5th RMMS Report preliminary results .pdf



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5th RMMS Report –
Preliminary
Results
32nd RMMS WG Meeting,
4 April 2016

5th RMMS Report
• Article 15(4) of the Recast Directive 2012/34/EU:
The Commission shall report every two years to the European
Parliament and the Council on:
• the evolution of the internal market in rail services and services to
be supplied to railway undertakings
• the framework conditions referred to in paragraph 3, including for
public passenger transport services by rail
• the state of the Union railway network
• the utilisation of access rights
• barriers to more effective rail services
• infrastructure limitations
• the need for legislation

Article 15(4) reporting obligation
• Bi-annual reporting to the EP and Council
ERA, EUROSTAT.
ENRRB

Ad hoc
studies

RMMS
questionnaire

Commission report to
the EP and Council
Recast Art 15(4)

3

Timeline

APRIL
Drafting

MAY
EC interservice
consultation

JUNE
Adjustments,
translation

JULY
Adoption

5th RMMS Report – preliminary results
• The topics covered in this presentation
• State of network
• Rail traffic volumes – passengers (including PSO) and
freight
• Track access charges
• Infrastructure investment
• Degree of market opening
• Service facilities
• Employment

Prices and quality – presentation from SDG in the afternoon

State of network

State of network Length
Evolution of rail network
2009-2013

Length of national rail networks 2013
(thousand km)

(% increase/decrease)
NO
ES
FR
UK
NL
FI
IT
DK
SK
BE
HU
IE
HR
LT
LU
RO
EU
CZ
DE
LV
SI
SE
EE
BG
PL
AT
PT
EL

-15%

-10%

-5%

0%

40
35

30
25
20
15
10
5

5%

SI

LU

LT

EE

IE

LV

EL

PT

DK

HR

BE

NL

SK

No

BG

FI

AT

HU

CZ

SE

RO

ES

IT

UK

PL

FR

DE

-



Germany and France own 30% of EU rail network



Over the last 10 years EU total rail network size
has been stable (-0.4%, -927 km)



Since 2009 network has been expanded more
than 1% in NO, ES, FR, UK, while quite significant
cuts have taken place in BG, PL, AT, PT and EL

Eurostat data

State of network –
Tracks and Electrification
Evolution of electrification
2009-2013
EL
PT
ES
FR
HU
UK
FI
SE
EU
CZ
BE
NL
BG
DE
IT
RO
SK
HR
DK
EE
IE
LT
LU
SI
PL
AT

80.0%
70.0%
60.0%
50.0%
40.0%
30.0%
20.0%
10.0%
BE
UK
NL
FR
LU
IT
ES
DE
PL
EU
IE
EE
AT
RO
SK
SI
BG
PT
LT
EL
CZ
NO
SE
LV
DK
HU
FI
HR

0.0%

Share of electrified lines
(2013, %)

100%
90%
80%
70%

40%
30%
20%

10%

Eurostat data

LT

EE

EL

LV

DK

CZ

UK

HR

RO

SI

HU

SK

FI

FR

EU

NO

ES

0%
DE

Level of electrification varies
remarkably

50%

PL

Multiple tracks are most used in BE,
UK, NL while single tracks are
common in Scandinavia and Eastern
Europe

60%

PT

20%

AT

15%

IT

10%

BG

5%

SE

0%

BE



90.0%

NL



(2012, %)

LU

-5%

Share of multiple tracks

EL +65%

State of network –
High Speed Lines

7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000

3000

2013

2011

2009

2007

2005

2003

2001

1999

1997

1995

1993

1991

0
1989

Length of dedicated high speed network
(2013)

2500
2000
1500
1000
500

Eurostat data

AT

UK

NL

BE

IT

DE

0
FR

Spanish high speed network with
its 2515 km in operation and
1200 km under construction, is
the second largest in the world
after China

length of lines, km

8000

1987



High speed lines are present in
BE, DE, ES, FR, IT, UK and since
2009 also in NL an AT

Evolution of dedicated high speed
network in Europe,

ES



The high speed network has
expanded continuously, 20% (or
1200 km) have been added over
the last 5 years

1985



State of network Density





In terms of lines per km2,
most dense networks are
in central Europe, while
less populated peripheral
areas have geographically
less concentrated
networks
Peripheral countries have
higher ration of lines per
inhabitant. Scandinavia
and Baltic states with the
lowest population density
score the highest

Density of network
2013
1,400

1,200

1,000

800

600

400

200

0
CZ BE LU DE HU SK NL UK DK PL SI AT IT FR EU HR RO BG EE ES LV PT IE LT SE FI EL NO

Lines per 10 000 km2

Lines per million people

Eurostat data

State of network Utilisation

8,000
6,000
4,000

2,000

thous pas-km/line km

Eurostat data

LT

EE

LV

thous tonne-km/line-km

HR

BG

EL

RO

SI

FI

SK

NO

PL

CZ

IE

SE

HU

PT

LU

ES

AT

EU

DK

0
IT

In 16 out of 27 countries
freight prevails. The picture
was similar in 2009, only in HU
the ratio has shifted from
passengers to freight

DE



10,000

FR

Most freight is run on the
networks of LV, LT and AT

12,000

BE



Network utilisation by the type of traffic
2014

NL

Most passenger km are run on
the networks of NL and UK
networks

UK



State of network Utilisation
Network utilisation rate, 2014

Evolution of utilisation rates
( % increase/decrease)

50
45

AT
SE
IE
LU
LV
UK
DK
CZ
DE
NO
PT
SI
NL
BE
EU
ES
HU
FI
LT
PL
IT
SK
FR
RO
BG
HR
EL
EE
-60%

-40%

-20%

since 2005

(thousand train-km per line-km)

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
NL UK LU AT DE DK BE IT EU CZ SI FR SE PT ES HU SK NO PL IE LV FI LT HRROBG EE EL

0%

20%



NL has the most saturated network in the EU



Networks in BE, DK, DE, LU, AT and UK are also
more heavily used than EU average, traffic
volumes in these countries continue to increase



On the other verge are Baltic and Balkan states
with low utilisation rates.

40%

since 2009

Eurostat data

State of network Congestion
Congested network
Member State
2014
Tracks (km)
incl high-speed lines
incl lines for passenger transport

Stations serving over 25 000 travellers per
day (#)
Freight terminals (#)
Marshalling yards and train formation
facilities (#)
2013
Tracks (km)
incl high-speed lines
incl lines for passenger transport
Stations serving over 25 000 travellers per
day (#)
Freight terminals (#)
Marshalling yards and train formation
facilities (#)

AT

CZ
12

DE
0

12

DK

507

HU
84

507
1

2

581

12

507

2

355

NL

RO

SE

175

0XXX*

175

0

84

Total

71

854

XXX

2

6

1

XXX

0

1

1

XXX

0

4

71
0

1,784
0

71

938

2

6

2

2

0

0

348

0

652

NO

1,945
2

348
1

UK

71
2

1

507
1

89
89

3
12

IT

181

RMMS Data



The table presents the parts of the network declared congested according to Article 47 of
Directive 2012/34/EU



Congested parts of network and facilities have increased in NL, SE, UK and decreased in CZ



This is only partial reflection of network saturation levels, which are challenging to measure in
comparable terms

Rail traffic volume

Rail traffic volume –
Totals and Modal Split

420
400
380
360
340
320

Freight

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

300

9.2

9.2

82.4

83.4

83.7

83.2

7.2

6.8

7.1

7.6
2013

440

9.8

2009

460

10.4

2004

100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

2000

Passenger land transport modal split

Total rail traffic volumes,
billion tonne/passenger km 2005-2014

Motor coaches, buses and trolley buses

Passenger cars

Trains

Passenger

Freight volumes are constant since 2012,
modal share has regained the pre-crisis
level

100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

5.9

6.0

6.7

76.1

77.5

75.4

17.9

16.6

17.8
2013



Passenger traffic volumes have been
slowly but constantly increasing, leading
to slight increase in modal split

2004



2009

Freight land transport modal split

Railways

Roads

Inland waterways

Eurostat data

Rail traffic volume Passenger Modal Split
Passenger land transport modal split by Member State,
(2013)

Evolution of passenger modal split
( percentage point, increase/decrease)

100%

CZ
NL
AT
UK
IT
ES
DK
DE
EU
SK
LU
FI
LT
NO
FR
LV
HU
BE
IE
SE
EL
EE
SI
PT
BG
PL
RO
HR

90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%

Trains

Passenger cars

EL

LT

SI

EE

IE

HR

BG

PT

RO

LV

LU

FI

NO

ES

IT

PL

SK

BE

DE

UK

SE

CZ

FR

DK

NL

HU

AT

EU

0%

Motor coaches, buses and trolley buses



Rail's modal share in passenger transport
was in 2013 more than 10% in AT, NL,
HU and DK and less than 3% in BG, IE,
SI, EE, EL and LT



It is increasing in CZ, NL, AT, UK and
decreasing in BG, PL, RO and HR
-6

-4

-2

since 2005

0

2

since 2009

Eurostat data

4

Rail traffic volume Passenger Traffic
Total passenger traffic volumes,
billion passenger km 2007-2014

Evolution of passenger traffic volumes
( % increase/decrease)
7%

440
430

LU
UK
CZ
ES
AT
SK
DE
NO
IT
EU
EE
SE
NL
DK
BE
LT
IE
FR
FI
SI
HU
PT
PL
LV
EL
BG
RO
HR

6%

420

28

410

28

25
5%

25

400

22

390
380

15

4%

16

22

3%

370
360
350

369

381

383

385

389

398

398

404

1%

340

Domestic

International

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

330
2007

2%

0%

Share of international



About 6 % of passenger traffic is
international



In 2014 total international passenger
traffic decreased (almost in all countries,
but in terms of volumes mainly FR -20%;
increase +20% only in PT)



Passenger-km have increased most in LU,
UK and dropped in Balkan countries

-60%

-40%

-20%

0%

since 2005

20%

40%

since 2009

RMMS data

60%

80%

Rail traffic volume Passenger Traffic per MS

Passenger traffic volumes per Member State
(2014)
35%

100

90

30%
80

billion passenger-km

60

20%

50

15%

40

30

10%

20

5%
10

0%

0
DE

FR

UK

IT

ES

NL

PL

SE

AT

BE

Domestic

CZ

HU

DK

RO

International

FI

PT

NO

SK

IE

BG

EL

HR

SI

LV

LU

LT

EE

Share of international

RMMS data

share of international

25%

70

Rail traffic volume Passenger Traffic - PSO
Weight of PSO services on total passenger traffic
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

Share of PSOs per typology of line
(% based on mln pkm)

1%

32%
67%

PSO International

PSO National

Non PSO

FR SE ES DE PT IT LT AT NO PL LV BE SK BG CZ EE RO HU UK NL FI SI LU HR DK EL IE
PSO
Country

LU
SI
SK
DK
HR
PL
BE
DE
UK

PSO
(international)

PSO
(national +
international)

115
109
234
388
43
407
183
100
51

409
686
2,351
6,804
927
13,851
9,917
54,300
62,173

non PSO
International
PSO
(% of total
PSO)
28%
16%
10%
6%
5%
3%
2%
0.2%
0.1%



Two-thirds of the estimated travel by rail
in 2013 was made on PSO services



Weight of PSO services on the total
passenger traffic varies widely in the EU



Public service obligations cover almost
exclusively national lines



LU has the higher share of international
lines under PSO

RMMS data

Rail traffic volume Passenger Traffic - PSO
Share of farebox revenue
(%, 2014)

Compensation per train Km of PSO
(€, 2014)
25

LT

20

NL
UK

15

FI

10

AT

5

DK

Avg

0

NO

-5

UK LT PT FI

SI PL CZ HR EE BG HU SK LV Avg DE AT DK IT NO BE LU FR

CZ
FR



LT, NL, UK and FI seem to rely less on
subsidies as a source of income, nevertheless,
their PSO obligations cover almost all their
passenger lines (except in LT).



In UK (and NL, here missing) PSO agreements
result in net revenue for the State (concession
system)



2011-2014: compensation in absolute terms
increased in 9 countries (AT, BE, DE, EE, FR,
IT, LU, LV, PL, NO), decreased in 7 countries
(BG, CZ, FI, HU, PT, RO, UK)

LV
DE
IT
EE

HR
SI
SK
BG
HU
0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

RMMS data

Rail traffic volume Passenger Market Segments
Passenger traffic market segments
%, latest available data
100%
90%
80%
70%

60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
SI

LU

NL

BE

PL

IT

PT

SE

AT

NO

UK

Suburban

EE

RO

Regional

EL

ES

Conv LT

EU

HU

DK

BG

FR

FI

SK

CZ

IE

DE

HR

LV

High Speed

RMMS data

Rail traffic volume –
Freight Modal Split
Freight land transport modal split by Member State,
(2013)

Evolution of freight modal split
( percentage point, increase/decrease)

100%
AT
DK
FI
IT
HU
SI
DE
RO
BE
SK
SE
EU
UK
ES
IE
PT
LU
FR
NL
EL
CZ
NO
PL
BG
HR
LT
EE
LV

90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
IE

EL

ES

LU

PT

NL

IT

BG

DK

UK

FR

NO

PL

BE

SI

Roads

HR

CZ

SK

Railways

HU

RO

FI

DE

LT

SE

EE

AT

LV

EU

0%

Inland waterways



In LV, EE and AT modal share of rail
freight is more than 40% and in BG, PT,
NL, ES, LU, EL and IE less than 10 %



Developments are positive in AT, DK, FI
and IT and negative in PL, BG, HR and in
Baltics
-25

-20

-15

-10

since 2005

-5

0

5

since 2009

Eurostat data

10

15

Rail traffic volume –
Freight Traffic
Total freight traffic volumes,
billion tonne km 2007-2014

Evolution of freight volumes
( % increase/decrease)
52%

500

BE

450

51%

400
350

ES

LU

227

300

221
177

250

189

208

193

210

214

50%

DK

49%

HU

SI
AT

200

48%

150
100

223

219

188

197

222

207

203

203

IE
LT

47%

DE

50

UK
2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

0

46%

EU
PL
CZ

Domestic

International

Share of international

IT
NL
RO






BG

National freight volumes have been
constant, while international has slightly
increased

FI
SE
LV
FR
PT

Share of international traffic was in 2014
around 51%
Developments are positive in BE, LU, DK
and negative in SK, EL and EE

NO
SK
EL
EE
-90%

-40%

10%

2005

60%

110%

2009

RMMS data

160%

Rail traffic volume –
Freight Traffic per MS

Freight traffic volumes per Member State
(2014)
DE - 112 total, of which 50%
international

100%

50

90%

80%
40

billion t-km

60%
30
50%

40%
20
30%

20%

10

10%

0

0%

DE

PL

FR

AT

UK

SE

IT

LV

CZ

LT

BE

Domestic

RO

ES

HU

International

FI

SK

NL

SI

NO

BG

EE

DK

HR

PT

LU

EL

IE

Share of international

RMMS data

share of international

70%

Track Access Charges

Track Access Charges by Train Type

Track access charges for different categories of trains,
€ per train-km, projected 2016
14

Freight charges higher

Passenger charges higher

12

10

8

6

4

2

Freight

Intercity

NO

DK

PT

LU

IT

AT

FR

BE

ES

DE

SI

SE

FI

BG

HR

HU

UK

SK

PL

RO

NL

CZ

LT

LV

EE

0

Suburban



In most MS track access charges for freight trains are higher than for passenger trains



Higher intercity charges in DE, ES, BE, FR are probably due to the fact that charges for dedicated high speed
lines are included



Loads of freight trains in Baltic States are about twice as high as elsewhere, while charges are about 5 times
higher



Suburban charges (subject to national approaches to PSO contracts and rail financing) vary between 11.50 in
RMMS data
FR and 0.17 in UK

Track Access Charges by Train Type, Evolution
Track access charges for freight trains,
12

Track access charges for intercity trains

€ per train-km, projected

€ per train-km, projected

7

10

6

8

5

4

6

3
4
2
2
1

2013

0
DE
LV
ES
BE
FR
LT
AT
PL
IT
EE
LU
NL
RO
SK
HU
UK
SE
CZ
PT
BG
HR
SI
FI
DK
IE
EL
NO

EE
LV
IE
LT
CZ
AT
NL
DE
RO
PL
SK
BE
IT
UK
HU
HR
FR
BG
FI
SE
PT
LU
SI
DK
ES
EL
NO

0

2016

2013





Suburban charges have increase in 17 MS
since 2013, interurban charges in 13 and
freight charges in 11 MS
NO does not charge the use of its network
(with some exceptions)

2016

Track access charges for suburban trains,
14

€ per train-km, projected

12
10
8
6
4
2

0
FR
LV
DE
BE
IT
AT
PT
RO
LT
LU
SK
PL
HU
NL
DK
EE
SE
BG
CZ
ES
SI
HR
FI
UK
IE
EL
NO

Note: Track access charges reported in RMMS are not
comparable between MS due to different approaches to
rail financing and structure of charges

2013

2016

RMMS data

Infrastructure
Expenditure

Infrastructure expenditure Total






Total infrastructure
expenditure has increase
year by year
Expenditure in UK and
FR is higher than in DE
In ES 90% of
expenditure is
investment into new HS
lines

Infrastructure expenditure EU,
2011-2014, € billion

50

35%

45

30%

40
35

25%

20,446

30

16,779

25

16,980

20%

9,726

15%

20
15

10,734

10,272

8,780

8,836

2011

2012

9,311

13,830

12,098

10,171

2013

2014

10%

10
5

5%

0

0%

Maintenance

Renewal

Enhancements

Share of maintenance

Total infrastructure expenditure in MSs
€ billion, 2014

10

100%

9

90%

8

80%

7

70%

6

60%

5

50%

4

40%

3

30%

2

20%

1

10%

0

0%
UK FR DE

IT

ES

PL

SE AT NL NO BE HU CZ DK FI LT RO LV SK LU
Maintenance
Renewal
Enhancements
share of HS

SI

RMMS data

HR PT BG

Infrastructure expenditure
– Per Line km



Both total expenditure
and maintenance cost
per line km is the
highest is LU
Maintenance per line-km
has increased lately in
NO, UK, LV and
decreased in DE and IT

Total infrastructure expenditure per line km,
thousand €
1,400
1,200
1,000

2011

800

2012

600
400

2013

200

2014

0
LU
NL
UK
AT
NO
BE
DK
SI
FR
LT
EU28
LV
SE
IT
DE
ES
PL
HU
FI
SK
CZ
HR
PT
RO
BG
EE
IE
EL



There are marked
differences in
expenditure per line-km

Infrastructure maintenance per line km,
thousand €
600
500
400

2011

300

2012

200

2013
2014

100
0
LU
NL
NO
AT
UK
LT
LV
FR
SI
BE
DK
SE
DE
EU28
HR
PT
FI
PL
SK
HU
IT
RO
BG
ES
CZ
EE
IE
EL



RMMS data

Degree of
Market Opening

Degree of mkt opening Freight
Market share of all but the principal
undertaking (freight)
SE
UK
BG
NO
PL
RO
NL
HU
FR
DE
EE
CZ
BE
DK
LV
AT
ES
PT
SK
SI
IT
HR
LT
FI
EL
0.0%



Liberalisation of rail freight
appears evident looking at
the market share of
competitors



Even if their shares differ
across Europe, they
generally are higher than
20% in most countries



SE and UK are the
countries where
competitors market shares
are the highest



In most countries there are
more than 5 operators with
noticeable market share,
while (at least) in SE, PL,
DE there are more than
10.

Note: IT no comparable data
20.0%

40.0%

60.0%

80.0%

100.0%

RMMS data

Degree of mkt opening Passengers
Market share all but the principal
undertaking (passengers)
UK
PL
DE
AT
LV
NO
RO
PT
CZ
DK
EE
FR
SK
HU
IT
SI
LU
LT
HR
FI
ES
EL
BG
BE
0.0%



UK and PL have the
highest market shares
for all but the principal
undertaking



More than 18 and more
than 8 operators in
addition to the
principal operator
reported in UK and PL
respectively



In CZ, DK, DE and AT
there are 5 or more
passenger operators
with noticeable market
share, while in PL, UK
and SE there are 10 or
more

Note: IT no comparable data
20.0%

40.0%

60.0%

80.0%

100.0%

RMMS data

Degree of mkt opening Trends
Trend market share competitors
(freight, 2011-2014)



Rail freight market
shares of
competitors
increased in the
majority of MS +
NO



More significant
exception EE and
RO



Passengers market
shares of
competitors show
wider variations
across Europe



In EE, since 2014
the PSO contracts
are serviced again
by the incumbent
operator

60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
SE RO EE IT LV EL FI LT UK PL NL NO BG FR DE HU DK ES CZ AT BE PT SI SK HR
2011

2014

Trend market share competitors
(passengers, 2011-2014)
100%
80%

60%
40%
20%
0%
UK EE IT NO DK BE EL BG ES FI HR LT SI PL LV DE PT RO AT HU CZ SK
2011

2014

RMMS data

Degree of mkt opening –
Passenger Open Access

Steer Davies Gleave analysis

Service Facilities

Service facilities –
Stations

Number of stations serving more than 10,000 travellers
per day



DE, FR and UK
report the highest
number of stations
serving more than
25,000 travellers
per day



DE, FR, PL CZ and
IT the countries
with more stations
serving less than
1,000 travellers per
day

200
150
100
50
0
AT BG CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR HU IE IT LT LU LV NL PL PT RO SE SI UK NO
Stations serving over 25 000 travellers per day

Stations serving 10 000-25 000 travellers per day

Number of stations serving less than 10,000 travellers
per day
5000
4000

3000
2000
1000

0

AT BG CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR HU IE IT LT LU LV NL PL PT RO SE SI UK NO
Stations serving 1000- 10 000 travellers per day

Stations serving less than 1000 travellers per day

RMMS data

Service facilities –
Station Density

Station density
(2013, nr of stations per thousand line km)
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
FI



BE

IE

EE SE ES BG NO LT LV FR DK RO Avg NL PL

IT

UK HU PT DE

SI

Stations density is relatively higher in AT, CZ, LU and SI

Data RMMS, Eurostat

LU CZ AT

Service facilities –

Big Stations Ownership and
Management

Ownership and management of stations
serving over 25,000 travellers per day

AT
BE
BG
CZ
DE
DK
EE
EL
ES
FI
FR
HR
HU
IE
IT
LT
LU
LV
NL
PL
PT
RO
SE
SI
SK
UK
NO

Nr of
stations
Incumbent
(> 25,000
RU
travellers
per day)
15
6
N/R
3
O, M
121
O, M
6
O, M
N/A
14
2
O
47
O, M
N/A
N/A
11
1
1
21
O, M
9
6
6
4
N/A
36
1
O

Other RUs

IM

Integrated
companies

Government



DE, FR, UK and NL have a
higher number of large
stations (serving more than
25,000 travellers per day)



Ownership of large stations is
concentrated within few
players in most countries



IMs or incumbent RUs are the
managers and often also
owners in a majority of
countries



In DK, EL UK and NL there is



Governments own the
stations in some countries,
while IMs or integrated
companies manage them

Other
private
operators

O, M

O, M

O
M
M

M

O
O

O, M

O

M

O
O

O

O, M
O, M
M

O

M

M
O, M
M

O

RMMS data

Service facilities –

Small stations ownership and
management
Ownership and management of stations
serving under 1,000 travellers per day

AT
BE
BG
CZ
DE
DK
EE
EL
ES
FI
FR
HR
HU
IE
IT
LT
LU
LV
NL
PL
PT
RO
SE
SI
SK
UK
NO

N.r of
stations
(<1,000
travellers Incumbent Other
per day)
RU
RUs
1179
O, M
N/A
297
2323
O, M
4576
O, M
O, M
159
O, M
122
M
M
N/A
O, M
1095
140
O
2350
O, M
N/A
1262
63
2080
128
43
123
116
O, M
2326
378
M
937
400
260
N/A
1508
M
297
O

IM
O, M

Integrated
companies

M
O, M
O, M
O
O, M

Government

O

O
O

M
O, M

O
O
O

O

M

Ownership of small stations is
more distributed across the
different players in all
countries



Government ownership is
more prevailing than in case
of larger number of countries
compared to large stations
(11 vs 7)



The same for IMs (14 vs 8)



Other RUs and other private
operators are more involved
in small than in large stations
ownership and management

O

O, M
O, M
M
O, M
O, M
O, M
M
O
O, M



O, M

O
O
M

DE, FR, PL and CZ have
ahigher number of small
stations (serving less than
1,000 travellers per day)

Other private
operators

O
O, M



O
O
O, M

O, M

O
O

RMMS data

Service facilities –
Terminals and Train
Formation facilities
Number of freight terminals
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

Number of maintenance facilities
600
500
400
300
200
100
PL
DE
IT
SE
CZ
AT
FR
LV
HU
NO
SI
NL
EE
FI
DK
IE
LT
HR
BG
LU

0
PL RO FR SK HR DE IT ES NO SE PT HU AT UK CZ NL EE BG SI LT IE DK LU

Number of marshalling yards
and train formation facilities
500

400



Service facilities are difficult to count
effectively due to different definitions
- data to be interpreted with caution



In some cases also inconsistency
between historic data of the same
country

300
200
100
FR
FI
AT
IT
SE
LT
EE
DE
CZ
RO
PL
HU
HR
SI
NO
LV
IE
SK
BG
PT
NL
LU
DK

0

RMMS data

Service facilities –
Other

Number of storage sidings

Maritime and port facilities linked to
rail activities

15000

250
200

10000

150
100

5000

50
0
DE PL CZ SE AT BG RO HU NL DK

IE

PT

Other technical facilities, including
cleaning and washing facilities

0
IT DE RO UK SE FI ES NO HR PL LV HU CZ BG PT AT SI LU

Refuelling facilities
350
300
250

100

200
150

50

100
0

50
CZ AT UK RO IT HR BG NL PT PL LT DK NO HU SI LU

0
DE PL AT HU

FI NO IT

HR NL

SI BG LT LU

RMMS data

Employment

Employment Staff of Incumbent RU
Employment trend incumbent railway undertakings
120000

100000

80000

60000

40000

20000

0
FR

DE

IT

CZ

AT

PL

NL

RO

BE

HU

ES

2014



SK

BG

FI

LT

SE

HR

SI

LV

NO

LU

PT

IE

2011

Generally decreasing trend, exceptions ES, HU, BE, NL, DE

Caveat – depends on structure of companies and the level of outsourcing

RMMS data

EL

Employment Staff of other RUs
Employment trend - other railway undertakings
60000

50000

40000

30000

20000

10000

0
UK

PL

DE

HU

RO

IT

AT

2014

BG

LV

DK

ES

LU

SI

HR

2011



Should be considered in the context of the timing and degree of market opening and
number of competitors



Caveat – depends on level of outsourcing, and in more liberalised markets there are
reporting issues

RMMS data

Employment Staff of IMs
Employment trend IMs
60,000

50,000

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000

PL DE UK

IT RO HU CZ AT SK ES BG LV HR NO NL LT SE PT

2011

SI DK FR LU

FI

EE BE

2014

Caveat – depends on structure of companies and the level of outsourcing
FR – only RFF reported in 2014

RMMS data

IE

EL

Thank you for attention!

47



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