Z!+-; &' £! 83<;' £! 6£<9 1!<=!-9' 7<' /' $322!-99'։R

a։ 3$!&' 6!8 '2&83-; 8'(!-;'T 1!-9 £3897<Z-£ 6£'<;T £!

££' '9; &Ì(381Ì' &'6<-9 &'9 !22Ì'9W £ @ ! <2' 8<9ধ2'

83<;' &'=-'2; +£-99!2;' $!8 £Z'!< 8'9;' 9<8 £! $,!<99Ì'W

Å 6'< 68Ë9 ;3<9 £'9 Š‡։$1 9<8 ˆ։01։R։b

2 2' =3-; 6£<9 £' 1!87<!+' !< 93£։R 2 $'8;!-29
'2&83-;9T '££' '9; /<9;' 8Ì6!8Ì' !='$ &'9 8<9ধ2'9 7<-
2' ধ'22'2; /!1!-9W։b

Ӈ¥ˆӈ

ˆˆ։Œ 01

ˆ¤ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< !82 ! $329!$8Ì ŠŽTŽ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ‡‰ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

<' !9;32 3<;'-££'8T £#- e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ,8-9 U
a։ 'ħ' 8<' (!-; 6!8ধ' &' £Z!++£31Ì8!ধ32 !£#-+'3-9'T £! $,!<99Ì' '9; '2
1!<=!-9 Ì;!;T !<$<2 1!87<!+' !< 93£T !<$<2 Ì$£!-8!+' 23$;<82'W։b

2

¥ŠT !<;8'$ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !;,-'< U
a։ ?' !<;8'$։c։ !9;8'9։V $,!<99Ì' &Ì(381Ì'

'; &Ì+8!&Ì'։f։ $$3;'1'2;9 Ì;83-;9 !='$ 6£!;!2'9W։b

3

='2<' -'88'
!#8'T !=!<8 e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 ¡-=-'8 U

a։ ' &39 &ZÇ2' 68Ì9'2; &'6<-9 6£<9-'<89 !22Ì'9 !<
$83-9'1'2; &' £Z ='2<' -'88'
!#8' '; &'9 <'9
3238Ì &' !£A!$ '; !+!88-7<' ! 8Ì$'11'2; Ì;Ì
8'(!-;W '6<-9T £' &39 &ZÇ2' '9; ,389 2381'9T -£ ! Ì;Ì
$8'<9Ì Å 932 '2;8Ì' '; Å 9! 938ধ'T £' 8'2&!2; &!2+'8'<?
63<8 £'9 =Ì,-$<£'9 l23;!11'2; £'9 13;39m։R։b




| 87

Һ Һ Ӈ¥‰ӈ

¥։ˆˆ 01

¥Š 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< !82f';f !8322' ! $329!$8Ì ‰¥T¤ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &'
£! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆˆŠ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;
ŠT <$!1=-££' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
8Ì&Ì8-$ U

1

a։ 3<;' Ì2381Ì1'2; &Ì(381Ì'T #31#Ì' 9<8 £'9 $Ö;Ì9T !ষ8!2; £'9 =Ì,-$<£'9
9<8 £'9 (399Ì9 $8'<9Ì9T 1<£ধ6£'9 8!$$38&9 &Z'283#Ì9 +8!=-££322Ì9W։b

2

,'1-2 &' !?<8'T 8'993£9 e 9-+2!¡Ì
6!8 !<8'2;
U

3

,'1-2 &' £! !<+'T £#-!9 e 9-+2!¡Ì
6!8 38!¡-' U

a։ '9 138$'!<? &' $,!<99Ì' 932; !88!$,Ì9T £! 83<;'

a։ 3<9 £'9 /3<89T /' 6!99' 9<8 $'ħ' 83<;'W £ @ ! &'9

'9; Ì;83-;' '; £32+Ì' 6!8 <2 (399Ì &!29 £'7<'£ -£ '9;

$8'<?T £'9 !138ধ99'<89 '2 68'22'2; <2 $3<6W։b

(!$-£' &' ;31#'8T (!<;' &' &Ì£-1-;!ধ32 &'9 8-='9W։b

Ӈ¥Šӈ

ˆ‡։ŠŒ‰ 01

¤‹Š 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< !8 ! $329!$8Ì ‹TŽ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ‹¤ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

='2<' 39'6, 3<-9 8;3£!2T 3<£32 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !83¡-2' U
a։ 2' 8'9;' &!29 £ZÌ;!; &'9 -2(8!9;8<$;<8'9 Å 3<£32։V
$-8$<£'8 !< 7<3ধ&-'2 '9; Ì63<=!2;!#£' 63<8 £' &39 &'9 <9!+'89 '; 239
=Ì,-$<£'9 l!138ধ99'<89T ';$mW ' 683#£Ë1' ! &Ì/Å Ì;Ì 9-+2!£Ì Å £! 1!-8-' Å
6£<9-'<89 8'68-9'9T 1!-9 8-'2 2Z! $,!2+Ì։V a։6!9 &' #<&+'; 63<8 £'9 83<;'9։bT
=3-$- <2' 8Ì6329' &322Ì' Å <2 ,!#-;!2; ;3<£322!-9W Z'9; (38; &311!+'T $!8
£'9 $311<2'9 £-1-;836,'9 !88-='2; Å 1!-2;'2-8 &' #322'9 -2(8!9;8<$;<8'9T '££'9W։b

2

='2<' !8'99-3T !8/3£9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
;Ì6,!2-' U

3

='2<' 32;Ì9!8$,-3T ! !8&' e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ,-'88@ U

a։ 'ħ' 83<;' '9; Ì;83-;'T 2-&9f&'f63<£'T +8!=-'89T 232

a։ !£'2ধ99'<8 ,389 2381'9 '; 9!29 -2;Ì8Í; &' ‰‡։$1 &'

Ì$£!-8Ì' '; 63<8;!2;T '££' 9'8; £'9 =Ì,-$<£'9 1!-9 !<99-

,!<; l8'£'=Ì !< £!9'8m &!29 <2' 132;Ì'W։b

£'9 6-Ì;329 '; '2(!2;9 7<- =32; Å £ZÌ$3£'։R։b

Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

Ӈ¥‹ӈ

¥։ˆˆ¤ 01

‹¤‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< !<$£<9' ! $329!$8Ì ¤¥T¥ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ‰Š '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ˆT 3<;' &' !8A!2T '82'9f£'9f
32;!-2'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 22-' U

1

a։ -8!+' &!2+'8'<? 232 9-+2!£Ì '2 ;!2; 7<' ;'£։V ˆ &Ì$Ë9 '; Š !$$-&'2;9 '2
<2 !2 '; &'1- 7<' /Z,!#-;' Å $'ħ' !&8'99'։R '6<-9T 8-'2 2Z! Ì;Ì (!-; '; £'9
!$$-&'2;9 $32ধ2<'2;WWW։b

2

Ž‹ŠT !-2;f !;<82-2f£Ë9f 6; e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 ?'¡ U

3

='2<' 8-9ধ&' 8-!2&T Z-9£'f9<8f£!f
38+<' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -$3¡'
U

a։ 3<;' ;8Ë9 &Ì+8!&Ì' !< 2-='!< &Z<2' 9Ì8-' &' =-8!+'9

a։ 3<;' £Z ='2<' 8-9ধ&' 8-!2& '9; &Ì+8!&Ì'T 2-&9f

&!2+'8'<? '; 9<$$'99-(9W ø32&8'1'2; &' £! 83<;'

&'f63<£'T $,!<99Ì' &Ì(381Ì'T )99<8'9T &'<? £'ħ8'9

$8Ì!2; $8'<? '; #399'9 68Ì/<&-$-!#£'9 Å £! ;'2<' &'

!&8'99Ì'9 !< 1!-8' 2Z32; &322Ì !<$<2 8Ì9<£;!;T 6!9 &'

83<;'W #9'2$' ;3;!£' &' 1!87<!+' !< 93£W։b

#<&+'; !$;<'££'1'2;W։b

³ Ӈ¥Œӈ

ˆŒ։ŽŽ‹ 01

ˆŒ¤ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! '2&Ì' ! $329!$8Ì ŠTŠ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; Œ¤ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ˆ¤‡T 32; &'9 £3<'ħ'9T '9 '8#-'89 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!2d -'88' U

1

a։ <-;' Å 239 &-øÌ8'2;'9 &'1!2&'9 '; !68Ë9 &'9 &-A!-2'9 &Z!$$-&'2;9 &32; &'
231#8'<? 138;'£9T <2 8'=Í;'1'2; ;8Ë9 !$$83$,'<8 ! (!-; $,<;'8 £' 231#8'
&Z!$$-&'2;9 9<8 $'ħ' &'9$'2;'W 8Í=' &' $3<8;' &<8Ì'։V &'=!2; £Z3#£-+!ধ32
&' 8Ì!£-9'8 8Ì+<£-Ë8'1'2; <2 23<='!< 8'=Í;'1'2; '; £' $3Û; Ì£'=Ì &' $'9
36Ì8!ধ329T £'9 9'8=-$'9 $32$'82Ì9 932; 8'='2<9 Å £Z'283#Ì $£!99-7<'W
Ì9<£;!;։V &'6<-9T £' 231#8' &Z!$$-&'2;9 '9; 8'6!8ধ Å £! ,!<99' '; !< 1-2-1<1 ¤ &'6<-9 £' &Ì#<; &'
£Z!22Ì'W b

a։ £'-2 &' 2-&9f&'f63<£' '; &' )99<8'9 9<8 $'ħ'

Ž‹ŽT £-'<?f&-;9 Le Brandais et Le
PoteauT !£132;f !-2;f -£!-8' e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !$0@ U

83<;' '; &!29 ! ,!-A'T £'9 -2;'89'$ধ329 932; ;8Ë9

a։ !29 $'9 &'<? £-'<?f&-;9T -£ 2Z'?-9;' !<$<2'

&!2+'8'<9'9W։b

-2;'8&-$ধ32 &' &3<#£'8 &!29 £! ;8!='89Ì' &'9 =-££!+'9 ';

2

<' &< 3<£-2 3<+'T ! ,!-A'f£'f
-$31;' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
8!2%3-9 U

3

$' 1!£+8Ì 6£<9-'<89 !$$-&'2;9 +8!='9W 3<9 8Ì$£!1329
$'ħ' 13&-)$!ধ32 &'6<-9 6£<9 &' ˆ‡ !29W։b




| 89

Ӈ¥¤ӈ

ˆ‰։‰Ž¥ 01

Š‡¤ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! -'22' ! $329!$8Ì Š‡ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ¤¥ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
3<;' &' !-2;f -$3£!9T 3<2'<-£f93<9f -!8& e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !;,@ U

1

a։ 38ধ32 7<- =! &' £! $311<2' &' -+2Ìf <?!2$'9 !< 9;36 &' £! 3<;'
&' !8;,'2!@T $,!<99Ì' ;8Ë9 &Ì(381Ì' !='$ &'9 2-&9f&'f63<£'T 8!6-Ì$Ì'
2Z-1638;' $311'2;W։b

2

ˆŒT -99!@ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
8!2%3-9 U
a։ 3<#£' &39 &ZÇ2' (38;'1'2; 683232$ÌW։b

3

Œ‹T 3<;' &< 38!;T !;,<9f !-2;f
Ì1@ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !$7<'9 U

a։ £<9 &' 1!87<!+'T 83<;'9 '2(32$Ì'9W ! 8Ì6329'
&< 1!-8'։V a։-£ 2Z@ ! 6!9 &Z!8+'2;։bW < £ZÌ;!; &'9 83<;'9
'; £' 6!99!+' &'9 $!1-329T $' 932; £'9 1!-9329 7<-
68'22'2; £'9 &Ì+Ç;9։V +£-99'1'2; &' ;<-£'9T $!88'£!+'
('2&<T 1<8 ('2&<X։b

Һ Ӈ¥ӈ

ˆˆ։¥‰Ž 01

¤¤ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! !<;'f -'22' ! $329!$8Ì ‰T¥ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &'
£! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ‰ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
Ž‹ˆT 6!99!+' Å 2-='!<T ='2<' !#8-'£ Ì8-T !-2; Ì32!8& &'
3#£!; e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!2d ¡!<&'
U

1

a։ ' 6£<9 1!<=!-9 6!99!+' Å 2-='!< &' ;3<; £' -13<9-2։R !£+8Ì 9! 8Ì('$ধ32T
8-'2 2Z! $,!2+ÌW 3</3<89 !<99- 1!<=!-9W։b

a։ 3<;' &Ì(32$Ì' 9<8 ;3<;' £! £32+<'<8T 2-&9f&'f63<£'T

2;'89'$ধ32
3$!&'f <'9;
&'
-13+'9 c ˆ‹T !-2;f !8;38@ e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -$3¡!9 U

6!9 &' 1!87<!+' &' £-+2' #£!2$,'T =-8!+'9 &!2+'8'<?

a։ !88'(3<8 &!2+'8'<?T 6!9 &' #8';'££' &Z-29'8ধ32W։b

2

<' &< <@ '/!<&T -13+'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8 !83¡' U

3

'; /Z'2 6!99'W։b

" Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

Ӈ¥Žӈ

ˆ‰։¤‹‡ 01

ˆ‰ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z 322' ! $329!$8Ì ˆTˆ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ‹¥ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
2;'89'$ধ32 ŽŒ c <' &' £Z³+£-9'T 9£!2& e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -$,'¡ U

1

a։ 3<;' &Ì(381Ì' 6!8 £' 6!99!+' -2$'99!2; &' 63-&9 £3<8&9 (!-9!2; $311'
<2 ;8'16£-2T 8'=<' '; $388-+Ì' 6!8 £' 9'8=-$' &Ì6!8;'1'2;!£ &'9 83<;'9 l639'
&Z<2' 938;' &' #Ì;32mT 1!-9 7<- 2Z!1Ì£-38' 6!9 £! 9-;<!ধ32W։b

2

,'1-2 &'9 832$'9T -££'2'<='f9<8f
322' e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 !8ࣅ2' U

3

2;'89'$ধ32 ˆ c ‹ŠT -+'22'9e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 8-!2' U

a։ ! $,!<99Ì' '9; $316£Ë;'1'2; &Ì(32$Ì'։V ;83<9T

a։ 83-9'1'2; 3<;' &' ,!813@։c։ <' !<£ '8;։V

382-Ë8'9T

'9;

7<!;8' =3-'9 !88-='2; 9<8 £! +8399' 83<;'T 1!-9 6£<9

$316£Ë;'1'2; ։R 83#£Ë1' 9-+2!£Ì '2 1!-8-'T 1!-9

!<$<2 1!87<!+' !< 93£W 8Ë9 &!2+'8'<?T $!8 $' 932;

!<$<2 8'29'-+2'1'2; &322ÌX։b

&'9 83<;'9 ;8Ë9 '168<2;Ì'9W։b

2-&9f&'f63<£'X

'

8'=Í;'1'2;

ӇŽˆӈ

Œ։¥‹ 01

¥‹Œ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £Z 99322' ! $329!$8Ì ŒŒTŠ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ‹‹ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W

1

<' '28@ !8#<99'T !£!-9'!< e9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !8@=322' U
a։ < 8';3<8 &Z<2' 938ধ' $@$£3T 132 6!8;'2!-8' &' =Ì£3 ! $,<;Ì &!29 $' 2-&f
&'f63<£'W Ì9<£;!;։V <2 13-9 &Z!88Í; &' ;8!=!-£W 3<8;!2;T 23<9 (!-9329 ;8Ë9
!ħ'2ধ32 !<? 231#8'<? 2-&9f&'f63<£' 7<- 8'2&'2; $'ħ' 8<' Ì1-2'11'2;
&!2+'8'<9'W ' 9-+2!£' !<99- £'9 1Í1'9 &Ì(!<;9 9<8 &'9 #!2&'9 $@$£!#£'9 &'
£! 1<2-$-6!£-;Ì &' !99@T 7<- =!2;' £'9 !=!2;!+'9 &Z<2' $-8$<£!ধ32 a։&3<$'։bT
1!-9 £!-99' 9' &Ì+8!&'8 £'9 83<;'9WWW։b

2

='2<' &' !8-9T !99@ e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
Ì8!8& U

3

3<;' &' 32;/'!2T -993<9 e 9-+2!¡Ì'
6!8
8!2%3-9' U

a։ 2;8' £! 1397<Ì' '; £' 632;
T -£ @ ! &' +839 ;83<9

a։ ZÌ2381'9 ;83<9 9' (381'2; /<9;' !=!2; £' 632; ';

683(32&9 &!29 £! $,!<99Ì'W Z<2 &Z'<? 1Z! 3$$!9-322Ì

&'6<-9 7<Z-£9 32; '2£'=Ì £'9 ('<?T $Z'9; '2$38' 6£<9

6£<9 &' Ž‡‡։ &' &Ì+Ç;9 9<8 1! =3-;<8'W։b

&!2+'8'<?W 2 ! &< 1!£ Å £'9 Ì=-;'8W։b




| 91

Һ Һ ӇŽ‰ӈ

ˆ։¥‹Œ 01

‹¥ˆ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &'9 !<;9f&'f '-2' ! $329!$8Ì Ž‹TŠ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &'
£! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ŒŽ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ˆˆ¥T '<&32 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!2d <$ U

1

a։ <8 £! ˆˆ¥ '2;8' £' $'2;8' $311'8$-!£ Ì£-A@ ‰ '; 3<£3+2'T $Z'9; <2'
$!;!9;836,'W - £Z32 ='<; $32&<-8' '2 ;3<;' 9Ì$<8-;Ì '; Ì=-;'8 £'9 -2231#8!#£'9
2-&9f&'f63<£'T )99<8'9 '; 8'#3<$,!+'9 +8399-'89T -£ (!<; 9£!£31'8W 'ħ' 83<;'T
7<- !$$<'-££' &'9 &-A!-2'9 &' 1-££-'89 &Z!<;313#-£-9;'9 '; 13;!8&9T 9'8! 9!29
&3<;' £' ;,ÌÇ;8' &' 231#8'<? !$$-&'2;9 9- 32 2Z@ (!-; 8-'2W։b

2

='2<' &< 83('99'<8 Ì32 '82!8&T
<'-£f !£1!-932։e։9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 ;Ì6,!2' U

3

<' <£'9 '82'T ,!2;'2!@f !£!#8@
e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì#!9ࣅ'2 U

a։ 68Ë9 6£<9-'<89 ;8!=!<? 9<8 £' 8Ì9'!< 93<;'88!-2 &Z'!<

a։ '9 ;83<9 9<8 £! $,!<99Ì' (381'2; &'9 *!7<'9 &Z'!<T

63;!#£'T £! $,!<99Ì' ! Ì;Ì 8Ì6!8Ì' !='$ &'9 8<9ধ2'9

/<9;' Å £Z'2;8Ì' &' £ZÌ$3£' <£'9 '82'W ' 6!99!+' '9;

&' +3<&832 (!-;'9 Å £! =!f=-;'W ' 6£<9T £! 83<;' '9;

;8Ë9 (8Ì7<'2;Ì 6!8 £'9 '2(!2;9T 63<99'ħ'9 '; 6!8'2;9

'2 6'2;' -1638;!2;'T Ì;83-;'T !='$ &< 9;!ধ322'1'2;

!<? ,38!-8'9 &Z'2;8Ì' '; &' 938ধ'W։b

'; £' 6!99!+' &Z<2' £-+2' &' #<9W ££' '9; &'='2<'
&!2+'8'<9'W։b

Һ Һ ӇŽŠӈ

‰։‹Š‡ 01

¥¤ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! '-2'f !-2;f '2-9 ! $329!$8Ì ŠTŽ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2
&' £! =3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ‹¥ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ˆT ='2<' ³£-9Ì' '$£<9T -'88')ħ'f9<8f '-2' e9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
!8-1! U

1

a։ 3<; £' £32+ &' £! ˆT -£ @ ! &'9 &39 &ZÇ2' $316£Ë;'1'2; ,389 2381'9T 7<- 32;
Ì;Ì -29;!££Ì9 -£ @ ! &'<? !29W < (!-; &' £'<8 ,!<;'<8 '; &' £! 6'2;'T -£9 &Ì(381'2; £'9
!138ধ99'<89 &'9 =3-;<8'9W Í1' '2 83<£!2; Å ˆ‡։01c,T £! =3-;<8' '9; 9'$3<Ì'W
'9 &39 &ZÇ2' 932; $!;!9;836,-7<'9 '; 232f$32(381'9 Å £! 8Ì+£'1'2;!ধ32W։b

2

<' &< !8$T ' 3<8+';e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8
!9$!¡
U

3

='2<' &< 3-9 !-2;f !8ধ2T 3-9@f
£'f 8!2& e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 <8Ì¡-' U

a։ ! 8<' '9; '2ধË8'1'2; &Ì(32$Ì' &'6<-9 &'

a։ 3<;' (38;'1'2; &Ì+8!&Ì'։V 2-&9f&'f63<£'T )99<8'9T

231#8'<9'9 !22Ì'9T !='$ &' ;8Ë9 231#8'<9'9 )99<8'9

(!Ò'2%!+'T !ø!-99'1'2;X <- 2' (32; 7<' 9Z!$$<1<£'8

'; &' 231#8'<? 2-&9f&'f63<£' 7<- 1'ħ'2; Å 1!£ £'9

!< )£ &'9 a։6!;$,>3809։b '; &'9 8Ì6!8!ধ329 9<$$-2;'9W։b

9<96'29-329 '; £'9 /!2;'9W։b

9 Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

Һ Һ ӇŽ‹ӈ

‰։‹‹‹ 01

¥Œ¥ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< !£f&'f !82' ! $329!$8Ì ¥¥T¤ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ¤Œ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
<' -'88' '; 2+Ë£' ' '2T -1'-£f 8Ì=!22'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8

!#-'2 U

1

a։ <' &!29 <2 Ì;!; £!1'2;!#£'T $'ħ' $,!<99Ì' '9; &Ì(381Ì' '; &' 231#8'<?
2-&9f&'f63<£' 932; 68Ì9'2;9W 3<;' ;8Ë9 &!2+'8'<9' £3897<' £Z32 '9; 13;!8&W
£<9-'<89 !66'£9 Å £! 1!-8-'T 9!29 8Ì9<£;!;W 38ধ32 &' 83<;' 7<Z-£ (!<; 8'(!-8'
-16Ì8!ধ='1'2;։R։b

2

<' +<9;' !8!='££!T ,!16-+2@f9<8f
!82' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 <¡-'2 U

a։ ' 6!99!+' 6-Ì;32 !< 2<1Ì83 ‰ˆ &' £! 8<' '9;

3

='2<' '!2f '28@ <2!2;T -££-'89f
9<8f !82' e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 -$,'¡ U

a։ ø!-99'1'2;T )99<8'9 '; &Ì#<; &' 2-&9f&'f63<£'։R։b

;3;!£'1'2; 'ø!$Ì։V £' #-;<1' ! Ì;Ì 8'(!-; 9<8 £! 83<;'T
1!-9 32 2Z! 6!9 8'(!-; £' 1!87<!+' $316£'; &< 6!99!+'
6-Ì;32T $' 7<- '9; &!2+'8'<? $!8 23<9 9311'9 !<?
!#38&9 &Z<2' Ì$3£'W։b

Z ӇŽŒӈ

‹։¥‹Œ 01

ŒŒ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &< !£ &Z -9' ! $329!$8Ì ¤T‰ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ¤Š '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
ˆŽ‰ T 3<;' &' !-2;f '< Å ,!2=8@T !-2;f '<f£!f
38Í; e
9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 Ì+-9 U

1

a։ ! 9'$32&' 6!8ধ' &' £! 83<;' '9; $316£Ë;'1'2; &Ì£!#8Ì' l!='$ &'9 =-8!+'9
'2 ;Í;' &ZÌ6-2+£'mT 2-&9f&'f63<£' ;8Ë9 231#8'<? Å £Z'2;8Ì' &' £! (38Í;։R 8Ë9
&!2+'8'<? 6!8 ;'169 &' 6£<-'T 23;!11'2; &!29 £! &'9$'2;'W։b

2

,'1-2 &' £! 1!8' Ì6-2'<9'T

8!2$32=-££' e 9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 Ì#!9ࣅ'2 U

3

<' &Z 8+'2;'<-£T 32ধ+2@f£Ë9f
381'-££'9 e 9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 !Ρ U

a։ ' £32+ &< 1!+!9-2 W '$£'8$T £' 8'=Í;'1'2; '9;

a։ 'ħ' 8<' '9; &!29 <2 Ì;!; £!1'2;!#£' &'6<-9 &'

'2 ;8Ë9 1!<=!-9 Ì;!;։R £ @ ! &'9 ;83<9 '; &'9 #399'9

231#8'<9'9 !22Ì'9W -&9f&'f63<£' '; $,!<99Ì'

6!8;3<;W 8Ë9 (38; 6!99!+' &' =Ì,-$<£'9 '; #'!<$3<6 &'

&Ì(381Ì'W։b

;8!='89Ì'9 &' 6-Ì;329W։b




| 93

Һ
3<9 £'9 &Ì6!8;'1'2;9 '; ;'88-;3-8'9 &Z3<;8'f1'8 Ì;!-'2; -2=-;Ì9 Å 6!8ধ$-6'8 Å a։ Z!- 1!£ Å 1!
83<;'։bT 1!-9 9'<£9 £'9 &Ì6!8;'1'2;9 &' £! <!&'£3<6' lŽˆmT £! <@!2' lŽŠm '; ! Ì<2-32
lŽ‹m 32; '28'+-9;8Ì &'9 9-+2!£'1'2;9T &32; £' 6!£1!8Ë9 )+<8' &!29 $'ħ' )$,'W

ӇŽˆӈ

‰։ˆŽ‹ 01

‹Œ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! <!&'£3<6' ! $329!$8Ì ‰ˆT¤ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ŒŠ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
‰T ' !1'2ধ2 e9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '¡6,-2' U
a։ 2;8' £' $!88'(3<8 &' 322-'8 '; $'£<- &' !=-2' $,!<&'T -£ @ ! <2 =-8!+' Å &83-;' !='$ <2 ;83ħ3-8 8!9!2; £! 83<;'
'; ;8Ë9 #!9W ! $-8$<£!ধ32 &'9 6-Ì;329 '9; 8'2&<' ;8Ë9 &!2+'8'<9'T £'9 =3-;<8'9 &Ì#38&!2; 8Ì+<£-Ë8'1'2; 9<8 £'
;83ħ3-8W £ 9Z!+-; &Z<2 !?' 1'2!2; Å £ZÌ$3£' ;3<;' 683$,' U &'9 #!88-Ë8'9 &' 9Ì$<8-;Ì 9'8!-'2; !668368-Ì'9W։b

ӇŽŠӈ

‰։ˆŒŽ 01

‰ˆ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' £! <@!2' ! $329!$8Ì ˆˆT‹ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £! =3-8-'
83<ধË8'T 93-; ‹ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
='2<' Ì363£& '&!8 '2+,38T 3<83< e9-+2!¡Ì' 6!8 '!2 U
a։ 2;8' £! 8<' !-2;f 3,2 '89' '; £' 8!£'2ধ99'<8T -£ @ ! <2 2-&f&'f63<£' '2 6£'-2 1-£-'< &' £! $,!<99Ì'W։b

³ ӇŽ‹ӈ

Š։‡¤¥ 01

¤¤ 9-+2!£'1'2;9

2 ‰‡ˆŒT £' &Ì6!8;'1'2; &' ! Ì<2-32 ! $329!$8Ì ˆ‹TŒ 1-££-329 &Z'<839 Å £Z'2;8'ধ'2 &' £!
=3-8-' 83<ধË8'T 93-; ˆ '<839 6!8 ,!#-;!2;W
,'1-2 2'<(T ! 32;!+2' e9-+2!¡Ì 6!8 '99-$! U
a։ 3<; £' £32+ &' $' $,'1-2T -£ @ ! &'9 2-&9f&'f63<£' 7<- 6'<='2; $!<9'8 &'9 &311!+'9 -1638;!2;9 9<8 £'9
=Ì,-$<£'9W ' +'29 (32; &'9 Ì$!8;9 9<8 $'ħ' 83<;' !< 8-97<' &' 6'8$<;'8 £'9 !<;8'9 !<;313#-£-9;'9 ='2!2; '2 9'29
-2='89'W։b

" Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S




| 95

SOURCES

GÉNÉRALITÉS SUR LE RÉSEAU ROUTIER
$$-&'2;!£-;Ì 83<ধË8'
h ! 9Ì$<8-;Ì 83<ࣅË8' '2
8!2$'։ª #-¡!2 &' ¡X!$$-&'2;!¡-;Ì &' ¡X!22Ì' ‡…†‰W #9'8=!;3-8'
-2;'81-2-9;Ì8-'£ &' £! Ì$<8-;Ì 83<ধË8' l‰‡ˆ‹m
³;!; &< 8Ì9'!< 83<ধ'8 (8!2%!-9
h 3<;'9 '; 8<'9։ª ¡X<8+'2$'U Ì23='8S '2;8';'2-8U 2-32 &'9 @2&-$!;9 &' £Z 2&<9;8-' 83<ধË8'
(8!2%!-9' l(Ì=8-'8 ‰‡ˆŒm
• XÌ;!; &' ¡! 83<;' ‡…†‰։ª ¡'9 83<;'9S ¡'9 8<'9S 68'1-'8 8Ì9'!< 93$-!¡U 2-32 &'9 @2&-$!;9 &'
£Z 2&<9;8-' 83<ধË8' (8!2%!-9'W
j '993<8$'9 &< !='1'2; 8'9'8=!ধ32 !2& '$@$£-2+ <11-; l(Ì=8-'8 ‰‡ˆŒm
• ' 8Ì9'!< 83<ࣅ'8 (8!2%!-9S <2 !$ࣅ( 1'2!$ÌW >>>W!+;f$3££'$ধ=-;'9W$31 l/<-2 ‰‡ˆ‹m
• -9;3-8' &'9 83<;'9 a Ì9'!< 83<ࣅ'8 (8!2%!-9 a 31'2$¡!;<8' &'9 83<;'9 2!ࣅ32!¡'9U -0-6Ì&-!
• -9;3-8' &'9 83<;'9W >>>W6£!2';'f;6W$31
3£-ধ7<' &Z'2;8'ধ'2T &' &Ì='£366'1'2; '; Ì$3231-' &< 8Ì9'!< 83<ধ'8 (8!2%!-9
h 3#-¡-;Ì ‡†։ª 3<8 <2 9$,Ì1! 2!ࣅ32!¡ &' 13#-¡-;Ì &<8!#¡'U !6638; !< 1-2-9;8' $,!8+Ì &'9
8!29638;9 l/<-2 ‰‡ˆŠm
• 2;8';'2-8 '; 68Ì9'8='8 ¡' 6!;8-13-2' &X-2(8!9;8<$;<8'9 &' ;8!29638;։ª <2' '?-+'2$' 63<8 ¡!
8!2$'U
-=8'; #£!2$ &' £Z 29ধ;<; &'9 3<;'9T &'9 <'9 '; &' £Z 2(8!9;8<$;<8' 63<8 £! 3#-£-;Ì l3$;3#8'
‰‡ˆ‹m
• ! 63¡-ࣅ7<' 83<ࣅË8' '; !<;383<ࣅË8'։ª Ì=!¡<!ࣅ32 &' ¡! +'9ࣅ32 &< 8Ì9'!< 83<ࣅ'8 2!ࣅ32!¡U !6638;
6<#£-$ 6!8ধ$<£-'8 &' £! 3<8 &'9 316;'9 l1!- ˆŽŽ‰m
• Ì1!8$,' 68396'$ࣅ=' ;8!29638; ‡…Š…։ª Ì¡Ì1'2;9 &' 8Ì*'?-32U -2-9;Ë8' &'9 8!29638;9 '; &'
£Z³7<-6'1'2; c 329'-£ +Ì2Ì8!£ &'9 32;9 '; ,!<99Ì'9 l1!89 ‰‡‡¤m
• ! &Ì1!8$,' 63<8 !1Ì¡-38'8 ¡! 9Ì$<8-;Ì &'9 -2(8!9;8<$;<8'9 '?-9;!2;'9U >>>W9<8'W
'7<-6'1'2;W+3<=W(8

" Z!- 1!£ Å 1! 83<;'։V 7<'££'9 932; £'9 83<;'9 £'9 6£<9 &Ì+8!&Ì'9 &'
8!2$'։S

• '9<8' &'9 6'8(381!2$'9 &!29 ¡' 9'$;'<8 83<ࣅ'8։ª Ì;!; &'9 ¡-'<? ;8!292!ࣅ32!¡U
38<1
-2;'82!ধ32!£ &'9 8!29638; &' £Z l3$;3#8' ‰‡ˆ‡m
• ' 9'$;'<8 83<ࣅ'8U >>>W&'='£366'1'2;f&<8!#£'W+3<=W(8
j 83+8!11' ‰‡Š։V a։ 2(8!9;8<$;<8'9 '; 9'8=-$'9 &' ;8!29638;9։bW ?;8!-; &< #£'< #<&+Ì;!-8'
&' £! 1-99-32 a։³$3£3+-'T &Ì='£366'1'2; '; 13#-£-;Ì &<8!#£'9։bT 83/'; &' £3- &' )2!2$' ‰‡ˆ¤
l3$;3#8' ‰‡ˆŒm
• '9 #<&+';9 68-1-ࣅ(9 ‡…†Š &'9 &Ì6!8;'1'2;9W Ì6!8;'1'2; &'9 Ì;<&'9 '; &'9 9;!ধ9ধ7<'9
£3$!£'9 &' £! -8'$ধ32 +Ì2Ì8!£' &'9 3££'$ধ=-;Ì9 £3$!£'9T 1-2-9;Ë8' &' £Z 2;Ì8-'<8T 1-2-9;Ë8'
&' £! Ì$'2;8!£-9!ধ32 '; &' £!
32$ধ32 6<#£-7<' l3$;3#8' ‰‡ˆŒm
• ' #<&+'; 68-1-ࣅ( ‡…†¢U !6638; #<&+Ì;!-8' &' £! -8'$ধ32 &'9
-2!2$'9 '; &'9 $,!;9 &'
£! !-8-' &' !8-9 l&Ì$'1#8' ‰‡ˆŒm
• ' 23<='¡ '96!$' 8<8!¡։ª <2' &@2!1-7<' Ì$3231-7<' Å '?6¡3-;'8W >>>W9'2!;W(8
• '9 '2/'<? &' ¡! 9Ì$<8-;Ì 83<ࣅË8' ¡-Ì9 Å ¡! 63¡-ࣅ7<' &'9 -2(8!9;8<$;<8'9U 2-32 &'9 @2&-$!;9 &'
£Z 2&<9;8-' 83<ধË8' (8!2%!-9'
• 83/'; &' ¡3- 8'¡!ࣅ( Å ¡! 9Ì$<8-;Ì &'9 -2(8!9;8<$;<8'9 '; 9@9;Ë1'9 &' ;8!29638;U 8!=!<?
6!8£'1'2;!-8'9 '; 8!6638;9 £Ì+-9£!ধ(9 &< Ì2!; l‰‡‡‰m
DOCUMENTATION TECHNIQUE
• X'2;8'ࣅ'2 $3<8!2; &'9 $,!<99Ì'9U <-&' 68!ধ7<' &< '8=-$' &Z³;<&'9 ;'$,2-7<'9 &'9
3<;'9 '; <;383<;'9 lˆŽŽ¤m
• ! +'9ࣅ32 &' ¡! =3-8-' $311<2!¡' '; -2;'8$311<2!¡'։T ¡'9 -2;'8='2ࣅ329 ¡'9 6¡<9 $3<8!2;'9W
@2&-$!; 683('99-322'£ 8Ì+-32!£ &' £Z 2&<9;8-' 83<ধË8' 38& c !9f&'f !£!-9W
• ! 83<;'S <2 6!;8-13-2'W @2&-$!; 683('99-322'£ 8Ì+-32!£ &' £Z 2&<9;8-' 83<ধË8' &'
8!2$,'f
31;Ì l23='1#8' ‰‡ˆˆm
• !;!¡3+<' &' &Ì+8!&!ࣅ329 &' 9<8(!$' &'9 $,!<99Ì'9։T ;'$,2-7<'9 '; 1Ì;,3&'9 &'9 ¡!#38!;3-8'9
&'9 32;9 '; ,!<99Ì'9 l1Ì;,3&' &Z'99!- 2€Œ‰mW !#38!;3-8' $'2;8!£ &'9 32;9 '; ,!<99Ì'9
l1!89 ˆŽŽ¥m
• 8!-;'1'2; &'9 3#9;!$¡'9 ¡!;Ì8!<? 9<8 ¡'9 83<;'9 68-2$-6!¡'9 ,389 !++¡31Ì8!ࣅ32U <-&' ;'$,2-7<'
&< '8=-$' &Z³;<&'9 ;'$,2-7<'9 &'9 3<;'9 '; <;383<;'9 l‰‡‡‰m
• 1Ì¡-38!ࣅ32 &' ¡! 9Ì$<8-;Ì &'9 =-8!+'9 &'9 83<;'9 68-2-$-6!¡'9 '2 8!9' $!16!+2'։T !=3-8 '; !+-8U
'8=-$' &Z³;<&'9 ;'$,2-7<'9 &'9 3<;'9 '; <;383<;'9 l‰‡‡‰m
• 1Ì¡-38'8 ¡! 9Ì$<8-;Ì &'9 83<;'9 -2;'8<8#!-2'9 !$$-&'2;3+Ë2'9U @2&-$!; &'9 ³7<-6'1'2;9 &'
£! 3<;'
• Ì$<8-;Ì 83<ࣅË8'։ª ¡'9 &-9639-ࣅ(9 &' 8';'2<' '2 #Ì;32U 3$<1'2;!ধ32 ;'$,2-7<' l83<;'9 2€ŽŒm
l1!89 ‰‡‡¤m
• -1'29-322'1'2; &'9 9;8<$;<8'9 &' $,!<99Ì'9 2'<='9 '; Ì¡!8+-99'1'2;9 &'9 =3-'9U <-&'
;'$,2-7<'W 311<2!<;Ì <8#!-2' &< 8!2& @32T &-8'$ধ32 &' £! =3-8-' lˆŽŽ‹m



| 97


Documents similaires


Fichier PDF pune route 1
Fichier PDF toutes les commandes cisco
Fichier PDF 49wytny
Fichier PDF document ressource routage statique et dynamique
Fichier PDF pune route 3
Fichier PDF etat des routes cg30 28112014 a 17h15


Sur le même sujet..