B NET 155 Bootstrap3 .pdf



Nom original: B-NET-155_Bootstrap3.pdf

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B2- Introduction to
Networks
B-NET-155

Bootstrap 3
Configuring Small Networks

v1.1

Bootstrap 3
Configure an IP Address
There are two options for configuring an IP address:
• Temporarily:
Terminal

+ x

∼/B-NET-155> ip addr add [addr_ip] [netmask] dev [name_interface]
• Permanently:
Terminal
∼/B-NET-155> nano /etc/network/interfaces
auto [name_interface]
iface [name_interface] inet static
address [addr_ip]
netmask [netmask]
∼/B-NET-155> /etc/init.d/networking restart

+ x

IP Aliasing
IP Aliasing enables you to create an alias on the network card.
This alias allows the user to attribute several IP addresses to one, single physical network card.
In order to configure an alias:
Terminal
∼/B-NET-155> ip addr add [addr_ip] [netmask] dev [name_interface]:[num_alias]

1

+ x

Default Gateways
Default gateways enable two IT networks to be linked.
The equipment that functions as a gateway is located in both networks.

The default gateway is the interface to which the packets intented for unknown networks will be sent by default.
There are two options to configure a default gateway:
• Temporarily:
Terminal

+ x

∼/B-NET-155> ip route add default via [addr_interface_gw]
• Permanently:
Terminal
∼/B-NET-155> nano /etc/network/interfaces
gateway [addr_interface_gw]

+ x

Routes
A route is an instruction that defines the path to be taken by the machine to access a specific network.
There are two options for configuring a route:
• Temporarily:
Terminal
∼/B-NET-155> ip route add [addr_network] [netmask] via [addr_interface] dev
[name_interface]

+ x

• Permanently:
Terminal
∼/B-NET-155> nano /etc/network/interfaces
up ip route add [addr_network] [netmask] via [addr_interface] dev [name_interface]

2

+ x

IP Forwarding
IP Forwarding allows a network’s packets to be transferred to another network.
It is part of the OSI model’s layer 3 (Network layer).
The data is not modified, only transferred.

If deactivated, IP forwarding is at 0. There are two options in order to tell if it’s activated:
Terminal
∼/B-NET-155> cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
sysctl net.ipv4.ip_forward

+ x

To temporarily activate IP forwarding:
Terminal

+ x

∼/B-NET-155> echo -n 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
To permanently activate IP forwarding:
Terminal
∼/B-NET-155> nano /etc/sysctl.conf
net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
∼/B-NET-155> /etc/init.d/procps restart

3

+ x

Traceroute
Traceroute is a debugging tool that enables the discovery of a network’s topology and helps manage network errors.
It shows the path used by the IP datagram.
It uses the ICMP protocol (Interface Control Message Protocol) and is located in the third layer of the OSI model
(Network layer).
Here is how it works:
• When an IP datagram crosses a router, its TTL (Time-to-live) is decreased to one unit.
• When a datagram is destroyed (TTL equal to 0), and ICMP error is sent to the datagram’s sender. This message
contains details about the router that destroyed the datagram.
• By default, the linux TTL is 255.

ICMP = Time exceeded
TTL=1

TTL=0
ICMP = Time exceeded

TTL=2

TTL=1

TTL=0
ICMP = Time exceeded

TTL=3

TTL=2

TTL=1

TTL=0
ICMP = Answer

TTL=4

TTL=3

TTL=2

TTL=1

Hands-On Activities

VM1

VM2

VM3

Optimize the class C address 192.168.1.0 to create 2 subnetworks.
Create three Debian virtual machines, without GUI, that are made up of only one network card.
Configure the three virtual machines to communicate with each other.
Use Traceroute to follow the path of a package.

You must only use one network card on each virtual machine

4


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