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Summary of the 4th A.M Programme By Moudjib .pdf



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Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

Summary of the 4th A.M Programme
File : 01
I / Tag Questions
Tag questions are short questions added to the end of the statement .
"
!
* When using tag questions, watch for 4 points:
( )* ' $
%& Tag questions
1- What tense is the verb?

!"

#

$ %&' #
2- What kind of verb is it? ( to be, to have or other verbs)
"0 0 !+ , !+ . /&/ , */# - !+ / ) * + %& ,)- . #(
3- Is the sentence affirmative or negative?
" $3&
2 &
#1
4- Does the pronoun need to be changed?
"5 6 7)8 9 : ; 87 1
#4
(1)
* The Tag question is made up of an auxiliary verb and a pronoun.
4 2 , 3 !+
*/-"
Pronoun
Statements
Tag question
You are Algerian ,
Aren't you ?
< . = >? @56 78
Auxiliary verb
(1)
Auxiliary Verb :
$ 3
!+ ( 1 )
( is – are – was – were – have – has – can – could – must – should – will – would ) .
EXAMPLES :
9
Statements
Tag question
It is a lovely day,
isn't it ?
They are expensive ,
aren't they ?
It was raining yesterday ,
wasn't it ?
You were at the party ,
weren't you ?
You have got a big garden ,
haven't it ?
(1)
You have to work hard these days , don't you ?
He has got flu ,
hasn't it ?
(1)
He has to drive more carefully now , doesn't he ?
He can cook well ,
can't he ?
She could swim when she was five ,
couldn't she ?
They can do many things ,
can't they ?
You must get up early tomorrow ,
mustn't you ?
She should try harder ,
shouldn't she ?
Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane
You will tell me now ,
won't you ?
It would be sad ,
wouldn't it ?
( 1 )
Where have is used as a main verb, it behaves as a normal verb, and takes the
auxiliary do, does or did .

RULES :
/:
1- If the auxiliary verb in the statement is positive (+) without not, the tag question is
negative (-).
" H A)I
AG < not A F %&0E/ D?)&
C
$ A B: #
EXAMPLES :
9
Statements ( + )
Tag question ( - )
You are Algerian ,
Aren't you ?
2- If the auxiliary verb in the statement is negative (-), the tag question is positive (+).
" H?)& A)I
AG 0#/ D
C
$ A B: # (
Statements ( - )
Tag question ( + )
You aren't Algerian ,
Are you ?
3- If there is no auxiliary verb in the statement, we use main verb( 1 ) .
" (1)
=
$
- C &
( ; ) The Main Verb :

%I7 J B: #1
<3 =

!>

;

( did – do – does )
EXAMPLES :
9
Statements
Your father bought a car ,
The students write the lesson ,
Ann goes to Paris ,

Tag question
didn't he ?
don't they ?
doesn't she ?

Tense
Past
Present

NOTES :
?@ A
1- When the subject is : I am the tag question is : aren't I .
" aren't I
A)I I am C $ A)I7 3 L K
EXAMPLE :
9
I am right, aren't I ?
2- When the subject is : ( nobody, somebody, everybody, no one, someone or everyone )
we use they in the tag questions.
they
- 0nobody, somebody, everybody, no one, someone or everyone/ C $ A)I7 3 L K (
"

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

(

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane
EXAMPLE :
9
Nobody asked for me, did they ?
3- When the subject is : ( nothing ) we use it in the tag questions.
"
it
- 0 nothing / C $ A)I7 3 L K 3
EXAMPLE :
9
Nothing bad happened, did it ?
4- With ( used to ) we use didn't in the tag questions.
.
didn't
EXAMPLE :

- 0 used to / C $ A)I7 3 L K 4
9

You used to work here, didn't you ?
5- After ( Let's ) the tag question is shall we .
"
shall we
- 0 Let's / C $ A)I7 3 L K M
EXAMPLE :
9
Let's go for a walk, shall we ?
6- After the imperative ( do, don't do something ) the tag question is will you .
.
will you
- 0 do, don't do something / P O2
BC 2KN
EXAMPLES :
9
Stop talking, will you ?
Don't be late, will you ?

INTONATION :
FG# <+ ?/H I >J* , K >LM

DE #"

1- Falling intonation
you are not really asking a question; you are only inviting the
listener to agree with you.
"V)
W$X2 YZ3 A)I7 [ C " Q 5 R S ) T& )C R3I U S SL * 5 R- 3 7 < N #" DE #" K
EXAMPLE :
9
It's a nice day, isn't it ?

2- Rising intonation
It is a real question.
" V)
T 2 YZ3 A)I7 [ C " &) & D Z S SL * \ )] 2 ?^
EXAMPLE :

5 R-

37

O

H" DE #" K (
9

You haven't seen Lisa today, have you ?

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

1

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

II / Time Sequencers ? P)!
1-First, – 2-Then, – 3-After that, – 4-Next, – 5-And – 6-Later, – 7-Finally
Q] S \ Q[ S , QZ S DY Q' S 6 U !X QW S 6 U V/+ QT S R, Q ;

III / Final "ed"FG *
)

$
+ V)
YZ- _ H C5 % 2 ` + D 7 a
2
* + 7 ]- "ed" YZ3" /t/ YZ37 "ed" a: 3C [ C "f" [ V)b
YZ37 laugh $ c& infinitive b+

/t/

/d/

/ p / d hoped
/ f / laughed
/ s / e faxed
/ sh / f washed
/ tch / g watched
/ k / h cooked

8

/ id /

V )b+ %& 9SH &
/d/ ;_

/ t / V wanted
/ d / F ended

File : 0(
I / Expressing Ability and Inability

$M ) ^ , $M )

P!"

A- Can _ G"3 S
* We use the modal Can to express :
P
1 – Ability to do something :

P!" Can

!"3*

I can swim.
`a !+ % $M ) S ;
" L H _ G"
2 – Inability to do something :
I can't play tennis.
"i3 D _ G" R
`a !+ % $M ) ^ S T
W – Polite requests :
Can I leave ?
j d ` _ G"
bG X G S W
4 – Allowing to do something :
Yes, you can .
" _ G"3L J `a !>X c 3 , d " S '
5 – Asking for permission :
Can I go out, Sir ?
j . < ; A _ G"
`a !> Ue f S Z
6 – Forbidding to do something : You can't stay in class during the break.
" L
*k J S
l SH _ G"3L R
`a !+ _# S [
7 – Possibility :
This metal can hurt you .
" R= B: g#- 7 8 `
`a K/:, * - S ]
8 – Deducing :
I can't lift this table. It's heavy.
" Sn ]-: " Z m` T _ _ G" R
<)G# i "#" R S h
Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

4

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

Irregular Forms of Can
Past

Present

• I could swim .
• I was able to swim.

Future

• I can swim .
• I am able to swim.

• I will be able to swim.

B – May – Might % 3 S ! S j
* We use the modal May to express :
P!" May
It may rain.
" Z : ]May I ask you a question ?
2 – Asking for permission :
j5\ R A
m
May you live long !
W – A wish :
! g *)o R %# L
* We use the modal Might to express :

!"3*

1 – Possibility :

*- e S;
Uk %

/Hl

fST
# SW

P!" Might
1 – A remote possibility :
There are no clouds in the sky, but it might rain tonight .
"
m` Z : ]3I < l
D8 ?)7 5
!X
2 – Warning :
Don't swim here. You might be attacked by sharks.
"f S R 6) ] q
: " 3 pH 5
W – Suggestion :
You're not good at English. You might try this book anyway.
c
" * L . 9 C h $7 : d I ` d ? " 7> -^ r
5 @-

!"3*
" S;
lL S T
": S W

II / Prefixes Refer to the Opposite 8-! % k nL <" ? = P
The prefix is a word element placed in font of the root, which changes the word's meaning or
makes a new word. Now we see the prefixes that refer to the opposite.
V t=F H s 3t Au " s t
I [ )87 _` 93 & r < I _`? 6 & !7 I %& rb l>?
= P
" iI 9 : v

il

im

in

ir

un

dis

Words

<3-! %#!

Agree

w X7

Legal

-)-

Q

Regular

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M

Q

Polite

d`]& Q

Happy

%7>L

Definite

F 8& Q

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

III / So I – Neither I

* R, S * 6 7 ,

When participating in a discussion, we sometimes agree and sometimes disagree with
what the other speaker says. It's not always necessary to use the verb "agree" or "disagree" to
express agreement or disagreement. We can express this in different ways.
_ v 3C
t = F 3 C & > i "% S$ & A)I- 5 s
- L [&k
J I T& % S$ & - L A)I- _ )L
"x o C ?)7 R B %C H
"S ) 6C
S ) %C H RS 5 RS
$ *
A – We use : ( So + auxiliary + subject ) when we respond to a positive statement.
* 6 7,
- " 6kI %C S ) 2 D - 3 L
> o 3
!> o So
EXAMPLES :

!"3* S
9

Speaker - p l"
I am hungry.
" T= ? I live in Algeria .
" =>
%I I went to Tunisia, last summer.
" a w
i-) 9 : @H B I have a headache .
" -) \7
_
She is sixteen .
" 3
vC
She works in London.
"A 3

Listener - _ 3
So am I .
" - 6
So do I .
" - 6
So did I .
" - 6
So have I .
" - 6
So is he .
") 6
So does he .
") 6

7,
7,
7,
7,
7,
7,

B – We use : ( Neither + auxiliary + subject ) when we respond to a negative statement.
* R,
- " 6kI %C S ) 6 2 D - 3 L
> o 3
!> o Neither
!"3* S j
EXAMPLES :
9
Speaker - p l"
Listener - _ 3
I am not hungry.
Neither am I .
"y =? @ " - R,
I don't like fish .
Neither do I .
"R
DL 5 " - R,

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

N

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

File : 01
I / Time Clause Refer to the Future
Subordinate time clause
When he comes ,
Subordinate time conjunction

P)"3

P!" bG! q,

Main clause
he will get a big surprise

Present

Future

We use subordinate time conjunctions(1) + sentence in the present ( subordinate time
clause ) + sentence in the future ( main clause ) to refer to the future.
" HS
?E a8
? E 0 /bG! q,
(1)
The subordinate time conjunctions are :
( when – as soon as – until / till – after – before – while )
<m bG! q, (1)
0 32K H K 2K9LK@ d
K 3L/
EXAMPLES :
9
1– I will do some shopping when I finish my work.
" C ]- # x) W H2 6) K
2 – She will call you as soon as she gets home.
"@H
[ A)I r:, j : <+ w ]
R I K(
3 – I won't start the game until our friends come.
" 3= b
7 %" H l 2 % K 1
(*)
4 – After we finish our works , we will join the film.
"J$
v3 (*). 3 C %& l ] -5 !X K 4
5 – She will take an umbrella before she gets out .
"*>3 %& ; X P: [7_ Z& ] & `
KM
6 – They will start singing while he comes.
" V ) # X l 3r A l H K N
(*)
NOTE : When we start a complex sentence with a subordinate time conjunction, we put
a comma ( , ) after the time clause. But when the time conjunction comes in the middle of the
complex sentence, we don't use a comma.
t
tH t 3 L %tI " ta 8
? 2 . C + T!- A D 7 bG q lX H
H- 3 L @ A (*)
" b$
-k { )
wZ
L A)I7 . HS
2 H

II / Conditional Type One

, K/#

f n

This type of condition is used for present or future activities which are likely to
happen. We use the present simple in the if clause and the shall/will/can/may + infinitive
construction in the main clause.
t ta 8 %&>t
t- " P)"3s , s2 l
t [tC) F)t- .`t p sl t
7 ( n %& ,)3 `
" the main clause | v d )? ?
HS
if clause | v
?
Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

z

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane
FORM :
^ !
If Clause
If it rains ,
Present

-n

Main Clause
I will take my umbrella.
Future

OR
,
Main Clause
I will take my umbrella
Future

If Clause
if it rains .
Present

STRUCTURE :
$

)

If + Present + , + Future
Future + if + Present
NOTES:
? @ A
1- We do not use will in the if clause, even though it refers to the future.
" HS
@- ) 9 L If P O2 H
| v
? will
EXAMPLE :

-5K
9

If I will pass my Brevet Exam , I will go to Tunisia.
"i-) 9 : D B < { ) J
F ]~ @8 - Uk
2 – We use a comma ( , ) after the present if our sentence starts with if clause. But if our
sentence starts with a main clause we won't use the comma.
t 2 t
V t2 B: ]
t- 5 %tI " if clause ta 8 t A)tI t | vt t ? t 2 . sC >
-K(
4main clause HS
A)I
| v d )?
EXAMPLE :
9
If it is hot , I will go to the beach.
"•o v 9 : D B . _ L ) A Uk
I will go to the beach if it is hot.
_ L ) A Uk •o v 9 : D B

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

}

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane
THE MEANING :
% #!
It expresses
1. Prediction

1.

2. Threat

2.

3. Offer

3.

4. Suggestion

4.

5. Warning

5.

6. Promise

6.

If sentences
If we don't go now, we will miss the bus.
8 3 )$ < Au D `- J Uk K
If you don't stop talking, I will punish you.
" RH C < 6kI %C w ) J Uk K (
If you don't like it, I will give you an other.
" s R ZC < RH J Uk K 1
I will help you, if you want.
" VF_ k < h C
K4
You will sink, if you swim over there.
"h 3 L H 2 @ Uk < x r K M
If you succeed in the BEM, I will give you a prize.
" >= ? R ZC < { ) J
F ]~ @8 - Uk K N

P!
\OOOOOOOH3 "
OOOOOOOO7 ] "(
&

q C "1

• OOOOOOO

"4

OOOOO7`8 "M
OOOOC "N

File : 04
I / Used to

:$

b:/"

"Used to" express the idea that something was an old habit that stopped in the past. It
indicates that something was often repeated in the past, but it is not usually done now.
A t t& t~ A 9t : vt7 t " ta
t @t$ ) t 7 F tC A t t& ~ A I %C H ) "Used to"
"Au [2 6 S F %& i %I < a
_ I
c
STRUCTURE :
$
)
Used to + infinitive ( which describes a past habit )
<2 <+ $ bH O
_
rb
$ E Used to
EXAMPLE :
9
I used to smoke cigarettes. ( but now I don't any more )
"0 @$ ) Au %I / " =
% F r#7
MEANING AND USE :
!" R , % #!
1 – Used to + verb refer to a habit in the past .
" <2

$

9 : v7

E Used to #

EXAMPLE :
9
I used to believe in ghosts; but now I don't believe in them any long. I know they don't exist.
" S Z& J F)?)2 %&‚ 5 Au 3I < • H~+ F)?)2 %&‚ r#7

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane



Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane
2 – Used to also refers to past situations / states that no longer exist.
"s
F C A)I A q $ %& & `3& @ )8 a & F C v !7 Used to # 2
EXAMPLE :
9
This man is now a teacher. He is used to be a doctor.
" D Ho [- I ">
" Au B
? `
1 – Used to has no present simple tense form. So if we want to refer to a habit in the
present, we must use the simple present.
ts * t t3 C Dt 7 < s2 l t $ s %tC t H
t-F_ B: %tI " ta 8
F)? Used to P O 8 K 1
" 2l
EXAMPLE :
9
Everyday, I get up early. ( We can't say. I use to get up early )
"0
2 6 S %C F) & - "*)S- A T Z - 5 /" 2 „S 6)7
4 – We can always use the past simple instead of used to.
" Used to A I& { H <2 *
=FTZ -K4
EXAMPLE :
9
He used to smoke before I knew him
He smoked before I knew him.
"g+ A H % 7 A
[ C A H % 7 7)
M – We use did + use ( not used to ) to form question and negatives of used to .
-KM
" Used to $- * \ %7)I 0 not used to/ i did + use
EXAMPLE :
9
A : Did you use to cry when you were a child ?
B : I didn't use to cry.
" I2 7 J j
j rb @3 3 L IH r#7
6 – We answer yes, no, questions when we use "use to" like this.
" `I "use to"
- 3 L 5 J 32 D - K 6
EXAMPLE :
9
A : Did you use to live here ?
B : Yes, I did .
B : No, I didn't .
" 7 J 5 j
" r#7 J - j
3 %I r#7
z– We form the tag questions when we use "used to" like this.
" `I "used to"
- 3L
; X - Kz
EXAMPLE :
9
They used to live here, didn't they ?
j 6 7 8 . 3 )3I J]- I "> %&

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

ƒ

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

II / Relative Pronoun

C/

= 2

The relative pronoun links two clauses into a single complex clause. A
pronoun stands in place of a noun. Compare:
Jt 5 A tI& `t 7 sC/
s2 A …t L " tH & tL t ? 9t : t ] )8 % t3n % t ? {2 t C/ =
M:_
This is a house. Jack built this house.
" *>3 ` 932 h ? "*>3& `
This is the house that Jack built.
"h ? m 32 O *>3 ) `
The relative pronoun refer to : ( persons – things / animals – places ).
" 0 7 S ? * / w v a S u Ja / P 9 : v C/ =
EXAMPLES :

relative
2
I .F $

2
9

1 – Refer to the person : ( Who – Whom – That )
0 S <" S O / dJa % k n K
a- The police have found the boy.
b- He disappeared last week.
" a ,)H + 9$ /m K d
" >G V ? o v K
* The police have found the boy who / whom / that disappeared last week.
" a ,)H + 9$ O
$Z V ? o v †
2 – Refer to things or animals : ( Which – That )
0 <" S O / ? * / , v a % k n K 2
a- The car is new.
b- The car is parked outside.
";_ X
$ ) & $M 3 K d
"
" 7 ? $M 3 K
* The car which / that is parked outside is new.
<" _

" 7 ? ;_ X
w)&
a- That's the cat.
b- It belongs to Becky .
" IH2 ‡ /m K d
" x) ` K
* That's the cat which / that belongs to Becky.
" IH2 ‡ ) O {S ` †
3 – Refer to place : ( Where )
0
/
- %k n K3
a- The restaurant was very clean. b- We had lunch there .(there refer to the restaurant)
0J Z
v h 3 / " y #m l `r H? 3 K d
" ? $ ˆ- A D!G K
* The restaurant where we had lunch was very clean .
" ? $ ˆ- A l `r H? 3
JZ †
4 – Refer mostly to people : ( Whose ) we use it instead of ( his – her – their )
0 his – her – their/ * 2 ]
- 0 S <" S O / dJa % k
E <+ n K 4
a- A window is a woman.
b- Her husband is dead .
" 9 ) & z& ' K d
"$
&_+ K
* A window is a woman whose husband is dead .
" ]? ' V & <"
&
&_+ †

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane
SUMMARY :
d
%k

Refer to

Function in
the sentence

People
u Ja

Things /Animals
?*/l wv a

Subject
>

Who / That

Which / That

Object
g X /!>

Who / Whom / That

Which / That

Possessive
-

Whose

<+ > {/

J

nL
Place
-

Time
t

Reason
P3

Where

When

Why

File : 05
Conditional Type Two <* 9 K/#

f n

We use the second conditional to talk about the present, and to imagine something
totally different from the real situation now or in the future.
<* 9 K/#
t Q t S SL A)tI A %tI 7 5 t
V5 tL %tC t H
< ta 8 %tC ‰ 8 ( n
" HS
@
Au ‰ 8 3I &
FORM :
^ ! -n
If Clause
If I were you ,
Past

Main Clause
I would spank him .
Past

OR
,
Main Clause
I would spank him
Past

If Clause
if I were you .
Past

STRUCTURE :
$
If + Past + , + would + infinitive
would + infinitive + if + Past

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

(

)

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane
EXAMPLE :
9
If I won 1.000 €, I would take a long holiday .
" 7)o Z 2 r ) < Š "ƒƒƒ @82_ Uk
I would take a long holiday if I won 1.000 € .
" Š "ƒƒƒ @82_ Uk 7)o Z 2 ^/:|
NOTE:
@ A
1 – We can use were for all forms of be in the if clause of the second conditional.
If P O2 H
| v
? be 7F)?)
-)3 I
$2 b X = !
T& were *
TZ -K
EXAMPLE :
9
If he / she / John were rich, he / she / John would travel around the world .
" J *)L + 3 A)? ‹
‹ ) < 3Q 7 A)? ‹
‹ ) Uk
2 – We use a comma ( , ) after the past if our sentence starts with if clause. But if our sentence
starts with a main clause we won't use the comma.
t 2 t
V t2 B: ]
t- 5 %tI " if clause ta
t A)tI t | vt t ? t 2 . sC >
-K(
4main clause HS
A)I
| v d )?
EXAMPLE :
9
If I won 1.000 €, I would take a long holiday .
" 7)o Z 2 r ) < Š "ƒƒƒ @82_ Uk
I would take a long holiday if I won 1.000 € .
" Š "ƒƒƒ @82_ Uk 7)o Z 2 ^/:|

File : 06
The Past Simple and the Past Continuous
"3 <2
, x 3P <2
The PAST SIMPLE :
x 3P <2
We use the Past Simple to talk or write about a completed event or state in the past.
" <2
%z"* T w )& ‰ L %C 2 I
‰ 8 x 3P <2
EXAMPLE :
9
Last Saturday, / Yesterday, / Two days ago, … I went to Algiers.
" b
= > 9 : rPmU """ <% &)7 `3& ‹ <i&+ 2 ‹ < a @H

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

1

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane
THE PAST CONTINUOUS :
"3 <2
We use the Past Continuous to talk about an action or state that was in progress
in the past. This action or state continued for temporary period, but didn't continue to
the present.
%sz"* , bs:/L [t3I < <s2
t $ "3 $ "+
T w )& ‰ L %C ‰ 8
"3 <2
" a 8 %&> P:
EXAMPLE :
9
They were playing football, yesterday at 6 p.m.
" v 3 [ C 9 C i&+ 2 < 6 S
/P! /* 7
THE PAST SIMPLE AND THE PAST CONTINUOUS :
"3 <2
, x 3P <2
We can use the Past Continuous and the Past Simple to talk or write about an
action that was in progress, when another action happened / interrupted it.
t $ "3 $ "+
T ‰ L %C 2 I
‰ 8 x 3P <2 T&
"3 <2
-A TZ " [ o S7 [a_ 7 0 p h 3 @ ) i$- < a
EXAMPLE :
9
I was watching a film when the telephone rang .
" w ] e ? M & 3C J $ m a r#7
NOTE :
@ A
1 – We can use the Past Continuous to talk or write about simultaneous actions happening
at the same time in the past.
t V`t @t ) it$- t . s# t" @t ‰ tL %tC t2 I
‰ t8
"3s <2
-A TZ -K
" a
&
EXAMPLE :
9
My father was reading the newspaper while my mother was cooking dinner.
" l v }PGL & r* 7 3 2 =
) 7 2
2 – We often use that words ( As – because – when – while ) to join the Past Continuous
with the Past Simple.
" "3 <2
x 3P <2 % 2 {2 0 # X S # S
S
/ V I m`
- &$
K(
EXAMPLES :
9

AS
As I was driving away, the steering wheel came off.
" F S
C r>:/L < Y7 Z
/: r#7

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

4

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

BECAUSE
I was working overtime because the basic wage was so low .
4 ? ~>J#
+ ?+
< a
2 ^/: r#7

#

WHEN

I was watching a film when the telephone rang .
" w ] e ? M # J $ m a r#7

#X

WHILE

My father was reading the newspaper while my mother was cooking dinner.
" l v }PGL & r* 7 # X =
) 7 2

Done By : Khelil Moudjib Arrahmane

M


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