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APOLLO OPERATIONS
HANDBOOK
LUNAR MODULE





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LM 10 AND SUBSEQUENT

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VOLUME I

SUBSYSTEMS DATA

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W. J. Everett, Program Manager, LM Publications. Section

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NAS 9-1100
Paragraph 10.4
Exhibit .E

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TYPE I DOCUMENT

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Prepared under direction of

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THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS
SPACECRAFT SYSTEMS BRANCH I

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AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
FLIGHT CREW SUPPORT DIVISION

TillS PUBLICATION SUPERSEDES LMA790-3-LM 8
AND SUBSEQUENT DATED 15 JUNE 1970

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LM

PUBLICATIONS SEcnON I PRODUCT

SUPPORT DEPARTMENT ! GRUMMAN AEROSPACE CORPORATION I BETHPAGE I NEW YORK

1 APRIL 1971
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LMA790-3-LM

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Manuals will be distributed as directed by the NASA Apollo Project Office. All requests for
manuals should be directed to the NASA Apollo Spacecraft Project Office at Houston, Texas.

NASA

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LMA 790-3-LM

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*The asterisk indicates pages changed. added, or deleted by the current change.

Manuals will be distributed as directed by the NASA Apollo Project Office. All requests for
manuals should be directed to the NASA Apollo Spacecraft Project Office at Houston, Texas.

NASA
B

Ll\IA790-3-LM
INSERT lATEST CHANGED PAGES. DESTROY SUPERSEDED PAGES

LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES

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Manuals will be distributed as directed by the NASA Apollo Project Office. All requests for
manuals should be directed to the NASA Apollo Spacecraft Project Office at Houston, Texas.

c

NASA

LMA790-3- LM
APOLLO OPE RATIONS HANDBOOK

CHANGE INFORMATION
This handbook is subject to continuous change or revision, on a priority basis,
to reflect current Lunar Module or mission changes, or to improve content or
arrangement. The content and the changes are accounted for by the List of
E ffective Pages, and the following means:
Record of Publication: The publication date of each basic issue and each change
issue is listed below as a record of all editions.
Page Change Date: Each page in this handbook has space for entering a change
date. The latest publication date will be entered in this space each time a page
is changed from the basic issue.
COMMENTS
NASA Comments: NASA comments or suggested changes to this handbook should
be directed to M. E . Dement, Flight C rew Support Division, Spacecraft Operations
B ranch, Building No. 4, MSC 2101 Webster Seabrook Road, Houston, Texas 77058.
GAC Comments: GAC comm ents or suggested changes to this handbook should
directed to the Product Support Department, LM Publications Section.

be

RECORD OF PUBLICATION
The issue of the Apollo Operations Handbook - LM Volume 1 , dated 1 5 December
1 968, is the basic issue.
Subsequent changes will be issued to maintain informa­
tion current with all active Lunar Modules. This record will reflect the publica­
tion date of all changes.
,

Mission

LM

Basic Date

Basic Date

Change Date

1 5 December 1968
1 February 1 9 70

1 5 March 1 969
1 5 June 1 9 69
1 5 September 1969
15 June 19 70
1 April 1 9 71



1 9 71__ Page ___D_E
1 February 19 70 Change Date__1_A
_;:....pr_ il_ _
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LMA790-3-LM
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section
1

2

Page
SPACECRAFT
Introduction . .

1-1

1.1

LM Configuration

1-1

1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2

Ascent Stage .
General Description
Structure

1-1
1-1
1-1

1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2

Descent Stage
General Description
Structure . . . . . .

1-18
1-18
1-18

1.4

LM - SLA - S-IVB Connections

1-22

1.5
1.5.1

LM -CSM Interfaces . .
Crew Transfer Tunnel

1-23
1-23

1.6

Stowage Provisions.

1-24

SUBSYSTEMS DATA
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1. 4
2.1.5
2.1.6

Guidance, Navigation, and Control Subsystem
Introduction . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subsystem Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . .
Functional Description . . . . . . . . . .
Major Component/Functional Description
Performance and Design Data . . . . . .
Operational Limitations and Restrictions

2.1-1
2.1-1
2.1-18
2.1-21
2.1-44
2.1-145
2.1-154

2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.2.5
2.2.6

Radar Subsystem
Introduction . .
Subsystem Interfaces .
Functional Description
Major Component/Functional Description
Performance and Design Data . . . . . .
Opex:ational Limitations and Restrictions

2.2-1
2. 2-1
2.2-1
2.2-1
2.2-26
2.2-38
2.2-41

2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4

Main Propulsion Subeystem . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Descent Propulsion Section Interfaces . .
Descent Propulsion Section Functional Description
Descent Propulsion Section Major Component/Functional
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Descent Propulsion Section Performance and Design Data
Descent Propulsion Section Operational Limitations and
Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3-1
2.3-1
2.3-2
2. 3-5

2.3.5
2.3.6

Mission

LM

Basic Date

1 February 1970

Change

Date.

un=e...:1:..:9:..:7...:0
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TABLE OF CONTE

(cont)

Section

Page
2. 3.7
2.3. 8
2 . 3.9
2.3.10
2.3.1 1

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Ascent Propulsion
Ascent Propulsion
Ascent Propulsion
Description
Ascent Propulsion
Ascent Propulsion
Restrictions .

Section Inter'
Section Func•
Section Majo:
Section Perf(l.
Section Oper:;

2.3-29
2.3 -29

1

Description .
.mponent/Functional

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2. 3 -38
2.3 -42

utce and Design Data .
·,aJ Limitations and

2.3-44

2. 4
2.4. 1
2. 4. 2
2.4.3
2. 4. 4
2. 4. 5
2 . 4. 6

Reaction Control Subsystem .
Introduction .
Subsystem Interfaces .
Functional Description
Major Component/Functional De� i.ption
Performance and Design Data
Operation Limitations and Restr· .ons

2.4-1
2 . 4-1
2.4-2
2.4-5
2. 4-16
2.4-19
2.4-21

2.5
2.5.1
2. 5.2
2. 5.3
2.5 . 4
2. 5. 5
2.5. 6

Electrical Power Subsystem .
Introduction .
Subsystem Interfaces .
Functional Description
Major Component/Functional De:·• :.ption
Performance and Design Data
Operational Limitations and Rest. ..:·tions

2.5-1
2. 5-1
2. 5-1
2.5-3
2. 5-22
2.5-29
2. 5-30

2. 6
2.6.1
2 . 6. 2
2. 6. 3
2.6 . 4
2. 6. 5
2. 6. 6

Environmental Control Subsystem .
Introduction .
Subsystem Interfaces .
Functional Description
Major Component/Functional De.� :!pHon
Performance and Design Data
Operational Limitations and Res\ ;,ions

2 . 6 -1
2. 6-1
2. 6-7
2. 6-8
2.6-22
2. 6 -38
2.6-43

2.7
2. 7.1
2 . 7. 2
2. 7. 3
2 . 7. 4
2 . 7.5
2. 7. 6

Communications Subsystem
Introduction .
Subsystem Interfaces .
Functional Description
Major Component/ Functional De�- . iption
Performance and Design Data
Operational Limitations and Rest· . d.ons

2.7-1
2.7-1
2. 7-2
2.7-3
2 . 7 -9
2 . 7 -41
2 . 7-41

2.8
2 . 8. 1
2. 8. 2
2. 8. 3
2.8 . 4
2.8. 5
2.8.6

Explosive Devices Subsystem
Introduction .
Interfaces .
Functional Description
Major Component/Func"tional De;.
Performance and Design Data
Operational Limitations and Res!

2.8-1
2 . 8-1
2.8 -3
2 . 8-3
2 . 8-15
2.8 -20
2. 8-21

2.9
2. 9.1
2. 9.2
2. 9. 3
2.9.4
2 . 9.5
2.9. 6

Instrumentation Subsystem.
Introduction .
Subsystem Interfaces .
Functional Description
Major Component/Functional De .
Performance and Design Data
Operational Limitations and Res:



ii____ Mission
Page ____

LM

Basic Date

1 Fe:

1tion
�ions

2.9-1
2.9-1
2. 9.,.1
2 . 9 -2
2 . 9-6
2. 9-75
2. 9 -83

:t:on
;ons

_y 1970

Change Date

19_7_1__
1-'-'
A'""p_r_i.l_

__

LMA790-3 -LM
A POLLO O P E RATIONS HAN D BOO K

TA BLE OF CONTENTS (cont)

S ection

Page
2.10
2.10.1
2.10.2
2 . 10 . 3
2.10.4

Lighting
Introduction
. . . .
.
Functional Description . . . .
Performance and Design Data
Operational Limitations and Restrictions

2.10-1
2.10-1
2. 10-1
2.10-11
2.10-12

2.11
2.11.1
2.11.2
2.11.3
2.11. 4
2.11.5
2.11. 6.
2.11.7
2.11 8
2. 11. 9
2. 11. 10
2 .11. 11

Crew Personal Equipment . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . .
Extravehicular Mobility Unit .
Umbilical Assembly. . . . . .
Crew Life Support . . . . .
Crew Support and Restraint Equipment.
Docking Aids and Tunne l Hardwar e. . .
Crew Miscellaneous Equipment. . . . .
Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly
S towage Locations. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package
Lunar Communication Relay Unit.

2.11-1
2.11-1
2.11-1
2.11-17
2.11-19
2. 11-21
2.11-22
2. 11-24
2.11-25
2. 11-25
2. 11- 30
2. 11-30

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3

CONTROLS AND DIS PLAYS

4

NORMAL/ BAC KU P P RO CEDURES .

4.0-1 *

5

CONTINGE N CY P RO CE DURES .

5. 0-1*

A B BREVIATION LIST .

A-1

SYMBOLS

B -1

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.

AL PHA BETI CAL INDEX

C-1

"Apollo Operations Handbook, Volum e II, Operational Procedures

Mission

LM

Basic Date

1 February 1970

1 A p._r_ il 19_ 7_1
Page _ __ i_ii ___
__
__ __, _ _

Change Date

_

I

LMA790-3-LM
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure No.
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-7
1-8
1-9
1-10
1-11
1-12
1-13
1-14
1-15
2.1-1
2.1-2
2.1-3
2.1-4
2.1-5
2.1-6
2.1-7
2.1-8
2.1-9
2.1-10
2.1-11
2.1-12
2.1-13
2.1-14
2.1-15
2.1-16
2.1-17
2.1-18
2. 1-19
2.1-20
2.1-21
2.1-22
2.1-23
2.1-24
2.1-25
2.1-26
2. 1-27

Apollo-Saturn Space Vehicle
LM Configuration
LM Overall Dimensions
Station Reference Measurements
Ascent Stage Structure Configuration
Flight Positions
Cabin Interior (Looking Forward)
Forward Hatch
Front Window
Docking Window .
� .

Cabin Interior (Looking Aft)
Overhead Hatch
Descent Stage Structure Configuration .
Landing Gear .
LM-CSM Reference Axis
GN&CS - Major Equipment Location
GN&CS SimplifiedBlock Diagram and Subsystem Interfaces
Primary Guidance and Navigation Section -Block Diagram
A lignment Optical Telescope
Display and Keyboard Assembly .
Abort Guidance Section -Block Diagram
Data Entty and Display Assembly - Pictorial
Control Electronics Section -Block Diagram
A CA Manipulations
.
TTCA Manipulations
LM Vehicle and GN&CS Axes
Alignment Optical Telescope Axes
Primary Guidance Path - Simplified Block Diagram
Abort Guidance Path - SimplifiedBlock Diagram
Primary Guidance and Navigation Section - Functional Flow Diagram .
Abort Guidance Section - Functional Flow Diagram
Attitude and Translation Control Schematic (2 Sheets)
Descent Engine Control Schematic (2 Sheets)
A scent Engine Control Schematic (2 Sheets)
GN&CS Power Distribution (2 Sheets) . .
800-cps Synchronization Loop
Inertial Subsection - Functional Diagram.
NavigationBase
IMU Gimbal Assembly
IMU Temperature Control
IMU Forced Convection Cooling :0 • •
CDU Digital-to-Analog and Analog-to-Digital Conversion - Functional
Diagram
Inertial Subsection - Functional Loops
Inertial Subsection - Modes of Operation
Alignment Optical Telescope - Optical Schematic
Alignment Optical Telescope - Reticle Pattern
LM Guidance Computer - Functional Flow Diagram .
Display and Keyboard Assembly - Block Diagram •
Abort Sensor Assembly - Block Diagram






















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.



1-2
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-7
1-8
1-11
1-12
1-13
l-13
1-15
1-16
1-19
1-21
1-23
2. 1-1
2.1-3
2.1-5
2. 1-8
2. 1-9
2.1-10
2. 1-11
2.1-13
2.1-15
2.1-16
2. 1-18
2. 1-19
2.1-22
2.1-24
2.1-25
2.1-28
2.1-33
2. 1-38
2.1-39























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2 . 1-41

2.1-45
2.1-46
2.1-47
2. 1-47
2.1-50
2.1-51

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2.1-28
2.1-29
2.1-30
2.1-31
2.1-32
2.1-33
2.1-34

Page

Page

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iv

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Mission

LM

Basic Date

1

.

2.1-52
2.1-57
2.1-58
2.1-63
2. 1-65













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.





February 1970

Change Date

2. 1-67
2. 1-78
2. 1-84

1

April 1971








,i//1.

LMA 790-3-LM
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (cont)
Figure No.
2. 1 -35
2. 1 -36
2. 1-37
2. 1 -38
2. 1 -39
2. 1-40
2. 1 -41
2. 1 -42
2. 1 -43
2. 1 -44

Page






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·

·































2. 1 -45
2.1-46
2. 1 -47
2. 1 -48
2. 1 -49
2. 1 -50
2. 1 -51
2. 1 -52
2. 1 -53
2. 1 -54
2. 1-55
2. 1 -56
2. 1 -57
2. 2 -1
2. 2 -2
2.2 -3
2. 2 -4
2. 2 -5
2. 2 -6
2. 2-7
2. 2 -8
2. 2 -9
2. 2 -10
2. 2-11
2. 2 -12
2. 2 -13
2. 2 -14
2. 2-15
2. 3 -1
2. 3 -2
2. 3 -3
2. 3 -4
2. 3 -5
2. 3 -6
2. 3-7



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2. 1 -127
2. 1 -131
2. 1 -133
2. 1 -136
2. 1 -137
2. 1 -138
2. 1 -139
2. 1 -140
2. 1 -141
2. 1 -142
2. 1 -143
2. 1 -144
2. 1 -147
2. 1 -149
2. 2 -2
2. 2-3
2. 2-5
2. 2-9
2. 2-11
2. 2 -12
2. 2-13
2. 2-14
2. 2 -16
2. 2 -19
2. 2 -23
2. 2 -25
2. 2-30
2. 2-32
2. 2-34
2. 3 -1
2. 3-3
2. 3 -8
2. 3 -11
2. 3 -13
2. 3 -14







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2. 3 -7A
2. 3 -8
2. 3 -9
2. 3 -10
2. 3 -11
2. 3 -12
2. 3-13
2. 3 -14

Mission

2. 1-86
2. 1-91
2. 1 -100
2. 1 -110
2. 1 -118
2. 1 -123
2. 1 -124
2. 1 -125
2. 1 -126

Abort Guidance Section - Gyro Assembly
.
Abort Electronics Assembly - Block Diagram
Data Entry and Display Assembly - Detailed Block Diagram
.
Euler Angles
Canted Thrust Selection Logic
ACA - Angular Displacements .
ACA - Functional Diagrams . .
TTCA - Angular Displacements
TTCA - Functional Diagram
Attitude and Translation Control Assembly - Simplified Block
Diagram (Attitude Hold and Auto Mode)
Attitude and Translation Control Assembly - Detailed Block Diagram
.
A TCA - Jet Select Logic. .
Rate Gyro Assembly - Schematic and Vector Diagram
Descent Engine Control Assembly - Simplified Block Diagram.
Desc€nt Engine Control Assembly - Throttle Control Diagram .
Descent Engine Control Assembly - Trim Control Diagram
Descent Engine Control Assembly - Engine Control Diagram
Throttle Control vs TTCA Displacement
Gimbal Drive Actuator .
.
Ascent Engine Arming Assembly - Functional Diagram .
Ascent Engine Arming Assembly - Schematic Diagram
Gimbal Angle Sequence Transformation Assembly Schematic Diagram
Orbital Rate Display - Earth and Lunar - Schematic Diagram
LM Rendezvous Radar and CSM Target Orientation
Rendezvous Radar - Block Diagram
Rendezvous Radar - Antenna Assembly .
Rendezvous Radar - Functional Flow Diagram
Rendezvous Radar - Antenna Orientation No. I
Rendezvous Radar - Antenna Orientation No. II
Transponder Electronic Assembly - Block Diagram
Transponder - Functional Flow Diagram .
Landing Radar - Simplified Block Diagram .
Landing Radar - Block Diagram .
Landing Radar - Functional Flow Diagram
Landing Radar -Antenna Beam Configuration
Rendezvo1,1s Radar Digital Data Transfer - Functional Flow Diagram
Transponder Antenna Assembly
. .
Landing Radar Antenna Assembly , . .
Descent Propulsion Section - Component Location
Descent Propulsion Section - Interface Diagram .
Descent Propulsion Section - Simplified Functional Flow Diagram
Propellant Quantity Gaging System - Simplified Functional Block Diagram.
Descent Engine Assembly - Flow Diagram.
Descent Engine and Head End �ssembly.
Descent Propulsion Section - Explosive Valves, Simplified
.
Functional Diagram .
Cryogenic Helium Storage Vessel - Burst Disk Assembly
Helium Isolation Solenoid Valve, Latched-Open Position .
Descent Propulsion Section - Helium Pressure Regulators
Descent Propulsion Section - Relief Valve Assembly
Descent Propulsion Section - Burst Disk Assembly
Throttle Valve Actuator - Block Diagram
. . .
Flow Control Valve
Variable-Area Injector - Quarter Section
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LM

Basic Date

.

2. 3-16
2. 3 -16A
2. 3-17
2. 3-18
2. 3-19
2.3-20
2. 3 -21



2. 3-23
2. 3-24

.

1 February 1970

Ch;m

e

Date

1 April 1971

Page

v

I

LMA790-3-LM

APOLLO OPERATIONS HAND BOOK

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (cone)
Figure No.
2.3-15
2. 3-16
2.3-17
2.3-18
2.3-19
2.3-20
2.3-21
2.3-22
2.3-23
2.4-1
2.4-2
2. 4-3

1

1

1

I

1

2. 4-4
2.4-5
2. 4-6
2. 4-7
2. 4-8
2.4-9
2. 4-10
2.4-11
2.4-12
2.4-13
2.5-1
2.5-2
2.5-3
2.5-4
2.5-5
2.5-6
2.5-7
2. 5-8
2.5-9
2.5-10
2.5-11
2. 5-12
2.5-13
2.5-14
2.5-15
2. 5-16
2. 6-1
2.6-2
2. 6-3
2. 6-4
2.6-5
2.6-6
2.6-6A
2.6-7
2.6-8
2.6-9
2.6-10
2. 6-11
2.6-12

Page

Page
Descent Engine Combustion Chamber, Nozzle Extension, and Heat Shield
Ascent Propulsion Section -Interface Diagram • • • • • • • •
Ascent Propulsion Section - Component Location • • • • • • • • •
Ascent Propulsion Section -Simplified Functional Flow Diagram • •
Ascent Engine Assembly -Flow Diagram. • • • • • • • •


Ascent Propulsion Section - Explosive Valves, Simplified Functional
Diagram • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • . . . • • • •
Ascent Propulsion Section - Helium Pressure Regulator Assembly.
Ascent Propulsion Section -Relief Valve Assembly
Ascent Engine Assembly • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Reaction Control Subsystem -Component Location
Reaction Control Subsystem -Interface Diagram • • • •
Reaction Control Subsystem -Simplified Functional Flow
Diagram (3 Sheets) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
RCS System A -Ascent Feed Interconnect Valve Arrangement • • • •
Propellant Quantity Measuring Device • • • • • • • • • • •
Thrust Chamber Assembly and Cluster • • • • • • • • • • • •
Thrust Chamber Assembly -Operation and Failure Detection System
TCA Firing - Thrust Versus Time . • • • • • • • • • • • •
Reaction Control Subsystem - Thruster-On Failure Correction
Helium Pressure Regulator Assembly • , • • •
Relief Valve Assembly • . • . • • • • • • • • . • • • • •
Propellant Tank Assembly • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • •
Reaction Control Subsystem - Telemetry Points • • • • • • • •
Electrical Power Subsystem - Signal Interface Block Diagram •
Electrical Power Subsystem -Power Interface Diagram (3 Sheets)
Electrical Power Subsystem -Functional Flow Diagram • • • • • •
Descent Power Distribution -Functional Block Diagram • • • • • •
Ascent Power Distribution -Functional Block Diagram, • , • •
Battery Status-Monitoring Circuits -Simplified Schematic Diagram • •
Battery Voltage-and Current-Monitoring Circuits - Simplified
Schematic Diagram • • • •
















Primary Bus Voltage-Monitoring Circuits -Simplified Schematic Diagram •
Malfunctioning-Battery Isolation Circuitry - Simplified Schematic Diagram .
Relay Junction Box - Functional Block Diagram • • • • • • • • • • • • •
CS M/L M Primary Power Transfer Logic - Simplified Schematic Diagram
Deadface Relay and Staging Logic - Simplified Schematic Diagram
Descent Stage Electrical Control Assembly -Simplified Schematic
Diagram . • • . • • • • . • . • • • • • . • • • • • •


Ascent Stage Electrical Control Assembly -Simplified Schematic Diagram .
Inverter No. 1 - Block Diagram • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Sensor Power Fuse Assemblies - Simplified Power Distribution Diagram
Environmental Control Subsystem -Component Location (3 Sheets)
Environmental Control Subsystem - Controls • • . • • • • • • • . • .
Environmental Control Subsystem Power Distribution Diagram • • • • • •



.

Environmental Control Subsystem Functional Flow Diagram
Environmental Control Subsystem Electrical Schematic Diagram (2 Sheets) .
ARS Simplified Functional Flow Diagram . • • . • • • • • • • •
Suit Liquid Cooling Assembly -Schematic Flow Diagram . • • • •
Oxygen Supply and Cabin Pressure Control Section . • . . • • • •
Water Management Section -Simplified Functional Flow Diagram •
Heat Transport Section -Simplified Function Flow Diagram
Suit Gas Diverter Valve - Functional Schematic •
Water Separator -Functional Schematic .
Suit Isolation Valve - Functional Schematic . .


2.3-25
2.3-31
2. 3-32
2. 3-33
2.3-36



2. 3-37
2.3-38
2.3-40
2.3-41
2. 4-1
2.4-3
2.4-7
2.4-9
2.4-10
2.4-11
2.4-12
2.4-13
2.4-15

2.4-17

2.4-17
2.4-18
2.4-23
2.5-2
2.5-5
2.5-9
2. 5-10
2. 5-11
2.5-12







·



vi

------

Mission

L M

Basic Date

1 February

1970

Change Date





2.5-15
2.5-17
2.5-18
2.5-20
2.5-21
2. 5-23
2. 5-25
2. 5-27
2. 5-28
2.5-31

2.6-1
2.6-4
2.6-5
2.6-6
2.6-9
2. 6-11
2.6-13
2.6-15

2.6-17
2.6-19
2. 6-22
2. 6-24
2. 6-25

1 April 1971

I

L MA 7903-LM
A POLLO O PERATIONS HANDBOO K

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (cont)
Figure No.
2.6-13
2.6-14
2.6-15
2.6-16
2.6-17
2.6-18
2.6-19
2. 6-20
2.6-21
2.6-22
2.6-23
2.7-1
2. 7-2
2.7-3
2. 7-4
2.7-4A
2. 7-5
2.7-6
2.7-7
2.7-8
2.7-9
2. 7-10
2.7-11
2.7-12
2.7-13
2.7-14
2.7-15
2.7-16
2.7-17
2.7-18
2.7-19
2. 7-20
2.7-21
2. 7-22
2.7-23
2.7-24
2.8-1
2.8-2
2.8-3
2.8-4
2.8-5
2.8-6
2.8-7
2.8-8
2.8-9
2.8-10
2.8-11
2.8-12
2.8-13
2.9-1
2.9-2
2.9-3

Mission

Page
Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure Sensor - Functional Schematic •
High-Pressure Oxygen Control Assembly -Functional Schematic • • • •
High-Pressur e Oxygen Regulator - FWlctional Schematic •
Bypass Oxygen Relief Valve -Functional Schematic.
Overboo.rd Relief Valve -Functional Schematic • •
Burst Diaphragm Assembly -Functional Schematic . •
Oxygen Demand Regulator -Functional Schematic •
Cabin Repressurization and Emergency Oxygen Valve -Functional
Schematic • • • • . • • . • • • • • • • • • • •






Cabin Relief and Dump Valve -Functional Schematic • . • • • • •
Water Tank Selector Valve -Functional Schematic • • • • • • • • • •
Water Pressure Regulator - Functional Schematic • . • •
CommWlications Subsystem, Interface Diagram • • • . • • • • • • •
CommWlications Subsystem - Simplified Block Diagram . •
CommWlications Subsystem, Power Distribution Diagram • • • • • • •
In -Flight CommWlications • • • • • • • • • • •
LWlar Surface CommWlications . • • • • • • •
S-Band Transmitter Receiver -Block Diagram




S- Band Transmitter - Block Diagram • • •
S- Band Receiver - Block Diagram • • • • • • • •
S-Band Power Amplifier - Block Diagram . •
VHF Equipment - Block Diagram • •
VHF Transmitter A - Block Diagram • • • •
VHF Transmitter B - Block Diagram • • • •
VHF Receiver - Block Diagram • • • • •
Signal- Processing Assembly - Block Diagram •
Premodulation Processor - Block Diagram •
Audio Center No . 1 - Block Diagram • . • .
Audio Control Circuits - Simplified Block Diagram .
Digital Uplink Assembly - Block Diagram • • • • • •
VHF Ranging Circuits - Block Diagram • • . • • •
Ranging Tone Transfer Assembly - Block Diagram • • • • • •
Ranging Tone Transfer Assembly - Timing Diagram •
CommWlication Subsystem - Antenna Location • • .
S-Band Steerable Antenna - Block Diagram . • • • •
S-Band Steerable Antenna Gimba.ling • • • • • • •
S-Band Steerable Antenna - Vehicle Blockage Diagram
Explosive Devices Subsystem - Component Location • •


Explosive Devices - Overall Block Diagram • •
Explosive Devices Subsystem -Overall Functional Diagram • • •
Stage Sequence (Relays K2 through K6) Monitoring -Simplified
Schematic Diagram • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • •
Bus - Arming Control - Simplified Schematic Diagram • • • •
Landing Gear Deployment - Simplified Schematic Diagram • • •
Landing Gear Switches -Simplified Schematic Diagram • • • • •
Descent Propellant Tank Prepressurization -Simplified Schematic
Diagram • . • • • • • • • • • • • . . • • • • . . • . • • •
Stage Sequence -Simplified Schematic Diagram • • • • • • • • •
Ascent Propellant Tank Pressurization -Simplified Schematic Diagram
RCS Propellant Tank Pressurization . . • • . . . . • . . . . • .
Explosive Devices • • • . • • • • • • • . • .








Electrical Circuit Interrupter - Functional Block Diagram • • • • •
Instrumentation Power Distribution -Overall Functional Block Diagram
Instrumentation Subsystem - Overall Functional Block Diagram • •
Data Format No. 1 (Normal Mode) • . . . . . . . . • • • • • • • •




.





LM

Basic Date

1 February 1970

Change Date

1 April 1971







2.6-26
2.6-27
2.6-28
2.6-28
2.6-29
2.6-30
2.6-31















2.6-31
2.6-33
2.6-35
2.6-36
2.7-2
2.7-4
2.7-5
2. 7-7
2.7-8
2. 7-17
2.7-18
2.7-20
2.7-21
2.7-22
2.7-23
2.7-24
2.7-26
2. 7-27
2.7-28
2. 7-31
2. 7-32
2.7-33
2.7-34
2.7-36
2.7-37
2.7-38
2. 7-39
2. 7-40
2. 7-43
2.8-1
2.8-2
2.8-4
2.8-5
2.8-7
2.8-8
2.8-9
2. 8-10
2. 8-11
2.8-13
2. 8-14
2.8-16
2.8-19
2.9-3
2.9-4
2.9-5

Page ---vii

LMA790-3-LM

A POLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

LIST OF IL LUSTRATIONS (cont)
Figure No.
2.9-4
2.9-5
2.9-6
2.9-7
2.9-8
2.9-9
2.9-10
2. 9-11
2.9-12
2o9-13
2o 9-14

Page
.
Data Format No. 2 (Reduced Mode) .
Typical Analog Multiplexer Card - Simplified Logic Diagram
High -Level Analog Multiplexer Card - Simplified Logic Diagram
o
High-Speed Gates - Logic Diagram .
Analog -to-Digital Converter (Coder) - Simplified Logic Diagram
Programmer - Block Diagram
Digital Multiplexer - Logic Diagram
Output Register .
Timing Electronics - Logic Diagram
· CWEA - Functional Block Diagram
Master Alarm Pushbutton/ Lights and C/W PWR Caution Light Simplified Schematic Diagram
CWEA Failure Detection Circuits - Logic Diagram (3 Sheets)
DSEA - Functional Block Diagram
Lighting Control Equipment .
Lunar Contact Lights Circuits
L ighting Circuits
Exterior Lighting
Floodlighting and Utility Lights - Simplified Diagram
Lamp and Tone Test Circuits.
Extravehicular Mobility Unit .
Pressure Garment Assembly .
Integral Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, PLSS, OPS, and
.
P LSS Control Box
Extravehicular Visor Asse mbly
.
P LSS Controls and Indicators .
Portable Life Support Subsystem - Simplified Functional Schematic
E MU E lectrical Connectors .
P LSS Condensate Transfer - Schematic Diagram
Buddy System , Schematic Diagram
Restraint Equipment
.
Crewman Optical A lignment Sight.
COAS Functional Schematic and Docking Targets.
Tool B
.
.
Modularized Equipment Stowage A ssembly
Deployment of Modularized Equipment Stowage A ssembly
ModularizP.d Equipment Stowage A ssembly Application
M odularized Equipment Stowage A ssembly Heater Circuits




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o





2.9-7
2.9-35
2.9-36
2. 9-37
2.9-38
2.9-39
2.9-41
2.9-43
2.9-45
2.9-47















2.9-49
2.9-57
2. 9-74
2. 10-3
2.10-4 B
2.10-5
2.10-8
2.10-9
2.10-10
2.11-2
2.11-3

0

.

.











0





0

0









.





.

.

0

















.



.





.

.

.

.

.









0







.



.

.



2o11-4
2. 11-5
2o11-6
2. 11-7
2o11-8
2o11-9
2.11-10
2. 11-11
2. 11-12
2. 11-13
2.11-14
2.11-15
2o11-16
2.11-17
2. 11-18
2o11-19
2o11-20
2. 11-21
2o 11-22
2o11-23
2. 11-24
3-1
3-2







2o9-15
2o9-16
2o10-1
2.10-lA
2. 10-2
2o10-3
2.10-4
2.10-5
2. 11-1
2o11-2
2.11-3



.



.







.

.







.







0





0





0























.





.

.





.









.

.









.





.



.



.

.





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.



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.

.



o



.





.







.



.





.

.



.



.





.

o





.



.











.







.

0

2.11-4
2.11-7
2.11-8
2.11-9
2.11-14
2. 11-17
2.11-18
2.11-21
2. 11-22
2.11-23
2.11-24
2.11-25
2.11-26
2.11-27
2.11-27
2. 11-28
2.11-29
2.11-30
2.11-31
2.11-32
2.11-33
2.11-34
3-155
3-157





LM Cabin Interior, Forward View

·



.









LM Cabin Interior, Aft View .
Apollo Lunar Surface Equipment Package
Off - Loading of A LSEP
Laser Ranging Retroreflector
. .
Fuel Capsule Transfer

.
Apollo Lunar Surface Package Deployed (Typical)
Environmental Control Subsystem Aft Bulkhead Controls
Controls and Displays

viii
---- Mission

.

.

LM



.

.

.



.

.



.

.

.

.







.

.

.

.

.



.





.

.

.

.

.



.

Basic

Date

.



.

! February

.



1970



·•

Change

Date

l_A.c..
p_r l
i l 97 1
_ __ _ __

__

LMA 790-3 -LM
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

LIST OF TABLES

Page

Table No.

1

1

2.1-1
2.1-2
2.1-3
2.1-4
2.1-5
2.1-6
2.1-7
2.1-8
2.1-9
2.1-10
2.1-11
2.1-12
2.1-13
2.1-14
2.1-15
2.1-16
2.1-17
2.1-18
2.1-19
2.1-20
2. 1-21
2.2-1
2.2-2
2.2-3
2.3-1
2.3-2
2.4-1
2.5 -1
2.5-2
2. 6-1
2.7-1
2. 7-2

Control Electronics Section - Summary ,,c Modes of Attitude Control .
Signal Conditioner Assembly -Signal Cnnditioning Modules .

7

Radar Fixed Extension Bits

1

Mission

.

. ..... ....

Abort Electronics Assembly -Input Si�o:n:Jl Characteristics .
Abort Electronics Assembly -Output S;�nal Characteristics

Abort Electronics Assembly -Telemet:-·, Word List.

..

2.1-105

Abort Guidance Section -Calibration Cc.:npensations.

2.1-112
2.1-113
2.1-116
2.1-116
2.1-117
2.1-118
2.1-121
2.1-134
2.1-135
2.1-145

.

PGNS Downlink Data Update Sequence.

.

...

Abort Guidance Section -Guidance RouL,;es ....

Time (Minutes) Quantities Available in

'iJH Mode .

Time (Minutes) of Interest for TPI Sea:···h Routine.
Time (Minutes) of Interest for TPI Exf· ·:te Routine
Abort Guidance Section -Translational :·:trust.

Abort Guidance Section - Thrust Direc: ':·.ns

.

.

RCS Jet Select Logic -Rotational Man,hrer . .

RCS Jet Select Logic -Translational!\'. <rH�uver
Primary Guidance and N avigation Sect1
Abort Guidance Section -Performance

- Performance and Design Data

· ·;

:.nd Design Data .... . .

Control Electronics Section -Performarr.e and Design Data

.

..

..... .

Orbital Rate Display -Earth and Lunar - Performance and Design Data
Frequency Synthesizer -Output Freque::•:·ies............ .

Rendezvous Radar and Transponder

- F·· r!ormance

Landing Radar -Performance and Desi�:n Data

and Design Data

Ascent Propulsion Section - Performan·

and Design Data .



Reaction Control Subsystem -Perform;..�::-e and Design Data
Circuit Breaker Characteristics

. ..

. .. . ..... .

Electrical Power Subsystem -Perform; ·;ce and Design Data
Environmental Control Subsystem - Pe:·: 1rmance and Design Data
Communications Links. .. ......

. ..... . .......

Communications Subsystem -General 5t iJCh and Circuit

. . .. . ..

.

.

.

. .

..

.

.. .

S-Band Communications Capabilities .

Breaker

...

. ...
. ... . . .

.

Communications Subsystem -Performa- ""!and Design Data
Explosive Devices Subsystem -Perforr..

ERA -1
ER A -2

.

and Design Data

Conditioned and Preconditioned · · u:rfacing Signals...
Conditioned and Preconditioned

.. c

·

Caution and Warning Electronics Asseu:

Instrumentation Subsystem -.Performa;,
Exterior Lights -Color,
Interior Lights -Color,

Brightness,
Brightness,

;�:

aP

Exterior Lights -Performance and De"

Interior Lights -Performance and Des;

Controls and Displays -Alphabetical In .

LM

'<."lee

Basic Date

1 February 197 0

c:

cerfacing Signals.. .

T - Malfunction Data Summary.

·:

and Design Data .

Lighting Method
i!�hting Method.
. Data .
Data

Date

2.1-152
2. f -15 2
2. 1-1 53
2.2-28
2. 2-38
2.2-40
2. 3-25
2. 3-42
2.4-19
2.5- 29
2.5- 29
2.6-38
2.7-6

.......

Descent Propulsion Section -Performa:;ce and Design Data.

Configuration .

2. 7-3
2.7-4
2.8-1
2.9-1
2.9-2
2. 9-3
I 2.9-4
2.10-1
2. 10-2
2.10-3
2.10-4
3- 1

.. . ... . . .

LGC Input-Qutput Channel Assignments.
Channel

2. 1-31
2.1-54
2.1-73
2.1-75
2. 1-94
2. 1-95
2 .l-97

1 April 1971

----�----------

Page

2.7-10
2.7-16
2.7-42
2.8-20
2. 9-7
2. 9-19
2.9-61
2. 9-75
2. 10-6
2. 10-6
2. 10-11
2. 10-11
3-2

ix x
-------

LMA790- 3- L M
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SPACECRAFT

SECTION

1

SPACECRAFT

INTRODUCTION
This section includes descriptions of the LM, the LM - SLA - S- IVB connections , the
L M- C SM interfaces, and LM stowage provis ions. The Apollo- Saturn space vehicle configuration is
shown in figure 1- 1.
LM CONFIGURATION.

1.1

(See figure

1-2 . )

The L M is des igned for manned lunar landing m is s ions. It consists of an ascent stage and a
descent stage; the. stages are joined together at four interstage fittings by explosive nuts and bolts.
Subsystem continuity between the s tages is accomplished by separable interstage umbilicals and hard­
line connections.
Both stages function as a s ingle unit during lunar orbit, until separation is required. Stage
separation is accomplished by explos ively severing the four interstage nuts and bol� , the interstage
umbilicals , and the water lines. All other hardlines are disconnect�d automatically at stage separation.
The ascent stage functions as a single unit to accomplish rendezvous and docking with the CSM . The
overall dimens ions of LM are gi¥en in figure
established as follows:






1- 3. Station reference measurements (figure 1 - 4) are

The Z- and Y-axis station reference measurem ents ( inches) start at a point where
both axes intersect the X-axis at the vehicle vertical centerl ine : the Z- axis extends
forward and aft of the intersection; the Y- axis , left and r ight. The point of inter­
section is established as zero.
The +Y- axis measurements increase to the right from zero; the - Y- axis measure­
ments increase to the left. Similarly , the + Z - and - Z- axis measurements increase
forward (+Z) and aft (- Z) from zero.
The X- axis station reference measurements ( inches) s tart at a design reference
point identified as s tation +X200. 000. This reference point is approximately 128
inches above the bottom surface of the footpads (with the landing gear extended) ;
therefore, all X-axis station reference measurements are +X- measurements .

1.2

ASCENT STAGE.

1 .2.1

GENERAL DESCRIPTION.

The ascent stage, the controi center and manned portion of the LM, accommodates two
It comprises three main sec tions : the crew compartment, midsec tion, and aft equipment
bay . The crew compartment and midsec tion make up the cabin, which has an approximate overall
volume of 235 cubic feet. The cabin is climate controlled, and pressurized to 4. 8 ±0 .2 psig. Areas
other than the cabin are unpressurized.
as tronauts .

1. 2. 2

STRUCTURE.

(See figure

1- 5.)

The ascent stage has s ix s truc tural areas : crew compartment, m idsec tion, aft equipment
bay , thrust chamber assembly (TCA) cluster supports , antenna supports , and thermal and m icro­
meteoroid shield.
CONF IGURA TION
Mission

LM

Basic Date

1 February 1970

Change Date

1 April 1 971

Page ______�
l�1�-----

I

I

LMA 790-3- L' ·

A POLLO O PERATIONS FA NDBOOK
S PACECRAF '

LAUNCH ESCAPE
SYSTEM (LES) ------..{

BOOST PROTECTIVE
COVER (BPC) OVER
---lr''
COMMAND MODULE 10111 ----'(\.

SPACECRAFT
LUNAR MODULE
ADAPTER (SLA)
INSTRUMENTATION UNIT

SATURN S-IV B
(THIRD STAGE)

--;==��

SATURN S-11
(SECOND STAGE)

LUNAR MODUli (LM)

SATURN S-IC
(FIRST STAGE)

0-JOOLMA-2�

Figure
Page____:lc_
2____ Mission
-.::

LM

1- 1 .

Apollo- Saturn ·

ASC E N T STA(, '
1 Febr
Basic Date

·.e Vehicle
·,;

1970

C hange Date

__
__
____

LMA790-3-LM
A POLLO O PE RATIONS HANDBOOK
S PACEC R A FT

S-BAND

VHF EVA

STEERABLE
ANTENNA

STAGE

DOCKING TARGET

ANTENNA

FORWARD

PLATFORM

PROBE(3)
LANDING

LADDER

SKIRT

Figure 1-2

M i s s ion

LM

------

Basic Date

ANTENNA

_

1 February 1 9 7 0

A-JOOLM I 0 -2

L M C onfiguration

C hange Date-- 1 April 1971

1-3
Page----�
--------

�----------

----

I

LMA790· . - LM
A POLLO O PERA'I' .'. )NS HANDBOOK
S P AC E ( AFT

+X

Nolet
X-axis deoivn re�w..,..

pointa start at + 200.000.

+Y

Z.,-AND Y-AXIS
STATION ZERO

-Y



·:_'J.... .,.z
.,

___ + xn.8.50 REF

,_,___

Figure

1 · 4.

Station ;

------

Miss ion_-=
L:.:M
.:.::____B asic Date

1 February 1970

+ 5.350

REF

· renee Measurements

-------

. •wnge Date

1 April 1 97 1

Page --�1-�5:..___

I

L MA790- 3-L M
APOLLO O PE R ATIONS H ANDBOOK

S P ACEC R AFT

t

1 ' 0.291"

28' 8.2"



FORWARD

2.70"
Figure 1 - 3 .

I

4'---_
Page __-'1=---"
__Mission

LM

L M Overall Dimensions

A SC ENT STAGE
B asic Date 1 February 1970

C h ange Date

1 April 1 9 7 1

LMA790- 3 - L M

A PO LLO O PE R ATIONS HAND BOOK
S P ACEC R AFT

i
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ASC ENT STAGE
"'--___ B as ic Date
M i s s ion--=
L""
M

1 February 1970

C h an ge Data

1 April 1971

Pag e __.:...
1 _
- -_
, __

I

LMA790-3-LM
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SPACECRAFT
C ontrol and Display Panels. (See figure 1-7. )

I 1 . 2. 2 . 1. 1

The crew c ompartment has 12 c ontrol and display panels: two main display panels
( 1 and 2 ) that are canted forward 10 ° , two center panels (3 and 4) that slope down and aft 45 ° towards
the horizontal, two bottom side panels ( 5 and 6 ) , two lower side panels (8 and 12 ) , one center side panel
( 14 ) , two upper side panels (11 and 1 6) , and the orbital rate display - earth and lunar (ORDEAL) panel
aft to panel 8 .

Panels 1 and 2 ar e located on each side of the front face assembly centerline, at eye level .
Each panel is constructed of two 0 . 015-inch-thick aluminum -alloy face sheets, spaced 2 inches apart
by formed channels . The spacer channels are located along the sheet edges; additional channels, inboard
of the edge channels, reinforce the sheets . This forms a rigid box-like c onstruction with a favorable
strength-to-weight ratio and a relatively high natural frequency. Four shock mounts support each panel
on the structure . Panel instruments are mounted to the back surface of the bottom and/or to the top
sheet of the panel . The instruments protrude through the top sheet of the panel . All dial faces are
nearly flush with the forward face of the panel . Panel 1 contains warning lights, flight indicators and
c ontrols, and propellant quantity indicators . Panel 2 contains caution lights , flight indicators and
c ontrols, and Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) and Environmental Control Subsystem (ECS) indicators
and c ontrols.

Panel 3, immediately below panels 1 and 2, spans the width of these two panels . Panel 3
c ontains the radar antenna temperature indicators and engine, radar, Spl!-Cecraft stability, event timer,
RCS and lighting c ontrols .
Panel 4 is centered between the flight stations and below panel 3 . Panel 4 contains attitude
c ontroller assemb�y (ACA) and thrust translation controller assembly (TTCA) controls, inertial
subsection indicators, and LM guidance computer (LGC ) indicators and controls. Panels 1 through 4
are within easy reach and scan of both astronauts .

Panel 5 and 6 are i n front of the flight stations at astronaut waist f.eight. Panel 5 contains
lighting and mission timer controls, engine start and stop pushbuttons, and the X-translation pushbutton.
Panel 6 contains abort guidance controls.
Panel 8 is at the left of the C ommander' s station. The panel is canted up 1 5 ° from the
I horizontal; it c ontains controls and displays for explosive devices, audio controls, and heater controls .
Panel 11, directly above panel 8, has five angled surfaces that c ontain circuit breakers .
Each row of c ircuit breakers is canted 1 5 ° to the line of sight so that the white band on the circuit
breakers can be seen when they open.
Panel 12 is at the right of the LM Pilot's station. The panel is canted up 15 ° from the
horizontal; it c ontains- audio, c ommunications, and communications antennas controls and displays .
Panel 14, directly above panel 12, is c anted up 36. 5 ° from the horizontal . It c ontains
c ontrols and displays for electrical power distribution and monitoring.

Panel 1 6, directly above panel 14, has fo1,1r angled surfaces that contain circuit breakers.
Each row of c ircuit breakers is canted 1 5 ° to the line of sight so that the white band on the circuit
breakers can be seen when they open.
The ORDEAL panel is immediately aft of panel B. It c ontains the controls for obtaining
L M attitude, with respect to a local horizontal, from the LGC .
Forward Hatch. (See figure 1 - 8 . )

1 . 2. 2. 1. 2

The forward hatc h is in the fron1:4ace assembly, just below the lower display panels . The
hatc h is approximately 32 inc hes square; it is hinged to swing inboard on quick-release hinge pins
when opened. A cam latch assembly holds the hatch in the closed position; the assembly forces a lip,
around the outer circumference of the hatc h, into a preloaded elastomeric silicone compound seal that
is secured to the LM structure . Cabin pressurization forces the hatc h lip further into the seal, ensuring
a pressure -tight contact. A handle is provided on both sides of the hatc h, for latch operation. To open
the hatch, the cabin must be c ompletely depressurized by opening the cabin relief and dump valve on the
hatch. When the cabin is completely depressurized, the hatc h can be opened by rotating the latch handle .
A lockpin in a plate over the latch can be withdrawn to release the latch in an emergency. The cabin
relief and dump valve can also be operated from outside the LM.

::
I Page---'1.._-...:8'---

____

Mission LM

ASCENT STAGE
Basic Date 1 February 1970

C hange Date

1 April 1971

LMA790-3- LM
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SPA C ECRAFT
1. 2 . 2 . 1

C rew Comparbnent. (See figures 1-5 and

1-6.)

The crew comparbnent is th e frontal area o f th e ascent stage; i t is 9 2 inches in diameter
and 42 inches deep. This is the flight station area; it has control and display panels , armrests, body
restraints, landing aids , two front w indows, a docking window , and an alignment optical teles cope (AOT ) .
Flight station centerl ines are 4 4 inches apart; each astronaut has a s e t o f controllers, and armrests.
C ircuit breaker, control, and display panels are along the upper s ides of the compartment. Crew pro­
vis ion storage S!Jd.Ce is beneath these panels. The main control and display panels are canted and cen­
tered between the astronauts to permit sharing and easy scanning. An optical alignment station, between
the flight stations , is used in conjunction w ith the AOT. A portable life support SJ[Stem ( PLSS) donning
station is also in the center aisle, slightly aft of the optical alignment station.
The crew comparbnent shell is cylindrical and of sem imonocoque construction. It is a
fus ion-welded and mechanically fastened assembly of alum inum- alloy sheet and machined longe rons .
The shell has an opening for the docking w indow , above the Commander's flight station. The front face
assembly of the crew compartment has two triangular w indows and the forward hatch. Two large struc­
tural beams extend up the forward s ide of the front face assembly ; they support the struc tural loads
applied to the cabin s tructure. The lower ends of the beams s upport the two forward interstage mounts;
the upper ends are secured to additional beam structure that extends across the top of the crew compart­
ment shell and aft to the m idsection structure. The crew comparbnent deck measures approximately
36 by 55 inches. It is constructed of aluminum honeycomb bonded to two sheets of aluminum alloy . Non­
flammable Velcro pile strips , which contact hooked Velco material on the astronaut boots, are bonded to
the deck surface. Handgrips , recessed in the deck, aid the astronauts during egress and ingress through
the forward hatch. Perforated glass-reinforced plastic covers the ceiling above the flight stations. A
handrail , w ith five green radio luminescent disks attached to it, is bolted to the left- hand structural beam
of the front face assembly .

THERMAL AND
MICROMETEOROID SHIELD

Figure 1- 5 .

TCA CLUSTER SUPPORTS

CREW COMPARTMENT

)00LM6- I J

Ascent Stage Structure Configuration
ASC ENT STAGE

I Page ----=1=----=-6

___

Mission L M

B asic Date

1 February 1 970

C hange Date 1 Apr il 1 9 7 1

LMA790- 3- L M
APOLLO OPE RATIONS HANDBOOK
SPAC ECRAFT

WINDOW
AND SHADE
SlOE�

ALIGNMENT
OPTICAL
TELESCOPE

PANEL

Figure 1 -7 .

1. 2. 2. 1. 3

Window s .

PANEL

PANEl 6

ASSY

PANEL �

PANEl 5

16

12

I

Cabin Interior (Loold.ng Forward)

(See figures 1- 9 and 1 - 1 0 . )

Two triangular windows in the front face assembly provide visibility during descent, ascent,
and rendezvous and docking phas es of the misswn.
view ing area; they are canted down

to

Both windows have approximately 2 square feet of

the s ide to permit adequate periphe ral and downward visibility .

A

third (docking) window is in the curved overhead portion of the crew compartment shell, direc tly above
the Commander's flight station.

This window p rovides visibility for docking maneuvers.

All three w in­

dows consist of two s eparated panes , vented to space environm ent. The outer pane is made of Vycor
glass with a thermal (multilayer blue- red) coat t ng on the outboard surface and an antireflective coating

ASC E NT STAGE
Mission

LM

Basic Date

1 February 1 9 7 0

C n ange Date

1 April 1 9 7 1

9�-------Page __�1�-�



LMA790 -3-LM
APOLLO OPE RATIONS HANDBOOK
SPAC ECRA FT

/
'

'

/

O:a-ltnieu£; �,,;,

/

DUMP VAL;(

Figure 1 -8 .
on the inboard surfac e .

For ·ard Hatc h

It is sealed with a Raco seal (the

The inner pane is made of strucr: · :-al glass .

docking window inner pane has a dual seal) and has a def :._: coating on the outboard surface and an anti­
reflective c oating on the inboard surface . B oth panes an- bolted to the window frame through retainers .



All three windows are electrically heated to -�·;·event fogging. The heaters for the
C ommander's front window and the docking window receh
their power from 1 1 5 -volt a-c bus A and the
C ommander's 28 -volt d-e bus, respectively. The heate r ·.-r the LM Pilot ' s front window receives power
from 1 1 5 -volt a-c bus B . The heater power for the Conr , .,_r,der ' s front window and the docking window
is routed through the AC BUS A : C DR WIND HTR and H E. 0.. TERS: DOC K WINDOW circuit breakers,
respectively; for the LM Pilot's front window, through tn.- A.C BUS B:

These are 2 - ampere c ircuit breakers, on panel 1 1 .

The

>. . mperature

SE WIND HTR circuit breaker.

of the windows is not monitored

with an indic ator ; proper heater operation directly affect.- · rew visibility and is therefore visually
determined by the astronaut s . When c ondensation or fr c,, ,_ appears on a window, that window heater is
turned on .

I

It is turned off when the abnormal condition G : :�:tppear s .

When a window shade is closed,

that window heater must be off .
Midsection.

1. 2. 2 . 2

(See figures 1 -5 and 1 - 1 1 . )

The midsection structure is a ring-stiffenec ,· :: m imonoc oque shell .

The bulkheads consist

of aluminu m - alloy, chemically m illed skin with fusion-weh:.t'-l longerons and machined stiffeners . The mid­
section shell is mec hanically fastened to flanges on the majo: tructural bulkheads at stations +Z 2 7 . 00 and
-Z 27 . 00 . The crew compartment shell is mec hanically sect:. d l o an outboard flange of the +Z 2 7 . 00 bulkhead.
The upper and lower dec ks , at stations +X2 94 . 643 and +X2 3:J . JO, respectively, are made of aluminum-alloy,

integrally stiffened and machined. T he lower deck provides
The upper deck provides structural support for the doc kin::

·

:-uctural support for the ascent stage engine.
· �mel and the overhead hatch .
with those above the crew compartment,

Two main beams running fore and aft, integ ·

are secured to the upper deck of the midsection; they SUP'·

tunnel.

The aft ends of the beams are fastened to the aft

bolting the tubular truss members that support both aft i:
applied to the front beam are transmitted through the tw(
and, through the aft interstage support members, to the
and truss members forms a cradle around the ca.Qin as s ·
to the ascent stage . Two c anted beam assemblies, sec U l
forward and aft bulkheads, form the ascent stage engine
members are bolted to the lower dec k.

I

, the deck at the outboard end of the docking

- kllead ( - Z 2 7 . 000), whic h has provisions for
· siage fittings . Asc ent stage stress loads
..

on the upper deck to the aft bulkhead,
nr�s . T he combination of beams, bulkhead,
iy; it takes up all the stress loads applied
t o the bottom of the lower deck and t o the

.illl S

partment.

The engine support ring truss

A SC E NT s·:
Page

1 - 10

Mission

LM

Basic Date

1 Febn,

! 97 0

7_
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C hange Date ___
19
1 A_._
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LMA 790- 3- LM

A POLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SPACECRAFT

INNER PANE
HIGH-EFFICIENCY
ANTIREFLECTION
COATING
DEFOGGING
COATING
BlANKET

HIGII-EFFICIENCY
ANTIREFLECTION
COATING

SECTION A·A

Figure 1- 9.

MULTILAYER
BlUE-RED COATING

Front Window

MULTILAYER
RED-BLUE COATING

=OUTER
=
=
=
=
=
==

pj
��
��
������

DOCKING RETICLE



PANE

HIGH-EFFICIENCY
ANTIREFLECTIVE
COATING

DEFOGGING COA TINe

SECTION A-A

Figure 1 - 1 0 .

Mission

LM

Basic Date

1 February 1 9 7 0

INNER PANE
HIGH-EFFICIENCY
ANTIREFLECTIVE
COATING
•·"""'"'-� · >0

Doc king Window

ASC ENT STA G E
C hange Date

1 April 1 97 1

- l_
P age ___
1_
l____

I

L MA790- 3- L: l
APOLLO OPERATim: .::. HAND
SPAC ECRA ,·T
FOOD
CONTAINER

OVERHEAD
HATCH

ElECTRICAL
UMBILICALS

DROGUe

TUNN EL

BOOK

FLIGHT
DATA FILE

STOWAGE

PLSS REMOTE
CONTROL UNITS
(2)

WATER
CONTROL
MODULE

SUIT LIQUID
COOLING ASSEMBLY



GN &CS
EQUIPMENT
..

A > :�t.:T STAGE
ENC; :"F ( OVER

transport section water glycol plumbing .
accessible from t he crew compartment .

A- JOOlM 1 ()...6

ECS c ontrols and �oat of the
ECS equipment are readily

heat

Valves for or•.· r ation of t he

T he left side ' : ( i:e midsection contains flight data file,

a portable life support system

(PLSS) ,

and C ontrol Subsystem

require ac cess by t he astronauts are located
T hese units inc lude a L �! p1idance comi7-1ter, a c ou pling data unit, a

(GN&CS)

on the midsection aft bulkhead .

I

COSMIC RAY
DETECTOR

Figure 1 -1 1. C abin ln'r r·ior (Looking Aft)
T he right side of the midsection cont ains :N>r;t of the

1

HELMET
STOWAGE BAGS
(POSITION NO. 2)

and other crp ·,,· :··rovisions stowage .

electronic units that du

� B asic

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ASC ENT S' ! \ G E

� r ' ''J�· y

Date

Guidanc e, N avigation

. , c ,,

1 970

C hange Data

1 April

197 1

LMA790-3-LM
APOLLO OPE RATIONS HANDBOOK
SPACECRAFT

pow e r and servo assembly, and a s ignal c onditione r assembly. nCS propellant tanks are installed be­
tween the midsection bulkheads, on each side , external to the basic structure of the midsection.
The
ascent engine propellant tanks are mounted in the midsection, bene ath the RCS tanks.
A r ing at the top of the ascent stage is compatible w ith the clamp ing mechanisms in the
C M . This r ing is concentric w ith the X- axis , which is also the nom inal centerl ine of thrust of the ascent
and descent engines. The drogue portion of the docking mechanism is secured below this ring during
the docking operation to mate with the C M- mounted probe. It is also stored in this area when storage is
required out of the c r ew compartment.

1. 2 . 2 . 2. 1

Docking Tunnel (See figure

I

1-11 . )

The docking tunnel, at the top centerline of the ascent stage , is 32 inches in diameter and
inches long. The lower end of the tunne l is welded to the upper deck s tructure; the upper end is
secured to the main beams and the outer deck. The tunnel is used for transfer of astronauts and equip­
ment to the LM from the CM and for transfer of the LM as tronauts and equipment to the C M . This
tunnel is compatible with its counterpart in .the C M wheiJ. in the docked configuration; it allows for as tro­

16

naut transfe r , without exposure to space, in a pressurized o r unpressur ized extravehicular mobility
unit (EMU) .

1. 2. 2 . 2. 2

(See figure 1-

Overhead Hatch.

12 . )

The ove rhead hatch is directly above the ascent engine cover , on the X- axis . Provis ions
for c rew transfer through this hatch are based upon a head-first passage. Handgrips in the aft sec tion
of the docking tunnel aid in crew and equipment trans fer. An off- center latch adjacent to the forward
edge of the hatch, can be operated from either s ide of the hatch. The hatch is opened from within the
cabin by rotating the handle approximately 90 o counterclockwise; by turning the handle 90 o clockwis e , to
open the hatch from outs ide the L M . A maximum torque of 35 inch- pounds is required to disengage the
latching mechanism to open the hatch. The hatch is secured closed by rotating the handle in the oppos ite
direction. The hatch has a preloaded elastomeric s ilicone compound seal mounted in the ascent stage
structure. When the latch is closed, a lip near the outer c ircumference of the hatch enters the seal,
ensur ing a pressure- tight contac t. Normal cabin pressur ization forces the hatch lip into its seal. To
open the hatch, the cabin must be depressurized through the cabin rel ief and dump valve; the latch is
then unfas tened.

DOOR HANDlE

CABIN
RELIEF AND DUMP
VAlVE HANDLE

HATCH
IN OPEN POSITION

F igu re

1- 12.

Overhead Hatch

ASC E NT STAGE

Miss ion

LM

B asic Date

1

February 1 970

C hange Date

1

Apr il 1 9 7 1

l-�
1 3�----- I
Page __�

LMA790- 3-LM
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SPAC ECRAFT
1. 2. 2. 3

Aft Equipment Bay .

(See figure 1- 5 . )

The aft equipment bay , aft of the - Z27. 000 bulkhead, is unpressurized. The main s upport­
ing structure of the bay consists of tubular truss members bolted to the aft s ide of the - Z27. 000 bulk­
head. The truss members , used in a cantilever type of construction, extend aft to the equipment rack.
The equipment rack assembly is constructed of a series of vertical box beam s , supported by an upper
and lower Z- frame. The beams have integral cold rails that transfer heat from the electronic equip­
ment mounted on the equipment racks. The cold rails are mounted vertically in the s tructural frame,
which is supported at its upper and lower edges by the truss members . A water-glycol solution (coolant)
flows through the cold rails.
Two oxygen tanks and two gaseous helium tanks are secured with supports and brackets to
the truss members, the - Z27. 000 bulkhead, and the equipment rack. Support mountings and brackets
are s ecured to the aft side of the - Z27. 000 bulkhead, for valves , plumbing, wiring, ECS components ,
and propellant tanks that do not require a pressurized environment.
1.2. 2. 4

Thrust Chamber Assembly Cluster Supports .

(See figure 1- 5.)

Aluminum- alloy tubular truss members for external mounting of two forward thrust cham­
ber assembly (TCA) clusters are bolted to both s ides of the front face assembly and to the c rew compart­
ment shell. Aluminum.:. alloy tubular truss members for external mounting of two aft TCA clusters are
bolted to the upper and lower corners of the equipment rack assembly and to the - Z27. 000 bulkhead.
1 . 2 2. 5
.

Antenna Supports .

(See figure 1- 5 . )

The ascent stage provides mounting accommodations for an S- band steerable antenna, two
VHF antennas , two S-band in- flight antennas , and a rendezvous radar antenna. The S- band s teerable
antenna has tubular truss members; the main truss is mounted on top of the right s ide of the midsec tion.
One VHF antenna is mounted on the top left s ide of the stage, forward of the +Z27. 00 bulkhead; the
other one is mounted on the top right s ide, aft of the - Z27. 00 bulkhead. One S- band in-flight antenna is
mounted on the front face assembly; the other one, on the aft equipment bay rack. The rendezvous
radar antenna is mounted on the upper beams of the crew compartment.
1.2.2. 6

Thermal and Micrometeoroid Shield. (See figure 1- 5 . )

The entire ascent stage s tructure is enveloped w ith a thermal and m icrometeoroid shield,
which combines either a blanket of multiple layers of aluminized polyimide sheet (Kapton H- film) and
aluminized polyester sheet (mylar) with a sandw ich of inconel skin, inconel mesh and nickel foil or a
poly im ide blanket with a s ingle sheet of aluminum skin. The blanket panels, formed in various shapes
and s izes , cons ist (outboard to inboard) of 15 layers of 0 . 0005- inch- thick H-film , 10 layers of 0 . 000 15inch- thick mylar, and a single lay er of 0. 0005- inch- thick H-film. In a few ascent stage areas that have
different thermal- protection requirements , the number of layers in a blanket panel varies s l ightly. Out­
board to inboard, the sandwich comprises a 0. 00 1 5 -inch-thick inconel skin and one or more lay ers of
inconel mesh alternated w ith 0 . 0005- inch- thick nickel foil. The number of inconel mesh and nickel foil
layers in a sandw ich and the thickness of the alum inum skin vary cons iderably at different areas of the
vehicle , depending on the duration and intensity of RCS thruster plume impingement at those areas . The
combined thermal and micrometeoroid shield is mounted on low-thermal-conductive supports (standoffs) ,
which keep it at least 2 inches from the main structure. Where subsystem components are mounted
external to the ascent stage bas ic structure , the standoffs are mounted to alum inum fram es that sur­

round the components . The aluminum or inconel skin (the outermost material) serves as a m icro­
meteoroid bumper; the sandwich and blanket material se rve as thermal shie lding. Where the blankets
meet, the mating edges are s ealed with mylar tape. Vent holes are provided in the blanket.
The aluminized mylar blankets insulate the structure against temperatures up to +350 F .
On the TCA support truss members , which are subjected to temperatures in excess of +350 F due to
engine radiation, an additional 20 layers of H-film are installed. H- film has an insulating capabil ity up
to + 1 , 000 ° F . Additional H-film blankets are also used m other areas of the ascent stage that w ill be
s ubjected to temperatures in excess of +350 ° F. Dur ing earth prelaunch activities , various components
and areas of the ascent stage mus t be readily access tble. Access panels in the outer skin and ins ulation
provide this acces s ibility.
o

o

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- 1=-4::._____ Mission

LM

ASC ENT S T A G E

Basic Date

1

Feb ruary

1 970

Change Date

1 April

1 97 1

LMA790-3-LM
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SPACECRAFT

1. 3

D ESC ENT STAG E .

1. 3. 1

GENERAL DESC RIPTION.

The descent stage is the unmanned portion of the LM. The descent stage structure provides
attachment and support points for securing the LM within the spacecraft Lunar- Module adapter (SLA).

1. 3. 2

STRUCTURE .

(See figure 1 - 13 . )

I

The descent s tage is c onstructed of aluminum-alloy , chemically milled webs. It cons ists
of two pairs of parallel beams arranged in a cruciform, with a deck on the upper and lower surfaces .
The beam webs are at s tations +Y27. 000 , -Y27. 000 , +Z27. 000 , and - Z2 7 . 000 . The lower deck is at
station +X13 1 . 140 ; the upper deck, at station +X196. 000. The ends of tre beams are closed off by end
closure bulkheads at s tations +Z8 1 . 000 , - Z8 1. 000 , +Y8 1 . 000 , and - Y8 1 . 000. Joints are fastened with
standard mechanical fasteners. A four- legged truss (outrigger) at the ends of each pair of beams serves
as a support for the LM in th·� SLA and as the attachment point for the main strut of the landing gear.
The outriggers are constructed of tubular aluminum alloy . Fittings on the +Y2 7 . 000 and -Y2 7 . 000 beam s,
at station +Z65. 906, serve as the forward attachment points for the ascent stage . Fittings on the -Z2 7 . 000
beam , at stations +Y65. 000 and -Y65. 000, serve as the aft attachment points for the ascent stage .
Compartments L :med by the descent stage structural arrangement house equipment re­
quired by LM s ubsystems. The center compartment houses the descent s tage engine , which is supported
by eight tubular truss members secured to the four corners of the compartment and by the engine gimbal
ring. Descent engine oxidizer tanks are housed in the fore and the aft compartments between the
+Y27. 000 and - Y2 7. 000 bc:.ms; descent engine fuel tanks , between the +Z27. 000 and - Z27. 000 beams in
the s ide compartments .
QUADRANT -4

UADRANT 2

OUTRIGGER

(-4)

JOOlM l 0-3

Figure 1 -1 3 .
Mission

LM

Descent Stage Structure Configuration
DESC ENT STAGE
il'-1=-9_7-=1'--r...:
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1::_
C hange Date

Basic Date 1 February 1 970

__

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15
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LMA790 -3-LM

APOL LO OPERATIONS Hi\
SPAC E C RA FT
The areas, between the main beams, that

I

I

I

I

I

gh

referred to as quadrant s . Quadrant 1 is formed by the inte :­
quadrant 2 by the - Z 2 7 . 000 and -Y27 . 000 beam s, quadrant
and quadrant 4 by the +Z 27 . 000 and +Y27 . 000 beam s .
Quadrant

1

has m ounting provisions for a Lu,

m ent Transport System (METS) and also has a high-pressur•

Quadrant 2 houses an ECS water tank and AI"
(ALSE P) . A c osmic ray experiment package is m ounted ad):

the ALSE P is m ounted adjacent to the ALS E P, but outside t ;

the -Z27 . 000 and +Y27 . 000 beams,

\oving Vehicle (LRV) or a Mobile Equip­
eous oxygen disconnect .

· u nar surface experiment packages
to the ALSE P .

A fuel c ask for use with

z adrant thermal blanket and micro-

- lly on additional structure below the

Quadrant 3 houses supercritical helium and ;;
control assembly of the GN&C S, an ECS gaseous oxygen ta11

�nt helium tanks, the descent engine
nd interstage hardiine disconnects .

'le -Y27 . 000 beam .

Quadrant 4 houses EDS c omponents (umbilic;'

Jle cutter, pyro relay battery, and

Five E PS batteries, two ECA ' s , and a batter

1trol relay assembly are mounted

pyro relay box) , an EC S water tank and gaseous oxygen tan!-;
propellant quantity gaging system ( PQGS) . A modified ME5.

.vaste managem ent container, and the
mounted externally to quadrant 4 .

on the -Z bulkhead.
Fill and drain ports and vents for the fuel,

o

The de6 .

meteoroid shield, the landing gear, and an egress platform _
of the RCS downward-firing thrusters from the desc ent staL

Two deflectors are shorted to provide clearance for the L H
respectively. The supporting trusses for these deflectors •

L3.2.

1

The entire descent stage structure is envelo1

In areas where m icrom eteoroid protection is required, on ��

used as skin.

T he shield is m ounted on low-thermal-c ondu

inch away from the m ain structure .

A titanium blast shielc',

engine c ompartm ent, above the thermal shield,

the desc ent engine c om partm ent .

deflects the

The bottom of the descent stage, and the eng
temperatures due to r adiation from the desc ent engine . A '
blanket of alternate layers of nickel foil and Fiberfax outsiL

the bottom of the descent stage from engine heat .

A titanh.: ·

layers of nickel foil and Fiberfax under an outer blanket of

flange -like ring of c olumbium b ac ked with a fibrous insulaL
extension and joined to the base heat shield by an annular b •
arrangem ent permits engine gimbaling, but prevents engin•
1. 3. 2 . 2

· er,

helium,

water, and gaseous oxygen

stage includes a thermal and micro-

:rur plume deflectors, to divert the plume
�e truss m ounted to the desc ent stage .
• adrant 1) and the MESA (quadrant 4 ) ,
b e e n modified.

Thermal and Micrometeoroid Shield.

whic h c ombines multiple layers of aluminized mylar and H -·

L anding Gear .

(See figure 1 - 14 . )

The landing gear provides the impact attenu:;
surfac e, prevents tipover, and supports the L M during lun·c
attenuated to load levels that preserve the structural integr c
stowed in a retracted position; it remains retracted until tr.
DE PLOY switc h on panel 8 . The landing gear uplocks are

deploym ent m ec hanism extend the landing gear .
in place by two downloc k mec hanisms .

Once exte

The landing gear is of the c antilever type : i:

outriggers that extend from the ends of the descent stage

front, rear and both sides of the L M .

Each leg assembly

sec ondary struts, an uplock assembly, two deploy m e nt
forward leg assembly.

6:.______ Miss ion
Page.___,1=--...!1�

LM



c

anc!

The left, right and aft footpad each have a lunar -surface

I

' desc ent stage its octagon shape are
,ion of the +Z 27 . 000 and -Y27. 000 beams ,

m eteoroid shield. A landing radar antenna is supported ext
lower dec k . C omponents for the landing radar are mountea

tanks ar e e xternal to the descent stage outer skin .

I

)QOK

s

DESC E NT STAG

Basic Date

1 f" n b :

·ith a thermal and microm eteoroid shield,
with an outer skin of 0 . 002 -inch H -film .
·r

of blac k-painted 0 . 00125 -inc h inconel is

supports, which keep it at least one-half

!ll' e d to the upper side of the desc ent

.:nt engine exhaust out of, and away from
om partm ent, are subjected to very high

heat shield, composed of titanium with a
:1d a blanket of H-film inside, protects

ield with a thermal blanket of multiple
�m protects the engine c ompartment. A
:; attac hed directly to the engine nozzle
· s of 2 5 -layer H -film . This bellows
t from leaking into the engine com partment .
required to land the LM on the lunar
.iy and lunar launc h . L anding impact i s
· the L M . A t launch, the landing gear is
:nm ander operates the L DG GEAR
� xplosively released and springs in the
each landing gear assembly is locked
ists of four leg assemblies c onnected to

i r al beam s . The legs extend from the
s of a primary strut, a footpad, two

' l oc k mechanism, and a truss assembly .
probe .

1 9 70

A ladder is affixed to the

Change Date

1

April 1 9 7 1

LMA790- 3-LM
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SPACECRAFT

PROBI: ASSEMBlY
PROBE IN GEAR
STOWED POSITION

Figure 1- 14. Landing Gear
1. 3. 2. 2. 1

P rimary Strut.

The upper end of the primary strut attaches to the descent stage outrigger fitting; the lower
end has a ball joint support for the footpad. Crushable aluminum honeycomb inside the primary strut is
used as the shock-absorbing medium. The primary s trut absorbs compress ion loads only.
Footpad.

1 . 3 . 2 . 2. 2

The footpad assures minimal penetration of the lunar surface. It has a diameter of 37
inches and can pivot at the end of tlu! primary strut. A lunar- surface sens ing probe is attached to each
footpad except the forward one.
Secondary Struts .

1. 3. 2. 2. 3

The outboard end of each secondary strut attaches to the primary strut; the inboard end ,
to the deployment truss. The secondary struts contain crushable aluminum honeycomb for shock
attentuation. These struts absorb compression and tension loads .
1 . 3. 2 . 2. 4

Uplock Assembly.

The uplock assembly for each landing gear assembly comprises a fixed link and an explosive
cutter device containing two end detonator cartridges . The fixed link, attached between the descent stage
structure and the primary strut, restrains the landing gear in its retracted (s towed) position. The cutter

Mission

LM

Basic Date

DESC ENT STAGE
1 February 1970 Change Date 1

April

197 1

Page

�1�-�1�
7

______

_______

I

LMA790- 3 - L V
APOLLO OPERATIQ(·; �: H ANDBOOK
SPACECRb F T

device is pinned t o the fixed link.

Setting the L D G G E A H DEP LOY switch to FIRE activates the

electrical circuit that fires the high- explosive charge in t f:,! end detonator cartridges .

The resulting
detonations impel cutter blades that sever the fixed link, f''�rmitting the deployment mechanism to fully
extend the landing gear.

1. 3. 2. 2. 5

E ither cartridge supplies suffi( l • ' :tf energy to sever the fixed links.

Deployment and Downlock Mechanism.

E ach deployment and downlock mechanis m 1 :·vo for each landing gear assembly) consists of
two spring-loaded devices and connecting linkage , which , 1cpl.oy and then lock the landing gear.

idler crank).

The deployment portion of the mechanism C<>nsi sts of a spring and linkage (a link and a cam
The linkage is attached between descent st age structure and the landing gear deployment

trus s . One end of the spring is attached to the linkage; ty·, ,: o ther end is coiled around a roller attached
to descent stage s tructure. After the uplock ass embly f L>�ed l.ink is severed, the spring coils up , pulling
on the linkage and indirectly on the deployment truss to f•Jll.y deploy the landing gear.

The downlock portion of each deploy ment anc: downlock mechanism cons ists of a spr ing­

loaded latch (with an integral cam follower) attached to descent stage structure, a latch roller on the

deployment truss , and two independent elec trical switch£.':> in a s ingle cas e . When the landing gear is
retracted, the latch is held open because the cam follow e:· rf:sts on the cam of the cam idler crank. As
the landing gear deploys , the cam rotates and, at full deployment, the cam follower drops off the cam
ramp, allow ing the spring to snap the latch over the latch roller.

stop on the s tructure.

This secures the roller against a
Simultaneously w ith the latching m otion, the electrical switches are actuated. to

change the LDG GEAR D EP L OY talkback from a s triped

m

a gray indication.

The indication, reflecting

the deployed and locked gear condition occurs if at least one of the two sw itches in each downlock device

has actuated.
vided.

An external visual indication that the landing gear is deployed and locked is also pro­

A red luminescent s tripe is painted on the lock lat;:: h and on the deployment truss .

become aligned when the landing gear ass emblies are down a nd locked.

These stripes

The s tr ipes can be seen, day or

night, from as far away as 100 feet; they serve as an indication that can be checked from the CM.

1. 3. 2 . 2. 6

Lunar-Surface Sensing P robe.
T he lunar-surface sensing probe attached to the left, right, and aft landing gear footpads i s

an electrome chanical device.

T h e probes are retained in the stowed position against the primary strut

until landing gear deployment. During deployment, mechanical interlocks are released, pe rmitting spring
energy to extend the probes below the footpad. At lunar c<mtact (just before landing gear impact) , two

mechanically actuated switches in each probe energize the LUNAR CONTACT lights to advise the crew to
shut off the descent engine. Each probe has two indicator plates, which, when aligned, indicate that the
probe is fully extended.

1 . 3.

2. 2 . 7

Ladder.

The ladder affixed to the primary strut of the forward leg assembly has rungs and railings .
The ladder is
It extends from the forward end of the platform to the end of the strut ' s outer cylinder.
used to climb to and from the· hatch during extravehicular activity on the lunar surface.

1. 3.

2.

3

Platform.

T he external platform, on the LM centerlini:' i mmediately below the forward hatch., provides
the astronauts with work space for handling eqJi.pment, ar.n ai.ds ingress to and egress from the LM.
The platform is approximately 3 feet square ; it is attache •;. to the des cent stage structure.

1. 4

LM - SLA - S - IVB CONNE CTIONS.

At earth launch, the LM is within the S LA, .. : . ich is connected to the S-IVB booste r. The
S LA has an upper section and a lower section. The outrh:p rs, to which the landing gear is attached,
provide attachment points for securing the LM to the SLA l · · wer section. The LM is mounted to the S LA
support structure on adjustable spherical seats at the ape:; '>f each of the four outrigge r s ; it is held in
place by a tension holddown strap at each mounting point. F cfore the LM is re moved, the upper section

I

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LM

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1 Ft·' ;· ·.: ;;ry 1 9 7 0

D E SC E NT S':.

Basic Date

Change Date

1 April 197 1

LMA790- 3-LM
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SPACEC RAFT
of the SLA is explosively separated into four segments. These segments, which are hinged to the lower
section, fold back and are then forced away from the SLA by spring thrusters. The LM is then explo­
sively released from the lower section.
LM-CSM INTERFACES.

1. 5

A ring at the top of the ascent stage provides a structural interface for j oining the LM to
the CM. The ring , which is compatible with the clamping mechanisms in the CM, provides st ructural
continuity. The drogue portion of the docking mechanism is secured below this ring. The drogue is
required during docking operations to mate with the CM- mounted probe. See figure 1 - 1 5 for orientation
of the LM to the CSM.
C REW TRANS FE R TUNNEL.

1 . 5. 1

The crew transfer tunnel (LM-CM interlock area) is the passageway c reated between the
LM overhead hatch and the CM forward pressure hatch when the LM and the CSM are docked. The
tunnel permits intervehicular transfer of crew and equipment without exposure to space environment.
The tunnel and the LM are pressurized from the CM.
1 . 5. 1 . 1

. Final Docking Latches.

T welve latches are spaced equally about the periphery of the CM docking ring. They are
placed around and within the C M tunnel so that they do not interfere with probe operation. When
secured, the latches ensure structural continuity and pressurization between the LM and the CM, and
seal the tunnel interface.
CREWMAN OPTICAL
ALI<•NI¥\CN I SIGHT

LM ACQUISITION
AND ORIENTATION
LIGHT (TYP)

LM COAS LINE
OF SIGHT POST
PITCHOVER POSITION

STAN DOFF CROSS AND
ALIGNMENT STRIPS
(LM - ACTIVE DOCKING
ALIGNMENT TARGET)

Figu re

1- 1 5 .

LM -Y·AXIS

LM

+Y·AXIS

}OOLM� 57

L M - CSM Reference Axes

D E SC E N"T STAGE

Mission

LM

Basic Date

1 February 1 9 7 0

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LMA790- 3-LM
APOLLO OPERATIONS I I AliDBOOK
SPAC ECRAF !'
Umbilical.

1. 5. 1 . 2
the C M.
1.

5. 1 . 3

hatch.
1 . 5. 1 . 4

An electrical umbilical , in the LM portion of the tunnel , is connected by an astronaut to
This connection can be made without drogue rem·. >val .
Docking Hatches.

The L M has a single docking (overhead) hatch; the CM has a single , integral , forward
The L M overhead hatch is not removable . It is hinged to open 7 5 ° into the cabin .
Docking Drogue.

The drogue assembly is a conical structure with provisions for mounting in the LM portion
of the c rew transfer tunnel. The drogue may be removed from either end of the crew transfer tunnel
and may be temporarily stowed in the CM or the LM, during Service Propulsion System (SPS) burns.
One of the three tunnel mounts contains a locking mechanism to secure the installed drogue in the tunnel.
1 . 5. 1. 5

Docking Probe.

The docking probe provides initial C M - LM coupling and attenuates impact energy imposed
by vehicle contact. The docking probe assembly consists of a central body, probe head, capture latches,
pitch arms, tension linkages, shock attenuators, a support structure, probe stowage mechanism, , probe
extension mechanism, probe retraction system, an extension latch, a preload torque shaft, probe
electrical umbilicals, and electrical circuitry. The assembly may be folded for removal and stowage
from either end of the transfer tunnel.
The probe head is self-centering. When it centers in the drogue the three capture latches
automatically engage the drogue socket. The capture· latches can be released by a release handle on
the C M side of the probe or by depressing a probe head release button from the LM side , using a special
tool stowed on the right side stowage area inside the cabin.
1 . 5. 1 . 6

Docking Aids.

Visual alignment aids are used for final alignment of the LM and CSM, before the probe
head of the CM makes contact with the drogue. The LM +Z-axis will align 50° to 70° from the CSM
- Z - axis and 30° from the CSM +Y-axis. The CSM position represents a 1 80° pitchover and a counter­
clockwise roll of 60° from the launch vehicle alignment configuration.
An alignment target is recessed into the LM so as not to protrude into the launch con­
figuration clearance envelope or beyond the LM envelope. The target, at approximately stations
- Y46. 300 and - ZO. 203, has a radioluminescent black standoff cross having green radioluminescent disks
on it and a circular target base painted fluorescent white with black orientation indicators. The base is
17. 68 inches in diameter. Crossmembers on the standoff cross will be aligned with the orientation in­
dicators and centered within the target circle when viewed at the intercept parallel to the X-axis and
perpendicular to the Y-axis and Z-axis.
1. 6

I

STOWAGE PROVISIONS.

The L M has provisions for stow ing crew personal equipment. The equipment includes such
items as the docking drogue; navigational star cffarts and an orbital map, umbilicals, a crewman's
medical kit; a lunar extravehicular visor assembly (LEVA) for each astronaut, a special
multipurpose wrench (tool B); spare batteries for the P LSS packs, and other items. For a
detailed list of crew personal equipment, refer to paragraph ?.. 1 1 .

I Page

1 -20

------

Mission

LM

STOWAGE P R O VISIONS
Basic Date l F e b ru a ry 1 9 7 0

C hange Date

1 April 197 1

LMA790- 3- LM
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SUBSYSTEMS DATA
G U I DANCE, NAVIGATION A N D CONTROL SU BSYSTE

RADAR SU BSYSTE

MAIN P R O P U LS I O N SU BSYSTE

REACTION CONTROL S U BSYSTE

ELECTR I C A L POWER SU BSYSTE

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SU BSYSTE

COMMU N I CATIO N S SU BSYSTE
I

EXPLO S I V E D E V I C ES S U BSYSTE

INSTRUMENT A liON S UBSYSTE

LIGHTIN

CREW

P E RSONAL EQ U I P MEN

r
I

-

--

1 !l1 r�< t

I

-h

M o de

j
I.

,

-

PagP

LMA790-3-LM
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SUBSYSTEMS DATA

���

<...\�tllh
.

Table
--

rl

�10 1 l l C 01'< I ROL
.

-

I

AGS sv. -

HOLL.

J ' r! t ' l l , and YAW .sw .
I J I H ( !"{'ll·l'ted on mrlivirlual:txJ -. b l« t -. )

.

���:��.!���������!
ba s .
.



Contr11l F kctrnnic's St'etion

Guid a n c e
!)'i gnal�

Pmntwns

�i r\�l(0l��A/:...."�)���
A, I I fl D� ( ONl llOl

2. 1 - 1 .

Abort guidance

si

r..lanual A ttitude
Control

���;:�r��fr��a

r

Astronaut com-

�!tru s ter s (two-

through on-andoff firing of

Jt'l operation

- �ummar.v

of Modes nf At

r.lanual Translation
Control

:�� �y !;��n��off
Translation com� 3

firin� of thrustf'r�

when TTCA i� moved

ti tude Conlrol (cont)
i\ttiturle
Damping

�:� ; :�

No rate damp1
is
e t

Engine Gimhal
Control
No AGS control

Bemarks
Same as for automatic mode
(AGS control), except that
attitude commands for selected
axis are directly applied to
�econdary coils

RCS

out of df•tcnt

direct tn

sccondarv
coils):

- -- --- ----------

___2 :_!..:_3_2

___ __

----�----�---L--�L--�

M1ssion � B<tsic Date
( , ( : I I Ji\ N C E .

NA VI<;ATION.

1

A N IJ CONTI!OL S ( lllSYSTEM

February 1970

Change Date ------

)

LMA790- 3 - L M
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SUBSYSTEMS DATA

(

--�-------�

::,Witches and
Po::; ilion:;

Mo...tc

-- - 'l'able

-

2. 1 - 1 .

-

Gui dance

--- ----------,--·----- --- -·-

r

MODE CONTHOL:

(PUNS

AUTO

contr o l )

GUID CONT sw - PGN.S

PGNS sw -

ATTITUDE CONTHOL:

HOLL,

lJITl: H , and Y A W sw -

-- -,

M an u al 'l' ran�l ab un

A tt l tude

Contrl,l

C untrul

IJalllJHllg

-

�.ngwc

Automatic �:�tccrin�

N/A

Linear translation uf

Acl:ulllpil�hcd

(See remark:;

l . M !Jy un ;uu.J-o[f

i n LGC

for manual

flrin� of ttu·usters

ovcrr ldt!)

wht.>n TTCA is moved

command!>

to

Jet

Gwll..�;.d

ContTul

and tru.nslalion are
p�rformed by LGC
driv er B .

MODE CONT (normally)

- --

MaJJual A tti t udl'

Signa It>

Autum atic

-

I

Cuntrul Llcctrumc:; Sl't:liUn - SU!JI Ill:.tl") uf i\lvde� ul AtlituJl' Control

-- ----

Pill:h .wd r u l l gun!Jal

conunamb f rum LGC
aP}.lltt!d to D F C A

Hem ark:,
All thru:.t..t:r cumtll.tlld� [r u m

J..G C

go

dl n:c t h lu p n m a r � tJrt:anrpltfl e r :; .
Attitude control

(un c ll un lti o\' e r­

nddt"ll b_\ operating ACA tu hardover

!lOStllon, thereby c:nmmandmg on­

out of detent

.tnd-of[ four- jtt operation through
:;ecun dar y �:oils of thruster solenutd

valve:::.. � x-a,.i.s translation 1s
ubt a t nt!d by commanding fuu r-jf:t
ope r a ti on dtl't:L'l tu IIC S :.-eccmd a r 1
�.: ui l � , lH vre::.::.wg 'X T H A t-; S L
pu:.hLutlun o n p a n t d S.
AltltuJc

1\tOIJt-: C 0 N T B U L :

llllld

ATT HOLD

Uti I l l

1 1 't;Ns
('Ul l l r o l )

PGN� �\' -

AT'I'!T l l l l l

l'O:\TIHll.:

StaiJi ! i t.ati(•ll t ti

AttihHk rate

I .GC t:otmn:ilu.J�

proput·tiullal to

fi t· ing uf thru:.tct·:.

/\.('A clb-.plan·­

wh(.•n TT!'A h ; moved.

a�.:c.:um vli :; hed by

CUNT ::." - p(;N:-;
JWI.l.,

Linear tr:m:.l.1tiun of

l'CliH I I I :ttld:> arc

tu JCl driver:;.

m cn l.

l ' IT C I I , a n d Y A \\i ow -

tude i ::;

M U I H t ' U N T (norm.t U y )

Lt-.1

b} un-and-off

OJU\h:

l'ltt·h <.� n d r o l l g11nLa\

Ill LGC

�.:unnn and � ln.rH LCC

cuntr•,J J .

ajJpl i t..'l.l to

� ::> made a v a i l a l d l· IJ1 cuternr� cutii­

lH CA

d ::i fur autumatJc

J I \ ,ifld 111tu

(i'C!\:,

!\luun1um 1 m pubc mtxlt:

IJSKY.

In

l/11.:. li l Oli(.· ,

l .l;l

�.:ullllllo.�Lit.l� "I l l' HCS pul�c t:a�.:h lllllt:

I.J\1 atti ­

hd.t

S<.tntt..>

r\CCOill J l(i.:.hcd

to

ACA

v a l u t • \\ht�n A l ' A

1 :.

lllu\"t!d past

1rum ddcnt.

L 5-

num mal l 1

! 1:1 t'cturncd to
dctcut.

(;\GS

)

A LI TO
( l lJ I J J t'ONT ::.\\ -

1\CS

l.M by un- and-uf{

H a te

fo.. manu:LI

s igna l � �um­

c onHu and.:. derived

firi ng uf thruster::.

mcd wttlt

frum ATCA s u m med

t u d e control functiOn is o\'ernddcn b }

commaJul t:haugc �

ovl!r ric.Jc)

when TTl' A

::>lt'l' l'ing

e r r u r channel:.

ope rating . -\ C A. to hardover po:;ittoll,

are ::;en t to

A TTl l ' t i ! H: l'UN'I ' H < J l . ·

HOLI.,

PITC I J , and Y A W »w -

in

MOIH. CONT

g}TU

::>t gn al B from AUS

N/ A

Autumahc :,leering

AGS sw ­

MOlH: CUNTHUL:

AutuJn..t.lH:
contr ol

C t·:s

Linear tr..ur�\al!IJII uf

(Sec I'CilWr!-::i

tu

Ll\1 attitude.

is nmved.

l'ttch <�.nd

J'()H

1-!, l l l t b:..t l

::.ignals

:\ll thru:.tct· conunanJ::; gu thro ugh
A ' I C A )ct :.cle�.:t logtc and PHi\1,

Atti­

the reb� cum m and mg on-.-nd-off four­

jet operauon through seconda ry

c oil �

uf thru::;ter ::.olenoid valve::; and I.Jy pass­

Jet
drivers . .,. X- axis translation is obtained
ing jet select logic, PRM's, and

by commandwg luur-jetupetMdltun dtrt:cl
t u H<'A :;c<.:undary ('(Jib, by prel:l::;lll�

·X

THA :--o S l . J•LI:.hbuttun

<! ur .f.

)t:t

(J\'­

t·ratluo uu !'>lllj.\lc .Ddti IJal:ill:i upttoual

fut· pi tc h or roll and X- translattun ., tlh

nu M I'� po'>' er. High and low gam rate

1 depend:. o n a:;�.:enl/c.Jesctnt condlttun.
Atll ludl'

1\101>1-'

GU LU CONT M.,

tM;s

AU:, �w ­

l'UNTHOL

ATT I I O I . I J

hold

-

ATTITUDE C U N T H U L

control)

M O U E CONTHOL:

Pulse

-

AGS :;""

sw

AGS

ATTITUDE CONTHOL:
PIT C I I , and YAW ::;w -

_.�t.�

-

-

ba :;� --

-

_____

are prop,,l'twnal

Ll\1 attitude.

Ab o rt

B OLL ,

l'l! LSL (Sl·lcclcd un i udiv idua l
--�

rat(.• eotntnands

�ignals interrupt�!

AUTO or ATT HO LD

GU ID C ONT

Applied >tlltludc

- 1 guidance

HOLL,

PITC H , a n d YAW BW MODE CONT

Aul.om ati..: sla­

L i l i t.•ttitm ::; J g: n a l .:. ,
w h i c h ltlatnlain

AGS

on tndivh.lual-axis

basis.

to ACA d.i:>place­
ment .

J

--·���------

LM alti­

'J'r·an::. lilhun

lll;Htd�

l'Uin­

moved out of

a L-q ui red value

detent

Pitch and roll !!,lfll La l
t'UinllHUHb dt:r!Vl'd

sl.:tbiliza.tion

error channels

:-.il{nab ::. u m ­

firing of thru ster s

when TTCA is

tude i s h eld to

!llt<d with

[{a ll' �)'I"U

-

alom� I.M

axts h} on-aml oJ[

from A T C A :.urnmed

S..cmt: a:. for autumatrc mWc
('ont rul ) .

(AGS

Hrgh and lo., gam rate

de1M:mb un asc�nt/de::.cent �.:ondJtJun.

:;tgnalti

when A C A is re­

t urned to detent .
A Blrun aut com-

munds a long LM

axes Ly on-and-off

through low-

fr t..'"qucncy pu ls

-

ing of thruster:.
l
J.�� o Jl' S ) ,

Nu rate damp­

Translation �.:om­

mands angular
acci:!leration

No AG� control

ing 111 a...'d s

Same a:. for autom&tic mode
(AG!::i control)

st!lected

firing of thruster s
when TTCA i s movcJ
out of detent
_ __j_____

G UIDANCE, NAVIGATION, AND CONTROL SUBSYSTEM
Mu,;:swn

LM

Basic Date

1 February

1970

Change Date

Page

2. 1�31

LMA790 - 3 - L �
APO L LO OPE RATIONS
SUBSYSTEMS D.
2. 1 . 3. 5

General Operation of the Coutrol Ele ctronics

T he PGNS, in conjunction with the CES, prov:
tion, and descent o r ascent propulsion maneuvers. Autonu
with manual inputs. As backup for P GNS control, the AGS,
if the P GNS malfunctions. Table 2. 1 - 1 contains a summar .
2. 1 . 3. 5. l

Attitude Control.

; on•
.•.utomatic control of LM attitude, transla­
'�ontrol can be overridden by the astronauts,
>plemented by manual inputs, can be used

the CES modes of attitude control.

(See figure 2. 1 - 1 7. )

LM attitude is controlled by X, Y, and Z axe s
automatic, attitude hold, pulse, direct, and hardover (man�.
modes are selected with the MODE C ONTRO L : P GNS or A1
ATTITUDE CONT RO L : RO L L , PITC H , and YAW switches .
Automatic Mode. The automatic mode provides fully autom
the LGC generates the required thruster commands and ro;
ATCA provide thruster. on and off commands to selected RC
the abort guidance mode, roll, pitch, and yaw attitude errr1 �
the ATCA. These e rror signals are passed through limite:­
from the RGA, demodulated, passed through selectable deac
P R M ' s and j et driver amplifiers, which fire the RCS j ets .
to correct the attitude e r rors. In the primary and abort gu·
attitude control about all three LM axes by initiating hardor

Attitude Hold Mode.

DBOOK

This is a semiautomatic mode, in wh!

change at an angular rate proportional to ACA displace men� .
detent (neutral) position. In the primary guidance mode, r:<
ment are sent to the LGC . The LGC operates on these con:

in the ATCA to command rotation rates by means of the thr" ·
neutral position, LM rotation stops and the LGC maintains �
with the ACA in the neutral position, LM attitude is held by
is moved out of the detent position, the attitude e r ror signai
mands proportional to ACA displacement are processed in t:
the desired vehicle rate is achieved. When the ACA is retu ·
reduced to zero and the AGS holds the LM in the new attituc•:
Pulse Mode. The pulse mode (minimum impulse control) is
P GNS is in control and ope rating in the attitude hold mode.

commands a minimum i mpulse burn for each movement of ti
The ACA must be momentarily returned to the detent positi<·

. �ere are five modes of attitude control :
•verride) . The automatic and attitude hold
'.\'itch ; the pulse and direct modes, with the

attitude control.

During P GNS control,

them to the ATCA. The j e t drivers in the
:imary solenoids for attitude changes. In
!;Jlals are generated in the AGS and sent to
:>d then are combined with damping signals
. ::d circuits, j et select logic circuits,
,.. jet select logic determines which jets fire
:> ::: e mode s , the astronaut can override .
.-:ommands with the ACA.
:·�ther astronaut can command an attitude

:..M attitude is held when the ACA is in the
:ommands proportional to ACA displace­

:lds and p rovides s ignals to the j et drivers
When the ACA i s returned to the
·:rs.
aew attitudE> . In the abort guidance mode,
. ws of AGS e r ro r signals. When an ACA
:·om the AGS are set to zero. Rate com­
ATCA, and the thruste rs are fired until
. :i to the detent position, the vehicle rate is
· ' iected by a DSKY entry (verb 76) when the
�• minimum impulse control, the LGC
.I,CA beyond 2. 5° of the detent position.
::.etween each impulse command. T he

:.s approximately five per second. In this
maximum rate at which minimum impulses can be commandc
mode, the astronaut performs rate damping and attitude ster· : "4t. When the AGS is in control, the pulse
, s (roll, pitch, and yaw) basis by setting
mode is an open-loop mode. It is selected on an individualthe app ropriate ATTITUDE CONT RO L switch ( RO L L , PITCH : ::- YAW) to P U LSE. When the pulse mode
is selected, automatic attitude control about the selected axi : lS disabled and a fixed t rain of pulses is
gene rated when the ACA is displaced. T o change attitude in : .. ; s mode, the ACA must be moved past 2. 5 o
from detent; this commands acceleration about the selected ... ·.::s. T o terminate LM rotation, an opposite
accele ration about the same axis must be commanded.
Direct Mode. The direct mode is also an open-loop acceler
axis basis by s etting the appropriate ATTITUDE CONTROL :
Automatic AGS attitude control about the selected axis is di!'
are routed to the RCS secondary solenoids when the ACA is
tinuously until the ACA is returned to the detent pos ition.

mode. It is selected on an individual ­
· : tch (ROLL, PITC H or YAW) to DIR.
! •.'<! and direct com mands to two thrusters
· ; •laced 2. 5 ° . The thruste r s fire con-

. m

· · the maximum limit (hardover position)
Hardover Mode. In an eme rgency, the ACA can be displace
to com mand an i m mediate attitude change about any axis . T . · displacement applies signals directly to
the RCS secondary solenoids to fire four thrusters. This n� . . · :1v er can be imple mented in any attitude
control mode.

GUIDANCE , NAVIGAT ION , M D C .

1_
Page_ 2 . _
3_0____ Mission
__:_.:...

LM

Basic Date

1 F eb 1· .

!'RO L SU B S YSTEM
·;

1970

C hange Date

__
______

LMA790 - 3 - LM
APOLLO OPE RATIONS HANDBOOK
SUBSYST EMS DATA



Initial conditions for AGS ope ration require that the AGS STATUS switch be set to STANDBY ,
then to OPE RATE . T he time between closing the circuit breakers and setting the A GS STATUS switch to
OPE RATE should be 40 minutes ; for at least the last 2 5 minutes , the switch should be set to STANDBY.
Degraded pe rformance is available after 1 0 minutes in the standby mode. When the AGS STATUS switch
is set to O F F , the AEA has no functional capability. After 20 seconds in the standby mode, the AEA can
accept the CDU zero signal and integrate the P GNS Euler angle changes. C o mplete AEA capability is
afforded when the switch is set to OPERATE. In the operate mode, the AEA enters a core - p ri ming
routine that ensures that the memory is properly magnetized.
AGS ope rations are performed mainly through two DEDA addresses : 400 and 4 1 0 . (Refer
to Apollo Operations Handbook, Volume II, paragraph 4. 4 for AGS selector logic list. ) Address 400 is
the AGS sub mode selector; add ress 4 1 0 , the guidance routine selector. The sele cted routine is computed
eve ry 2 seconds, regardless of the submode selected. The AGS does not respond to orient the LM in
accordance with the routine selected, unless DEDA address 400 (mode selector) is set to +00000 (attitude
hold), +1 0000 (guidance steering), or +20000 (Z-axis steering).
When the LM is unde r full AGS control, the engine-on signal cannot be generated unless the
guidance steering submode is selected. The engine-on signal is automatically generated after ullage has
been sensed for three (DEDA-accessible constant) consecutive computer cycles ( 2 seconds per cycle) .
The AGS recognizes ullage to have occur red when the average acceleration in the +X-direction exceeds
0. 1 fp s 2. (The average accele ration is DEDA-accessible. ) The ASA (containing the accelerometers) 1s
located ahead of the center of gravity (in the +X-direction) . Therefore, LM rotations cause sensed
accelerations in the -X-direction. For this reason, LM rotations cannot cause the AGS to sense that
ullage has occurred.
When the LM is not under full AGS control (neither the ABORT nor ABORT STAGE push­
button has been p ressed, or the MODE CONTROL: AGS switch is not set to AUTO, or the GUID CONT
switch is not set to AGS) , the AGS issues engine commands (on or oft) that duplicate actual engine
operation.
Under full AGS control, the ascent or descent engine is automatically commanded off when
the velocity to be gained in the +X- direction is less than the nominal ascent engine thrust decay velocity
and if the total velocity to be gained is less than a prescribed threshold (a D E DA - accessible constant
currently set at 1 00 fps) . This dual check maintains the engine on if an abort occurs during powered
flight with the LM incorrectly o riented for the abort maneuver and the velocity to be gained large
(greater than the 1 00 - fps threshold) .
When the velocity to be gained (LM under full AGS control) is less than 1 5 fps and the sensed
2
thrust acceleration level in the +X-direction is greater than 0. 1 fps , the desi red thrust direction is fixed
in inertial space (a form of attitude hold) .

If this were not done, the LM desired attitude might go

through an unde sirably wide excursion in an attempt to achieve perfect velocity cutoff conditions. Large
variations near the end of a maneuve r are undesirable. The velocity cutoff e r rors incurred by fixing the
desired attitude before engine cutoff are small. After the maneuver is completed, small cutoff e r rors
can be removed (if desired) by the axis-by - axis velocity trim capability of the AGS.
T he descent stage i s s taged {when the AGS is in control) by p ressing the ABORT STAGE
pus hbutton. T he staging sequence begins only when engine - on commands are issued. During a thrusting
maneuver, the staging sequence begins immediately upon pres sing the ABORT STAGE pushbutton (assum­
ing that all panel controls that transfer control of the LM to the AGS have been set prope rly) . The AGS
senses sufficient average thrust accele ration throughout the staging maneuver to maintain ullage. When

the AGS receives verification from the CES that the ascent engine is on, the AGS automatically ente rs the
attitude hold submode. After a prescribed interval, between zero and 1 0 seconds (DEDA -controlled,
pres ently set at 1 second) , the AGS automatically enters the nor mal guidance stee ring submode.

When the P GNS controls the LM {GUID CONT switch set to P GNS) , the A GS is in the followup
mode. Manual control of the LM by the astronauts (MODE C ONT ROL : P GNS switch set to ATT HO LD,
attitude controller out of detent) also causes the followup signal to be routed to the AGS. In the followup
mode, the AGS follows the P GNS by routing engine commands (on or oft) in acco rdance with ascent o r
descent engine operation and provides zero attitude control e r ro r signals. The A GS p rovides attitude
e r ro r signals (corre sponding to the AEA guidanc e solutions) for the FDAI ' s when the P GNS is in cont ro l ,
the MODE CONTRO L : P GNS switch is set to AUTO , the ATTITUDE MON switch is set to A GS , and the
RATE/E RR MON switch is set to LDG RDR/C M PT R.
GUIDANCE , NA VIGAT ION . AND C ONT RO L SUBSYSTEM
Mission

LM

Basic Date

1 February 1 9 7 0

C hange Date

1 5 J une 1 97 0

Page

2 . 1 -29
_______

__
__

I

"Ci
!"'
ilG
ro

ABORT

""
.....
I
""

CONTROL
ELECTRON ICS
SECTION

ABORT

o::>



CES SWITCHI NG GROUND


Cll
0

�::0

r-

PGNS I N USE

Ci

s

t:)



E::: ()
til



r;·t:)

trl

>

z

;S

Ci
>
!"'
....
. ro
>-l
0
z

AGS

L-..0""!

0
AUIO

MODI CONTIOL
AG!

""

:

'
� -J

AUTOMATIC

TT HOLD



0

L
� OFF

I

ACA OUT
OF DETENT

I
L__

( 51 AB/CONT,

LMP'S
28-VDC
BUS

I

{)
•u

9

ATTITUDE MON

/

""-

- - --



LOG

I

"'"' o

I

AGS�

tOTAL ATTITUDE

VELOCI TY INCREMENT!

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LMA790- 3 - LM
APOLLO OPE RATIONS HANDBOOK
SUBSYSTEMS DATA

IAsOiTGUiDANcE's'iCii'oN -- ,

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The abort guidance path operates in the automatic mode or the attitude hold mode. In the
automatic mode, navigation and guidance functions are controlled by the A GS ; stabilization and control
functions, by the CES. In the attitude hold mode, the astronaut uses his ACA to control vehicle attitude.
The ACA generates attitude- rate, pulse, direct, and hardover commands. The attitude- rate and pulse
commands, AEA e rror signals, RGA rate-damping signals, and TTCA translation commands are applied
to the ATCA. T he ATCA processes these inputs to gene rate thruster on and off commands.
In the attitude hold mode, pulse and direct submodes are available for each axis. The pulse
submode is an open-loop attitude control mode in which the ACA is used to make small attitude changes
in the selected axis. The direct submode is an open- loop attitude control mode in which pairs of thrusters
are directly controlled by the ACA. The astronaut can also control vehicle attitude in any axis by moving
the ACA to the hardover position. In addition, the astronaut can override translation control in the
+X-axis with a +X-axis translation pushbutton. P ressing the pushbutton fires all four +X-axis thruste rs .
2. 1 . 3. 3



General Ope ration of Primary Guidance and Navigation Section.

(See figure 2. 1 - 1 5. )

T his discussion of PGNS operation is limited to astronaut interface with the PGNS, because
operation is dependent upon the LGC program in process and upon the mission phase. T he astro­
naut can perform optical sightings, monitor subsystem performance, load data, select the mode of
ope ration, and, with the aid of the PGNS, manually control the LM. The program to be performed by
the LGC is selected by the astronaut or initiated by the LGC.
P GNS

T he DS KY enables the astronaut to communicate with the LGC and perform a variety of tasks
such as testing the LGC , entering voice link data, and commanding I MU mode switching. T he hand con­
trolle rs permit manual changes or computer-aided manual changes in attitude or translation. The P GN S
GUIDANC E , NAVIGATION,
Page

2 . 1 - 24

Mission

LM

Basic Date

AND C ON T RO L

1 F ebruary 1 9 7 0

SUBSYST E M

Change Date _______

_

LMA790 -3 - LM
APO L LO OPE RATIONS HANDBOOK
SUBSYSTEMS DATA

•.

the IMU. U s ing inputs from the LR, I MU , RR, TTCA ' s , and AC A ' s , the LGC solves guidance, navigation,
stee ring, and stabilization equations necessary to initiate on and off commands for the descent and ascent
engine s , throttle commands and trim com mands for the descent engine, and on and off commands for the
thrusters.
C ontrol of the vehicle, when using the primary guidance path, ranges from fully automatic to
manual. The primary guidance path operates in the automatic mode or the attitude hold mode. In the
automatic mode, all navigation, guidance , stabilization, and control functions are controlled by the LGC.
When the attitude hold mode is selected, the astronaut uses his ACA to bring the vehicle to a desired
attitude. When the ACA is moved out of the detent position, propo rtional attitude- rate or minimum
impulse commands are routed to the LGC. The LGC then calculates steering information and generates
thruster com mands that correspond to the mode of operation selected via the DSKY. These com mands
are applied to the p rimary p reamplifiers in the ATCA, which routes the commands to the proper thruster.
When the astronaut releases the ACA, the LGC generates commands to hold this attitude.

If the astro-

naut commands four - j et direct ope ration of the ACA by going to the hard over position, the ACA applies
the co mmand dire ctly to the secondary solenoids of the corresponding thruste r.

I

In the· automatic mode, the LGC generates descent engine throttling commands, which are
routed to the descent engine via the DEC A. The astronaut can manually control descent engine throttling
with his TTCA. The DECA sums the TTCA throttle commands with the LGC throttle com mands and
applies the resultant signal to the descent engine. T he DECA also applies trim commands, generated by
the LGC , to the GOA ' s to provide trim control of the descent engine. The LGC supplies on and off com­
mands for the ascent and descent engines to the S&C control assemblies. T he S&C control assemblies
route the ascent engine on and off commands directly to the ascent engine, and the des cent engine on and
off com mands to the descent engine via the DECA.
In the automatic mode, the LGC generates +X- axis t ranslation com mands to p rovide ullage.
In the manual mode, manual translation commands are generated by the astronaut, using his TTCA.
These commands are routed, through the LGC, to the ATCA and on to the proper thruster.
2 . 1. 3 . 2

Abort Guidance Path.

(See

figure 2. 1 - 1 4 . )

T he abo rt guidance path comprises the A GS , C E S , and the selected propulsion section. The
AGS performs all inertial navigation and guidance functions necessary to effect a safe orbit or rende zvous
with the CSM. The stabilization .and control functions are performed by analog computation techniques,
in the C ES .

T he AGS u s e s a s trapped -down ine rtial sensor, rather than the stabilized, gimbaled sensor
used in the IMU. T he ASA is a strapped-down inertial sensor package that measures attitude and acceler­
ation with respect to the vehicle body axes. The ASA-sensed attitude is supplied to the AEA, which is a
high-speed, gene ral-purpose digital computer .that performs the basic strapped- down system computations
and the abort guidance and navigation steering control calculations. The DEDA is a gene ral -purpose
input-output device through which the astronaut manually enters data into the AEA and commands various
data readouts.
T he C E S functions as an analog autopilot when the abort guidance path i s selected. It uses
inputs from the AGS and from the astronauts to p rovide the following : on, off, and TTCA throttling com ­
mands for the descent engine ; gimbal commands for the GDA ' s to control descent engine t ri m ; on and off
commands for the ascent engine ; sequencer lo!iJi,c to ensure proper arming and staging before engine
startup and s hutdown ; on and off commands for the thrusters for translation and stabilization, and for
various maneuvers ; j et- select logic to select the proper thrusters fo r the various maneuve r s ; and modes
of vehicle control, ranging fro m fully automatic to manual.
T he astronaut uses the TTCA to control descent engine throttling and translation maneuv e r s .
engine o n and off commands from the S & C control assemblies , and trim com­
mands from the ATCA are applied to DECA. The DECA applies the throttle commands to the descent
engine , the engine on and off commands to the des cent engine latching devi ce, and the trim commands to
the GOA ' s . T he S&C control assemblies receive engine on and off com mands for the descent and ascent
engines from the AEA. As in the primary guidance path, the S&C control assemblies route des cent engme
com mands to the DECA and apply ascent engine on and off com mands directly to the ascent engine.
T he throttle commands,

GUIDANC E , N A VIGATION, AND CONTROL SUBSYSTEM
Mission

LM

Basic Date

1 February 1 9 7 0

2 :.
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LMA790 - 3 - LM
APO L LO OPE RATIONS HANDBOOK
SUBSYSTEMS DATA

2. 1 . 2. 5

GN&CS - CS Interface.

T he Communications Subsystem (CS) interfaces directly with the GN&CS when the astronaut
uses a pus h-to-talk switch on his ACA. When the switch is pressed, the ACA issues a d- e signal that
enables an audio center in the s ignal -processor assembly of the VH F/AM communications. This
enabling signal allows the audio s ignals from the mic rophones to be processed by the C S . Automatic re­
mote control of the LGC is provided through use of a digital uplink assembly (DUA) .

from MS FN, processed by the DUA, are used for program control.

GN&CS, using VH F/AM communications for voice uplink commands.

I

U plink commands

The CS inte rface s indi rectly with the
It also interfaces with a tone

generator in the C ES. The generator, enabled by a command from the master alarm circuit of the
Instrumentation Subsystem (IS) , issues a 1 - kc tone to the astronaut headsets as an indication of a sub­
system malfunction.
2. 1 . 2.

6

GN&CS - EDS Interface.

T he GN&CS interfaces with the Explosive Devices Subsystem (EDS) by supplying a descent
engine on signal to the supercritical helium explosive valve and an ascent engine on signal , which initiates
the staging sequence. When the descent engine is operated for the first time, the MASTER ARM switch
(panel 8) is set to ON so that the superc ritical helium explosive valve is blown when the des cent engine on
signal is issued. All other normal pressurization and staging sequences are initiated by the astronauts.

I

During an emergency situation, the ABORT STAGE pushbutton when pushed, shuts down the
descent engine and pressurizes the APS , blowing the helium tank explosive valves that are selected by the
ASC He S E L switch (panel 8) . After a time delay, the GN&CS generates an ascent engine on signal which
initiates the staging sequence as the ascent engine begins to fire. Upon completion of staging, a stage
status signal is routed from the E DS deadface switch to the ATCA and to the LGC . This signal automati­
cally selects the power deadband for RCS control during ascent engine operation.
2.

1.

2. 7

GN&CS - IS Interface .

T he Instrumentation Subsystem (IS) senses GN&CS physical status data, monitors the
GN&CS equipment, and performs in-flight checkout. The data signals are conditioned by the signal­
conditioning electronics assembly (SCEA) and supplied to the pulse- code- modulation and timing
electronics asse mbly (PCMTEA) and the caution and warning electronics asse mbly (CWEA) . The
P CMTEA changes the input signals to a serial digital form for trans mission to MS FN . The C WEA checks
the status of the GN&CS by continuously monito ring the information supplied by the SCEA. When an out­
of-limits condition is detected by the CWEA, the CWEA energizes one or more of the caution and warning
lights associated with the GN&CS.
The LGC interfaces directly with the IS to supply a 1 . 0 24 - mc primary timing signal for the
PCMTEA. This timing s ignal is used in generating timing and sync signals required by other sub­
systems. The IS supplies the LGC with telemetry data start and stop commands and sync pulses for
clocking out telemetry data.
2.

1. 3

It also supplies the AEA with telemetry stop commands and sync pulses.

FUNCTIONAL DESC RIPTION.

T he GN&CS comprises two functional loops, each of which is an independent guidance and
control path. The primary guidance path contains elements neces sary to perform all functions required
to complete the lunar mission. If a failure occurs in this path the abort guidance path can be s ubstituted.


2. 1 .

3.

1

P rimary Guidance Path.

(See figure 2. 1 - 1 3 . )

T he primary guidance path comprises the PGNS, C E S , LR, RR, and the selected propulsion
section required to perform the desi red maneuvers. The C ES routes flight control commands from the
P GNS and applies them to the descent or ascent engine, and/o r the approp riate thrusters.
T he IMU, which continuously measures attitude and accele ration, is the primary inertial
sensing device of the vehicle. The LR senses sl ant range and velocity. The RR coherently tracks the
C S M to derive LOS range, range rate , and angle rate. The LGC uses AOT star-sighting data to align

GUIDANC E , NAVIGATION, AND CONTROL SUBSYSTEM
Mission

LM

Basic Date

1 February 1 9 7 0

Change Date

1 5 June 1 970

Page __.
2�
·.a.
1.;;.
·2
.,_
1 ____

I



LMA790-3- LM
APOL LO OPE RATIONS HANDBOOK
SUBSYSTEMS DATA
Throttle commands to the descent engine are generated automatically by the LGC under
I program control, or manually with a TTCA. The TTCA can be used to override LGC throttle commands.
The AGS cannot throttle the descent engine . Throttle commands cause the throttle actuator of the
descent engine to change the position of the flow control valves and vary the injector orifice of the
engine. Changing the position of the flow control valves changes the quantity of fuel and oxidizer metered
into the engine and thus changes the magnitude of engine thrust.
The GN&CS generates trim commands to tilt the descent engine to control the direction of
the thrust vector. The descent engine is tilted about the LM Y -axis and Z - axis to compensate for the
offset of the center of gravity due to fuel depletion during descent engine operation. The thrust vector is
I controlled by the LGC with the aid of two GDA 's. The GDA 's are pinned to the descent engine and the
L M structure along the Y-axi.s (roll) and Z -axi.s (pitch). When actuated, the GDA's extend or retract a
screwjack-actuated arm that tilts the engine to attain the desired thrust vector. Thrust vector control
for the ascent engine is achieved through firing of selected upward -firing TCA 's.
GN&CS - RCS Interface.

2. 1 . 2. 2

T he GN&CS provides on and off commands to the 1 6 TCA's (referred to as thrusters or j ets)
to control LM attitude and translation. In the primary mode of operation (PGNS in control) , the LGC
generates the required commands and sends them to the proper jet drivers in the C ES. The jet drivers
send selected on and off commands to the RCS primary solenoids. In the secondary mode of operation
I (AGS in control), the AGS supplies the CES with attitude errors. The ATCA in the CES uses these
inputs to select the proper thruster for attitude and translation control.
I

The thrusters are controlled manually with an ACA and a TTCA.
The ACA pro vides attitude commands and the TTCA provides translation co mmands to the LGC during the
primary mode of operation and to the ATCA during the secondary mode of operation. The ACA
c a.ri fire the thrusters directly during the pulse, direct, and hardove r modes, bypassing the LGC or AEA,
I and the ATCA. The four downward-firing thrusters may be fired by pressing the +X TRANSL pushbutton
(panel 5) . T he on and off commands supplied to the thruster take the form of a step function. The dura­
tion of the signal determines the firing time of the selected thruster, which ranges from a pulse (less than
1 second} to steady-state (1 second or longer) .
E ach thruster contains an oxidizer solenoid valve and a fuel solenoid valve which, when open,
pass propellant through an injector into the combustion chamber, where ignition occurs. Each valve
contains a primary (automatic} solenoid and a secondary (direct) solenoid, which open the valve when
energized. On and off commands from the ATCA are applied to the primary solenoids ; the direct
commands are applied to the secondary solenoids.
2. 1 . 2. 3
_

GN&CS - E PS Interface.

The Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS} supplies primary d-e and a-c power to the GN&CS.
This power originates from six silver- zinc batteries (four in the descent stage and two in the ascent
I stage). An additional battery has been added in the ascent stage for LM 10 and subsequent. The descent
batteries feed power to the buses during all operations , before staging. Immediately before staging
occurs, ascent battery power is switched on and descent battery power is terminated. A deadface relay
circuit deadfaces the descent batteries when normal staging occurs. Unde r emergency conditions , when
the ABORT STAGE pushbutton is pressed, a pow� r switchover command, which initiates deadfacing
automatically, is routed to the E PS. The 2 8-volt d-e battery power is routed through an inverter to pro­
vide 1 1 5 -volt, 400- cps ac to the GN&CS equipment. Refer to paragraph 2. 1 . 3 . 6 for a functional descrip­
tion of powe r distribution.
2. 1 .

2. 4

GN&CS - ECS Interface.

1 sensitive electronic equipment of the GN&CS.

The Environmental C ontrol Subsystem (E CS) provides thermal stability for the tempe ratureThe electronic equipment (except the IMU) is mounted on
cold plates and rails through whi ch E CS coolant (ethy lene glycol-wate r s·olution) is routed to remove heat.
To cool the IMU, the coolant flows through its cas e . The heat that is removed from the equipment i s
vented overboard by the ECS subli mato rs.

Page

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GUIDANCE, NA VIGATI00i
Mission LM Basic Date

.

!

\.:--< D C ONT RO L

.

;.- , , h r u a r y 1970

SUBSYST EM
C hange Date

0_
e _1_9_7_
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�·

LMA790-3-LM
APOLLO OPE RATIONS HANDBOOK
SUBSYSTEMS DATA



+X

+Y

-Y

+X
240°

270°

Joo

·

SIDE VIEW
I
I
I

1 20°

I

+Y - AXlS

8-JOOLM A-!4.3

90.

Figure 2. 1 - 1 2. Alignment Optical Telescope Axes
I
this involves setting the ENG ARM switch to the desired position.
Depending on the switch
setting, a discrete is generated in the CES to enable the START pushbutton (panel 5) for ascent engine
operation or to operate actuator isolation valves for descent engine operation. Under abort or eme rgency
conditions, the ABORT and ABORT STAGE pushbuttons (panel 1 ) are used to perform the arming function. I

When the PGNS is in control, on and off commands are generated automatically by the
LGC under program control, or manually with the START pushbutton (panel 5 ) and stop pushbuttons (panels 5 and 6). With the AGS in control, on and off commands are generated automatically by
the AEA (an abort guidance computer) under specific routines, or manually with the START and
The on and off command.tl actuate pilot valves, which hydraulically open or
stop pushbuttons.
close the fuel and oxidizer shutoff valves .
Under emergency conditions , the ascent engine ignition
sequence may also be automatically completed through use of the ABORT STAGE pushbutton. If
the ascent engine-on command from either computer is lost, a memory circuit in the CES keeps issuing
the command to the ascent engine.
T he descent engine receives on and off commands, throttle commands, and trim commands
from the DECA. The ignition sequence commands for the descent engine are generated automatically
or manually in a manner similar to that of the ascent engine. On and off commands are routed from
either computer (dependent on the guidance mode selected) , or the START and stop pushbuttons, through
the DECA to actuate the descent engine pilot valves .

Mission

LM

GUIDANCE, NAVIGATION , AND CONT ROL SUBSYSTEM
Basic Date 1 February 1970 Change Date 1 5 June 1 970
Page

1 9 ____
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_ ..:...

_

I

I

I

I

LMA790- 3 - LM
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOO K
SUBSYSTEMS DATA
.

AOT
OGA SHAFT AXIS

LM
+ I-AXIS
--t--ijlf-----t;+-H-1-Ht---+-b:=f--+- + z ••

B-JOOlM-4- I SO

Figure 2. 1 - 1 1 .
2. 1 . 1. 5. 3

LM Vehicle and GN&CS Axes

IMU Axes.

T he IMU axes are defined by the three gimbal axes. These axes are designated as outer
gimbal axis (OGA) , middle gimbal axis (MGA) , and inner gimbal axis (IGA) . The gimbal axes are defined
when the gimbal angles are 0° ; they are as follows: the OGA is parallel to the X-axis, the MGA is paral­
lel to the Z -axis, and the IGA is parallel to the Y -axis. The axes of the IMU stable member are parallel
to the vehicle axes and the gimbal axes when the gimbal angles are 0 ° .
Inertial Reference Integrating Gyro Axes. The inertial reference integrating gyro (IRIG) axes, designated
Xg, Yg, and Zg, are parallel to the LM vehicle axes. If the attitude of the stable member is changed with
respect to inertial space, the gyro senses the change about its axis and provides an error signal to the
stabilization loop of the IMU.
Pulse Integrating Pendulous Accelerometer Axes. The pulse integrating pendulous accelerometer (PIPA}
I axes, designated Xa, Ya, and Za, are parallel to the LM body-axes. Velocity changes are measured
along the PIPA axes.
2. 1. 1 . 5. 4
I

Alignment Optical Telescope Axes.

(See figure 2. 1 - 1 2 . )

The AOT is mounted to the navigation base so that the AOT shaft axis is parallel to
the X-axis. The telescope LOS is approximately 45 above the vehicle Y - Z plane.
The AOT LOS
is fixed in elevation and movable in azimuth to six detent positions.
These detent positions are
selected manually by turning a detent selector knob on the AOT; they are located at 60 intervals. All
six positions (forward, right, right rear, rear, left rear, and left) are used for star sightings. The
forward ( F) , or zero, detent position places the LOS in the X-Z plane, looking forward and up as one
would look from inside the LM. The right (R) and right rear (RR) detent positions place the LOS 60° and
1 20° , respectively, to the right of the X - Z plane. Similarly, the left (L) and the left rear (L R) detent
positions place the LOS 60° and 1 20° , respectrrely, to the left of the X- Z plane. The rear (CL) detent
position places the LOS in the X-Z plane, looking aft as one would look from inside the LM. In addition,
the C L position (180° from the F position) is the stowage position. . Each position maintains the LOS at
4 5° from the LM + X-axis.
o

o

2. 1. 2

SUBSYSTE M INT ERFACES.

2. 1. 2. 1

GN&CS - MPS Interfaces.

(See figure 2. 1 - 2. )

The GN&CS provides a sequence of commands to the Main Propulsion Subsystem (MPS) to
control the ascent and descent engines. For ignition to occur, the engine must first be armed. Normally,

Page

2. 1 - 1 8

-------

GUIDANCE , NAVIGATION , AND CONTROL SUBS YSTEM
Mission LM Basic Date 1 February 1970
Change Date

_;1�
5_;J�u�n�
e__,l,_,9'-"7-"-0

_

__

LMA790 - 3 - LM
APOLLO OPE RATIONS HAND BOOK
S U BSYSTEMS DATA.

The ATCA routes the RCS thrus ter on and off commands from the LGC to the thruste rs, in
the primary control mode. During abo rt guidance control, the ATCA acts as a computer in determining
which RCS thrusters are to be fired.
2. 1 . 1 . 3 . 4



Rate Gyro Assembly.



The RGA supplies the ATCA with damping signals to limit vehicle rotation rates and facili­
tates manual rate control during abort guidance control.
2. 1. 1 . 3. 5

I

Descent Engine Control Asse mbly .

The DECA processes engine- throttling commands from the ast ronauts (manual control) and
the LGC (automatic control), gimbal commands for thrust vector control, preignition (arming) commands,
and on and off commands to control descent engine ope ration.
The DECA accepts engine-on and engine -off commands from the S&C control assemblies,
throttle commands from the LGC and the TTCA, and tri m com mands from the LGC or the ATCA.
De modulators, comparators, and relay logic circuits convert these inputs to the required descent engine
commands. The D E C A applies throttle and engine control commands to the descent engine and routes
trim commands to the gimbal drive actuato rs.
2 . 1. 1. 3.

6

Gimbal Drive Actuators.

The GDA ' s , unde r control of the DECA, tilt the descent engine along the pitch and roll axes
s o that the thrust vector goes through the LM center of gravity .
2. 1 . 1. 3. 7





Ascent Engine Arming Assembly.

The AEAA p rovides a means of arming and firing the ascent engine unde r remote control.
Under remote control, MSFN can select PGNS o r AGS control of ascent engine firing through uplink com­
mands processed by the Communications Subsystem. The AE AA performs this function by duplicating
the functions of the E NG ARM and GUID CONT switches (panel 1 ) , using relay logi c .
2. 1. 1. 3.

8



S&C Control Assemblies.

The three S&C control assemblies are similar assemblies.
distribute the various signals associated with the GN&CS.
2. 1. 1.

4

They process, switch, and/or

O rbital Rate Display - E arth and Lunar.

The ORDEAL provides an alternative to the attitude display, in pitch only. When selected,
the ORDEAL produces an FDAI display of c omputed local vertical attitude during circular orbits around
the earth.
2. 1. 1. 5

LM Vehicle, and Guidance, Navigation, and Control Subsystem Axes.

(See figure 2. 1 - 1 1 . )

Several sets of axes are associated with the LM and the GN&CS. E ach set is a three-axis,
right- hand, orthogonal c oo rdinate system. Figure 2. 1 - 1 1 shows the relationships of various sets of axes
when the IMU gimbal angles are 0 ° .
2. 1. 1. 5. 1

LM Vehicle Axe s .

T he X - axis positive direction i s through the ove rhead hatch ; the Z - axis positive direction is
through the forward hatch. T he Y -axis is perpendicular to the X - Z plane.
2. 1. 1. 5. 2

Navigation B ase Axes .

The navigation base (N B ) is mounted to the LM structure so that a coordinate system is
formed by its mounting points. The YN B axis is parallel to the vehicle Y - axi s. The XN B axis is parallel
to the vehicle X - axis. The Z N B axis is perpendicular to the XN B - YN B plane and parallel to the vehicle
Z - axis.
GUIDANC E , NAVIGATION, AND CONTROL SUBSYS T E M
Mi ssion_-'L""M"'-'---- Basic Date

February 1 970

Change Date

15 June 1 970

Page

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