tribunejuridique.hokok attifl ghayr .pdf



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‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻧﺎﻳﻒ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺄﺻﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﻦ ﻫﺬﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺤﻄﺎﱐ‬
‫ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺩ‪/‬ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﺎﱀ‬
‫ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻻ ﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺟﺴﺘﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ‬
‫‪١٤٣٣‬ﻫـ ‪٢٠١٢ -‬ﻡ‬

‫‪-‬ﺏ‪-‬‬

‫ﺟـﺎﻣـﻌـﺔ ﻧﺎﻳـﻒ ﻟـﻠـﻌﻠـﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻣـﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫‪Naif Arab University for Security Sciences‬‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺭﻗﻡ ) ‪( $‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺄﺻﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻟﺏ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﻦ ﻫﺬﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺤﻄﺎﱐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﺩ ‪ /‬ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﺎﱀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﻠﺨﺺ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ؟‬
‫ﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﻃﺮﻕ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ »ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ«‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﺔ »ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ«‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻓﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺍﱐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﻭﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻓﺮﺍﺷ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺖ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﲝﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻃﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺗﺒﲏ ﻗﻀﺎﺓ ﻭﻣﻔﺘﲔ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻠﺤﻮﻕ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺍﱐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﻭﱂ ﺗﻜـﻦ ﺍﻷﻡ‬
‫ﻓﺮﺍﺷ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﲔ ﻛﻲ ﻳﻜﻔﻞ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻬﻢ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺗﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ ﲟﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﲔ ﻭﺃﻫﻢ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻜﻔﻮﻟﺔ ﳍﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺗﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﺑﻨﺎﺀﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪-‬ﺝ‪-‬‬

‫ﺟـﺎﻣـﻌـﺔ ﻧﺎﻳـﻒ ﻟـﻠـﻌﻠـﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻣـﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

Naif Arab University for Security Sciences

High Studies College
Department: Criminal Justice

No. ( $ )

ABSTRACT
Study Title: The Rights of the Illegitimate Child: Formative and Comparative
Study.
Student: Abdulrahman Salem H Alkhtani
Advisor: Dr. Jalal Aldin Muhammed Saleh
Research Problem: The study focuses on answering the following question:
What are the rights that the illegitimate child should have, and those that the
illegitimate child should not have, according to the Islamic law and the
international conventions?
Study Methodology: The researcher used a descriptive methodology, in addition
to a comparative approach methodology.
Main Results:
١- There are four methods to proof the paternity: Bed “Firash”,
acknowledgement, evidence, and tracing “Qiefah.”
٢- The dominant opinion is that the illegitimate child “Walad Zina”
belongs to the adulterer “Zani”, if he adopts the child, and the mother was not bed
“Firash” or suspicion.
٣- The Saudi systems and laws have cared about both the special rights
and the general rights of the illegitimate child.
٤- A number of the Saudi systems have established frameworks to protect
the rights of the illegitimate child from being violated.
Main Recommendations:
١- The Saudi judges and the “Mufti” should embrace the opinion that the
illegitimate child belongs to the adulterer “Zani”, if he adopts the child, and the
mother was not bed “Firash” or suspicion.
٢- A special system should be established to clearly ensure the rights of
the illegitimate children.
٣- The Saudi society should be educated about the rights and the issues of
the illegitimate children.
٤- The punishments for parents who deny the paternity of their illegitimate
children should be more severe.

-‫ﺩ‬-

‫ﺇﻫـﺪﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺃﻫﺪﻱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺇﱃ‪..............‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﻲ ﻭﺃﺑﻲ‬

‫ﺇﺧﻮﺍ�ﻲ ﻭﺃﺧﻮﺍﺗﻲ‬

‫ﺯﻭﺟﱵ ﻭﺃﺑﻨﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﺭﺟﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺭﻛًﺎ‬

‫‪-‬ﻩ‪-‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﺮ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ‪ ،‬ﺃﲪﺪﻩ ﻭﺃﺳﺘﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺃﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺗﻮﺏ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻮﺫ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﺭ ﻧﻔﺴﻲ ﻭﻣـﻦ ﺳـﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻳﻬﺪﻩ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻀﻠﻞ ﻓﻠﻦ ﲡﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺮﺷﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻲ ﻭﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ ﺳﻴﺪﻧﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺻﺤﺒﻪ ﺃﲨﻌﲔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﻭﺑﻌﺪ( ﻓﻴﻘـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‪:‬‬

‫﴿ ‪fedcba`_^]\[Z‬‬

‫‪) ﴾ q p o n m l k j i h g‬ﺍﻷﺣﻘﺎﻑ‪.(١٥/‬‬
‫ﺐ ﱄ ‪-‬ﻭﻗﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﺈﲤـﺎﻡ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻄﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺃﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻀ ﹶﻞ ﻷﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪» :‬ﻣﻦ ﺻـﻨﻊ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻜﻢ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﹰﺎ ﻓﻜﺎﻓﺌﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﲡﺪﻭﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺌﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺎﺩﻋﻮﺍ ﻟﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺮﻭﺍ ﺃﻧﻜﻢ ﻗـﺪ ﻛﺎﻓـﺄﲤﻮﻩ«)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻪ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﲟﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﲪﺪﺍ ﻭﺛﻨﺎ ًﺀ ﻳﻠﻴﻘﺎﻥ ﺑﻜﺮﱘ‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﺸﻜﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﱃ ‪ ‬ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ﻭﺃﺧﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪ‪‬ﺭ ﻓﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻭﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺗﻘ ‪‬ﺪﻡ ﲜﺰﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﻓﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻣﻲ ﻭﺃﰊ‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﻌﲏ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﻜﻢ ﺳﻬﺮﻭﺍ ﻭﺗﻌﺒﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺗﺮﺑﻴﱵ ﻓﺄﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﳚﺰﻳﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺟﺮ ﻭﺃﺟﺰﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﳝ ‪‬ﺪ ﰲ ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺮﳘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺎﻋﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﺒﺴﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻓﻴﺔ )ﺭﺏ ﺍﺭﲪﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﺑﻴ‪‬ﺎﱐ ﺻﻐﲑﹰﺍ (‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺷﻜﺮ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺩ‪ /‬ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﺎﱀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﻓﲏ ﺑﻘﺒﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﱄ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻃﻴﻠـﺔ ﻣـﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺗﻘﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻭﻗﻔﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﱯ ﻭﻣﺪﻭﺍ ﺇ ﱠ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﺃﺧﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺯﻣﻼﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟـﺸﻴﺦ‪/‬ﻣﻮﺳـﻰ ﺑـﻦ ﻋﺒـﺪﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﻮﺳـﻰ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ‪/‬ﻫﺬﻟﻮﻝ ﺑﻦ ﻫﺬﻟﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺳﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺬﻟﻮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻧﺪﺓ ﻭﺩﻋﻢ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻹﲤﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﱃ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺃﻫﺪﻱ ﲦﺮﺓ ﺟﻬﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻔﻊ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﲨﻴ ‪‬ﻌﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﺟﺰﺍﻫﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺧ ‪‬ﲑﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﺃﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺃﻥ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺧﺎﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻮﺟﻬﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺭﻳﺎﺀ ﻭﻻ ﲰﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﺕ ﻓﺬﺍﻙ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﻣﻞﺀ‬
‫ﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺑﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻭ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﺘِﻪ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ﻭﺃﺧﲑ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﻓﱢ ﹾﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﻣﻞﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﻦ ﻭﻣﺎ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻯ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍ‪ ‬ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻓﺆﺍﺩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪،٣‬‬
‫‪١٤٠٩‬ﻫـ‪١٩٨٨ ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻓﻠﻴﻜﺎﻓﺌﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‪ ،٢١٦ :‬ﺹ ‪.٨٥‬‬

‫‪-‬ﻭ‪-‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩﻫﺎ‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬

‫‪٣‬‬

‫ﺗﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬

‫‪٣‬‬

‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬

‫‪٥‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬

‫‪١٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬

‫‪١٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ‬

‫‪١٦‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬

‫‪١٧‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ‬

‫‪١٨‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺏ‬

‫‪٢١‬‬

‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ‬

‫‪٢٣‬‬

‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ‬

‫‪٢٥‬‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﺔ »ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ«‬

‫‪٢٧‬‬

‫‪ -٤‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻓﺔ‬

‫‪٢٨‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‬

‫‪٣١‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﻧﺴﺐ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﱐ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻣﻪ ﻓﺮﺍﺷ‪‬ﺎ‬

‫‪٣١‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻧﺴﺐ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﱐ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻣﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ‬

‫‪٣٤‬‬

‫‪-‬ﺯ‪-‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬

‫ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‬

‫‪٤٢‬‬

‫ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺍﺛﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٤٤‬‬

‫‪ (١‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺍﺛﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‬

‫‪٤٦‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺍﺛﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‬

‫‪٤٨‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ‬

‫‪٥٠‬‬

‫ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳍﺎ ﺻﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‬

‫‪٥٢‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‬

‫‪٥٥‬‬

‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ‬

‫‪٥٥‬‬

‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ‬

‫‪٥٦‬‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﺔ‬

‫‪٥٧‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬
‫ﻣﺪﻟﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ‬

‫‪٦٠‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٦١‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬

‫‪٦٨‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‬

‫‪٦٩‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‬

‫‪٧٢‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‬

‫‪٧٧‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﻖ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬

‫‪٧٧‬‬

‫ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ‬

‫‪٧٨‬‬

‫‪ (١‬ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﻔﺦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ‬

‫‪٧٩‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﻔﺦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ‬

‫‪٨٠‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎﻋﺔ‬

‫‪٨٢‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺣﻖ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﻧﺔ‬

‫‪٨٥‬‬

‫‪-‬ﺡ‪-‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺣﻖ ﺍﻷﺑﻮﺓ‬

‫‪٨٨‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺔ‬

‫‪٨٨‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙ‬

‫‪٨٩‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‬

‫‪٩١‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﻖ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٩١‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺣﻖ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻝ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬

‫‪٩٥‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺘﻪ‬

‫‪٩٩‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‬

‫‪١٠٢‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬

‫‪١٠٤‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬

‫‪١٠٧‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‬

‫‪١١١‬‬

‫ﺣﻖ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬

‫‪١١١‬‬

‫ﺣﻖ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﻧﺔ‬

‫‪١١٦‬‬

‫ﺣﻖ ﺍﻷﺑﻮﺓ‬

‫‪١١٧‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‬

‫‪١١٩‬‬

‫ﺣﻖ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬

‫‪١١٩‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻲ‬

‫‪١٢٥‬‬

‫ﺣﻖ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻝ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬

‫‪١٢٨‬‬

‫ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺘﻪ‬

‫‪١٣٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ‬

‫‪١٣٥‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﺎﲤﺔ‬

‫‪١٣٦‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬

‫‪١٣٧‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﺗﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬

‫‪١٣٩‬‬

‫‪-‬ﻁ‪-‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫‪١٤٠‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫‪١٤١‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫‪١٤٣‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ‬

‫‪١٤٥‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬

‫‪١٤٩‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﻛﺘﺐ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‬

‫‪١٥٠‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﻭﻋﻠﻮﻣﻪ‬

‫‪١٥٠‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺃﺻﻮﻟﻪ‬

‫‪١٥٢‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬

‫‪١٥٨‬‬

‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ‬

‫‪١٥٩‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﺩﺳﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺟﻢ‬

‫‪١٦٠‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﺑﻌﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺟﻢ‬

‫‪١٦١‬‬

‫‪-‬ﻱ‪-‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪-١-‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﳓﻤﺪﻩ ﻭﻧﺴﺘﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﻧﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﻩ ﻭﻧﺘﻮﺏ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻧﻌﻮﺫ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﺭ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻨﺎ ﻭﻣـﻦ ﺳـﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻳﻬﺪﻩ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻼ ﻣﻀﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻀﻠﻞ ﻓﻼ ﻫﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﺷﻬﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻻ ﺷـﺮﻳﻚ‬
‫ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﻬﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳏﻤﺪﺍ ً ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﻫـﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺸﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻫﻢ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻫـﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﻓـﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟـﻀﻌﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﶈﺘـﺎﺟﲔ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﳘﻠﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ ﺃﺳﺲ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻀﻌﻔﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺗـﺸﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻋﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﺮﻉ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﲣﺼ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻬﻢ ﻭﺣﺎﺟﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﺃﻭﺻﻰ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻫـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﱠﻖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻀﻌﻔﲔ ﺍﻷﻳﺘﺎﻡ ﻭﳏﺘﺎﺟﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟـﺸﺮﻋﻴﲔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﳎﻬﻮﱄ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺋﻬﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺁﺑﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﳍﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﺃﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﻻﺯﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﺳﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻼ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳊﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﳊﻔﻆ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻋﻀﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﻓﺎﻋ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻤﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻨﻴﻞ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺟﺴﺘﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﲜﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻧـﺎﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﺇﻻ ﺟﻬﺪ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻃﺮﻗﻮﺍ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﻧـﺐ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﺮﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻧﻪ‪:‬‬
‫»ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺄﺻﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ«‬

‫‪-٢-‬‬

‫ﺷﺎﻛﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ‬ﻭﻣﺜﻨﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﺮ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻓﻀﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺩ‪/‬ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﺎﱀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺃﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻲ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﲝﺜﹰﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﻣﻨـﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺇﻧﻪ ﺟﻮﺍﺩ ﻛﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺻﺤﺒﻪ ﻭﺃﲨﻌﲔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻪ ﳐﻠﻮﻗﹰﺎ ﺁﺩﻣﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﺘﻤﺘ‪‬ﻊ ﲝﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﱘ ﺍﻹﳍﻲ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﲦﺔ ﺇﺷـﻜﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭﺟﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ ﺇﺷـﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﳌﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﺭﻩ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺛﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﻮﺍﺭﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ؟ ﻭﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻗﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻩ ﻫﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ؟ ﻭﻣـﺎﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻮ ﺃﻧﻜﺮﻩ ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳊﻤﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ؟‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻻﺕ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺘﻌﺎﳉﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ؟‬

‫ﺗﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ؟‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ؟‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ؟‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﳓﻤﻴﻬﺎ؟‬

‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﺼﺮ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﰐ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ »ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ«‪.‬‬

‫‪-٣-‬‬

‫‪ -٢‬ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٥‬ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﰿ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻼﺻﻖ ﺣﻴـﺎﺓ‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﲤﺜﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺸﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲟﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺛﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﳚﺪ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﻮﻥ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻧﺘـﺎﺋﺞ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻀﺎﺣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲝﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﻣﺎ‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﳊﻘﻮﻗﻪ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻼ ﺷﺮﻋﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻣﺒﻴ‪‬ﻨﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺄﺻﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﲟﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺛﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﲑﻭﺯﺁﺑﺎﺩﻱ)‪» :(١‬ﺍﳊﻖ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣـﺮ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻘﻀﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌِﻠﻚ‪،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌـﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊـﺰﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﺣـﺪ‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻃﺎﻫﺮ‪ ،‬ﳎﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﲑﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﲑﻭﺯﺁﺑﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺋﻤـﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﺪ ﺑﺸﲑﺍﺯ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٧٢٩‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﰲ ﰲ ﺯﺑﻴﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٨١٧‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻐﺎﱎ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﱂ ﻃﺎﺑـﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈـﺮ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ ،‬ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺓ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻔـﻀﻞ‬
‫ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻣﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﰊ ﺍﳊﻠﱯ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٣٨٤ ،١‬ﻫـ‪١٩٦٤ ،‬ﻡ‪.٢٣٧/١ ،‬‬

‫‪-٤-‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﺣ‪‬ﻖ ﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﲟﻌﲎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﻘﻴﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺣ ‪‬ﻖ‪ :‬ﺟﺪﻳﺮ«)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﻪ ﻭﺃﺛﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﺻﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺣ ‪‬ﻘﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﳛﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﻱ ﳚﺐ‬
‫ﻛﺄﺣﻘﻪ ﻭﺣﻘﻘﻪ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﻘﻪ‪ :‬ﺻﲑﻩ ﺣﻘﺎ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﲨﻌﻪ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺣِﻘﺎﻕ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﺩﱏ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻭﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺒﻴـﺔ‪:‬‬
‫»ﻟﺒﻴﻚ ﺣﻘ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﻘ‪‬ﺎ«‪ .‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻏﲑ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﺆﻛﺪ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻛﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺃﻟﺰﻡ ﻃﺎﻋﺘﻚ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﻓﺘﺆﻛﺪ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻜﺮﺭﻩ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ‪.‬ﻭﺣﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﳛِﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﳛﻖ‪ ‬ﺣﻘﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻗﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺻﺎﺭ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﻭﺛﺒﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ)‪ :(٣‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻭﺟﺐ ﳚﺐ ﻭﺟﻮﺑ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺃﺣﻘﻘﺘﻪ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﱰﻳﻞ‪:‬‬

‫﴿ ‪on‬‬

‫‪) ﴾ r q p‬ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ‪ .(٦٣/‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺛﺒﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) ﴾ v u t s r q ﴿ :‬ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ‪ .(٧١/‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻭﺟﺒﺖ ﻭﺛﺒﺘﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﳊِﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﳊﹶﻘﺔ ﺃﺧﺺ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ‪ :‬ﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﻭﺃﺧﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺟﺒﻪ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﺩﺕ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺑﻴﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﲡﺎﻫـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻻ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻔﲑﻭﺯﺁﺑﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﳎﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.٤٠١ ،٤٠٠‬‬

‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺰﺑﻴﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﺮﺗﻀﻰ‪ :‬ﺗﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻭﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.٤٣٤ ،٤٣٣/١٥ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﺍﳍﺮﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺏ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﻟﺪﻩ ﻭﻭﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺮﺍﺓ ﲞﺮﺍﺳﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺳـﻨﺔ‬
‫‪٢٨٢‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٣٧٠‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻤـﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺷـﻬﺎﺏ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻳﺎﻗﻮﺕ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺭﻳﺐ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺩ‪/‬ﺇﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪،١‬‬
‫‪١٩٩٣‬ﻡ‪.٢٩٧/٦ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻷﻓﺮﻳﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻜﺮﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ‪ :‬ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘـﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤١٨ ،١‬ﻫــ‪،‬‬
‫‪.١٧٥ ،١٧٤/٨‬‬

‫‪-٥-‬‬

‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻧﺒﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻖ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻨـﻬﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻜـﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺧﺎﻟﺼﺔ ﷲ ﻛﺎﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺧﺎﻟﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺒـﺎﺩ ﻛﺎﻟـﺪﻳﻮﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﻛﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺬﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﺨﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺩﻭﻱ)‪ (١‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻖ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﺎﺯﺍﱐ)‪ (٣‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺢ ﺃﻥ‪» :‬ﺍﶈﻜﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﺑـ»ﺍﶈﻜﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ« ‪-‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺧﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻓﻼﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻘﻘﻪ ﺣﺴ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺑـﺎﳊﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘـﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ‬
‫ﻼ ﰒ ﺍﶈﻜﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ – ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﶈﻜﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ – ﺃﻣﺎ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺻ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻏﺎﻟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﲝﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻣـﻦ ﻏـﲑ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺑﺄﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻟﻌﻈﻢ ﺧﻄﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﴰﻮﻝ ﻧﻔﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ –ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﻛﺸﻒ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﻓﺨﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺩﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪،‬‬
‫ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.١٣٤/٤ ،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺰﺩﻭﻱ ﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺨﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺩﻭﻱ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻴﻪ ﺃﺻﻮﱄ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺎﺑﺮ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪ‬
‫ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٤٠٠‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٤٨٢‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﻛﱰ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑـ»ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺩﻭﻱ«‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺷـﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﳏﻴﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﰊ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺩ‪/‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳊﻠﻮ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤٠٨ ،١‬ﻫـ‪١٩٨٧ ،‬ﻡ‪.٣٧٢/١ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ‪ ،‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤٢٤ ،١‬ﻫـ‪.١٤٠/١ ،‬‬
‫ﺼ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎﺟﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ‪ .‬ﻣﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﳌﻮﻟﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺸﺈ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﰲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ ﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺷﻬﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٦٨٤‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﰲ ﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺧﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﺡ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈـﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺑـﻦ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺣﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺒﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﻋﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻣﻄﺒﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٣٢٩ ،١‬ﻫــ‪١٩١١ ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.٦٧-٦٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﺎﺯﺍﱐ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺑﺘﻔﺘﺎﺯﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻼﺩ‬
‫ﺲ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺧﺮﺍﺳﺎﻥ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٧١٢‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٧٩٣‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻓﻦ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻘﻼﱐ‪ ،‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺟﺎﺩ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ‪،‬‬
‫ﻁ‪١٣٨٥ ،٢‬ﻫـ‪.٣٥٠/٤ ،‬‬

‫‪-٦-‬‬

‫– ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﷲ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺮﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻛﺤﺮﻣﺔ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ«)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻖ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﻧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ)‪ (٢‬ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪» :‬ﻛـﻞ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﻟﻴﺲ ﲞﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺒﺪﻭﻩ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺸﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﺍﺭﻩ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﻧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺈﻃﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺣﻖ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻋﺎﺟ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﻌﺒـﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟـﺬﻟﻚ ﻗـﺎﻝ ﰲ‬
‫ﻼ ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺁﺟ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪» :‬ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺒﺪﻭﻩ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺸﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﺃﻻ ﻳﻌﺬ‪‬ﻢ«‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺎﺩ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺣـﻖ‬
‫ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺧﲑﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺒـﺪ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺍﺟﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺼﺎﳊﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻭﻳﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺣـﻖ ﺍﷲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺪ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻼ ﻳﻌﻘﻞ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ«)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﰲ ﻣﻌﺎ ٍﻥ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻌـﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺍﻣﻰ ﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺩﻻﻟﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻭﻭﻓﺎﺋﻪ ﲜﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﳐﺎﻃﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺤﻖ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ‪» :‬ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﺜﺎﺭ ﻳﻘﺮﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ«‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺁﺧﺮ‪» :‬ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺃﻭ ﳍﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺮﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ«‪.‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﺎﺯﺍﱐ‪ ،‬ﺳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺳﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ ،١‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.١٥٠/١ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﺨﻤﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎﻃﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑ ﺑـ»ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ«‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٧٩٠‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣـﻦ ﻛﺘﺒـﻪ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻜﱵ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺳﻴﺪﻱ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﺎﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﱐ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ‪ :‬ﻧﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻬﺎﺝ ﺑﺘﻄﺮﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺒﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺑـﲑﻭﺕ‪:‬‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.٥٠-٤٦‬‬

‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻧﺎﻃﻲ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤١٧ ،١‬ﻫـ‪.٢٢١/٢ ،‬‬

‫‪-٧-‬‬

‫ﻭﻋ‪‬ﺮﻑ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ‪» :‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ«)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﻛﺰﺕ ﺟﻞ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊـﻖ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﲟﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺺ ﺃﻭ ﳍﻤﺎ ﻣﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺰﻭﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄ ﹾﻔ ﹸﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﻟﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻟﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺣﺸﺔ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﲨﻊ ﺃﻃﻔﺎﻝ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﻠﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﻔـﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﺎﻟـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﻮﻟـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﻮﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺃﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻜﺴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﺣﲔ ﻳﺴﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻄﻦ ﺃﻣﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺘﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﻳﺪﻋﻰ ﻃﻔ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺴﻘﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺷ‪‬ﻐﻠﺖ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻐﻠﺖ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﺎ ﲟﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻫﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺃﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) ﴾ N M L ﴿ :‬ﻏﺎﻓﺮ‪ .(٦٧/‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ‪ :‬ﻃﻔ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻛﺄﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﰒ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻴﻜﻢ ﻃﻔ ﹰ‬

‫﴿ »¼½¾¿‬

‫‪) ﴾ Â Á À‬ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪.(٣١/‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﻔﻠﺔ ﻭﻃﻔﻞ ﻭﺟﺎﺭﻳﺘﺎﻥ ﻃﻔﻞ ﻭﺟﻮﺍ ٍﺭ ﻃﻔﻞ ﻭﻏﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻃﻔﻞ ﻭﻏﻠﻤﺎﻥ ﻃﻔﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻃﻔﻞ ﻭﻃﻔﻠﺔ ﻭﻃﻔﻼﻥ ﻭﺃﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﻃﻔﻠﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﻃﻔﻼﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﲪﺪ‪ ،‬ﻫﻼﱄ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﻩ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪٢٠٠٦ ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.٤٨ ،٤٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻔﲑﻭﺯﺁﺑﺎﺩﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.١٠٦٧‬‬

‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺍﳊﻠﱯ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ ،٢‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.٨٢/٣ ،‬‬

‫‪-٨-‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻮﻟﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻭﻟﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺣﺸﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﻃﻔﻞ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﻭﲨﻌ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻻﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺏ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﲟﺼﺎﱀ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﻘﺔ ﻭﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻭﳓﻮﳘﺎ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ)‪» :(٣‬ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻟﻠﻮﻟـﺪ ﺣـﱴ‬
‫ﳝﻴﺰ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﻃﻔﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺘﻠﻢ«)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻴﺔ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ«)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺣﲔ ﻭﻻﺩﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ‬
‫ﻼ‪.‬‬
‫ﻃﻔ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺩﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) ﴾ K J I H G F E D C B A ﴿ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪.(٥٩/‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪» :‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﻢ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜـﱪ ﻭﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﻨﻮﻥ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻌﻘﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻔﻴﻖ«)‪.(٦‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.١٧٤/٨ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﳋﺮﺷﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﳐﺘﺼﺮ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ ،٢‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.١١٨/٢ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ ﰒ ﺍﳊﻤﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ‪ .‬ﻟﻐﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﻪ »ﺍﳌﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﻨﲑ« ﻭﻟﺪ ﻭﻧﺸﺄ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻴﻮﻡ ﲟﺼﺮ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‪» :‬ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻋﺎﺵ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪٧٧٠‬ﻫـ«‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٣١٤/١ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺉ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﻨﲑ ﰲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻣﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤٢٣ ،١‬ﻫـ‪.٣٧٤/٢ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳـﺖ‪ :‬ﻣﻄـﺎﺑﻊ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﺴﻼﺳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪،٢‬‬
‫‪١٤١٠‬ﻫـ‪.٣٥٦/٢٨ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺷﺎﻛﺮ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﻓﺆﺍﺩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﻄﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﰊ ﺍﳊﻠﱯ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٣٩٥ ،٢‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﻻ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﺪ‪ ،‬ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ‪،١٤٢٣ :‬‬
‫‪٣٢/٤‬؛ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺴﺘﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﻋﺰﺕ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺱ ﻭﻋﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﲪﺺ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪،١‬‬
‫‪١٣٩٤‬ﻫـ‪ ، ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﻨﻮﻥ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‪٥٥٨/٤ ،٤٣٩٨ :‬؛ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺃﲪـﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ﻭﺣﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻏـﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﻠـﺐ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒـﺸﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪،٢‬‬
‫‪١٤٠٦‬ﻫــ ‪١٩٨٥‬ﻡ‪ ، ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻃﻼﻗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺯﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‪١٥٦/٦ ،٣٤٣٢ :‬؛ ﺍﻟﻘﺰﻭﻳﲏ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑـﻮ‬
‫==‬

‫‪-٩-‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﳉـﻨﲔ ﰲ ﺑﻄـﻦ ﺃﻣـﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫)ﺩ( ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺻﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺘﻮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫)ﻫـ( ﺳﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺼﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻀ‪‬ﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻐﺮﻩ ﻭﺣﱴ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺪ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻼ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺣﲔ ﺗﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺑﻄﻦ ﺃﻣﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﻓﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﻃﻔ ﹰ‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ)‪ :(٢‬ﺍﻟﺸﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﰲ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻭﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻓﺆﺍﺩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﰊ‪١٣٩٥ ،‬ﻫــ‪،‬‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻮﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‪ .٦٥٧/١ ،٢٠٤١ :‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤـﺪ ﻧﺎﺻـﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺳﻠﺴﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ‪ :‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ‪١٤١٥ ،‬ﻫـ‪١٩٩٥ ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﻗﻢ )‪.(١٢٠٩‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻳﻘﻲ ‪.٧٥٧/٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺰﻭﻳﲏ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٣٢٩‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﰲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻱ ﺳـﻨﺔ‬
‫‪٣٩٥‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺎﺣﱯ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﱪﻛﺎﺕ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪ :‬ﻧﺰﻫـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﺮﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤٠٥ ،٣‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.٣٩٢‬‬

‫‪- ١٠ -‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) ﴾ n m l k j ﴿ :‬ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.(٤٨/‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) ﴾ l k j i h g ﴿ :‬ﺍﳉﺎﺛﻴﺔ‪.(١٨/‬‬
‫ﻭﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﻛﺬﺍ‪ :‬ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﺬﻫﺒ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ‪» :‬ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ«‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ)‪» :(١‬ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪ :‬ﲡﻮﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺃﻭ ﲢﺮﳝﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ‪‬ﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺮﺍﻣ‪‬ﺎ«)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻮﻟﻮﺩ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﳏﺮﻡ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺑﻄﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻘﺪ ﻧﻜﺎﺡ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﻭﱂ‬
‫ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺑﻌﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺻﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻥ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺄﺻﻴﻞ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺟﲔ ﻟﻠﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﱪﻣﻲ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﳉﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺟﺴﺘﲑ‪) ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻮﺩ‬‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ -‬ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪١٤٢٤ -‬ﻫـ(‪.‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﳛﲕ‪ .‬ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺑﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺳـﻨﺔ‬
‫‪٨٢٣‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٩٢٦‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﲢﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺐ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻐﺰﻱ‪ ،‬ﳒﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳏﻤـﺪ‬

‫ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﺄﻋﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺩ‪/‬ﺟﱪﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﺟﺒﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳـﺪﺓ‪،‬‬

‫ﻁ‪١٩٧٩ ،٢‬ﻡ‪.١٩٦/١ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٢‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.٣٢٨/٢ ،‬‬

‫‪- ١١ -‬‬

‫ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪:‬‬‫‪ -١‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺟﲔ ﻟﻠﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﻨﻬﻢ ) ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺀ‪ -‬ﳎﻬﻮﱄ ﺍﻷﺑﻮﻳﻦ – ﺍﶈﺮﻭﻣﻮﻥ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﻷﻱ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺠﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻔﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺑﻮﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ..‬ﺇﱁ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺗﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻭﻓﺼﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ‪:‬‬‫ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺟﲔ ﻟﻠﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﲢﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺟﲔ ﻟﻠﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﻋﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﻧﻔﻘﺔ ﻭﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋـﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻗـﻪ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻓﻘﻬﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‪ :‬ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﳉﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻨﺸﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺟﺴﺘﲑ‪) ،‬ﻣﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻣـﺔ ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌـﺔ ﺃﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻯ ‪ ١٤٢٦ -‬ﻫـ(‪.‬‬
‫ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪:‬‬‫‪ -١‬ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ ﺣﻴﺚ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﺣﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﳏﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﻏﺎﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﺣﻜﻤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﺃﺳـﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩﻫﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ ﻭﺇﻧﻘﺎﺫﻩ ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺃﻥ ﻧﻔﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ ﻭﻛﻔﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺖ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻨﻴﺒﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٦‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺮ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ ﰲ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳛﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﻜﻔﺮﻩ ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ ﰲ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪- ١٢ -‬‬

‫‪ -٧‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ ﻣﺴﺎ ٍﻭ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٨‬ﺇﳊﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ ﻧﺴﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﲟﻦ ﺍﺩﻋﻰ ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺿﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٩‬ﺻﺤﺔ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﳑﻦ ﺟ‪‬ﻬﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﲔ ﻧﺴﺒﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -١٠‬ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﲏ ﺳﻮﺍ ًﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺒ‪‬ﲎ ﻟﻘﻴﻄﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﲏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -١١‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﲑﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﺭﺙ ﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﺢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ‪:‬‬‫ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻭﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﰲ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺖ ﺑﺎﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺻﻴﻠﻲ ﻓﻘـﻂ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﺎ ﳜﺘﺺ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﺎ ﳚﺐ ﻣﻦ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﳊﻘﻮﻗﻪ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻃﺮﻕ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﻧﻔﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺍﶈﻤﺪﻱ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﳉﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻨﺸﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭﺍﺓ‪) ،‬ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟـﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻗﻄﺮ ‪١٤١٤ -‬ﻫـ(‪.‬‬
‫ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪:‬‬‫‪ -١‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﹰﺎ ﻗﻮﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺣﺎﻁ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺰﺓ ﻭﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﻹﻧـﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺃﻥ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻻ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻟﻠﺤﻖ ﰲ ﻧﺼﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺗﱰﻳﻪ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻴﻞ ﻭﻗﻄﻊ ﻟﺪﺍﺑﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻳﻔﺘﺮﻗﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺻﻮﺭﻩ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻻ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﲔ ﰲ ﻗـﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﰲ ﺩﻋﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﰲ ﻏﲑﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪- ١٣ -‬‬

‫ﻼ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﻨـﻪ ﺧﻠـﻖ‬
‫‪ -٦‬ﺃﻥ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﻄﺮﻗﻪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻛﺎﻟﻠﻌﺎﻥ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺐ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺑﻞ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﲔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻊ ﴰﻞ ﺍﻷﺳـﺮﺓ ﳛـﺮﺹ‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻻ ﻳﺘﻔﺸﻰ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ‪:‬‬‫ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻭﻃﺮﻕ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﻧﻔﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲟﻮﺿﻮﻋﻨﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻄﻔـﻞ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﲤﻴﻴﺰﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﰲ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﲢﺪﺛﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻴﻨﻤـﺎ ﱂ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﱂ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﻪ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‪ :‬ﻭﺟﻴﻪ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻣﻌﻴﻠﻖ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﳉﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺟﺴﺘﲑ‪) ،‬ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟـﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌـﺔ‬‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻏﺰﺓ ‪١٤٢٧ -‬ﻫـ(‪.‬‬
‫ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪:‬‬‫‪ -١‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲝﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺮﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨـﺴﺐ ﻗﺎﻋـﺪﺓ ﺭﻋﺎﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻃﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺷﺄﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﲑﻳﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺩﻋﻤﻬﺎ ﻥ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻘـﺎﺀ ﺑﻮﺿـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﻓﺮﺹ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺀ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﲔ ﰲ ﳎﺘﻤﻌﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪- ١٤ -‬‬

‫ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ‪:‬‬‫ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻴﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻲ ﻭﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻲ ﻭﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﰲ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﱂ ﺗﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻧﻔﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﱂ ﺗﺒﲔ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺑﻞ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﺒﻴﲔ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲝﻤﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪- ١٥ -‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪- ١٦ -‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ :‬ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ)‪ (١‬ﻟﻸﻭﻻﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬

‫﴿ ‪hg‬‬

‫‪) ﴾ l k j i‬ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ‪.(٥/‬‬

‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺴﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻧﺴﺒﻪ ﰲ ﺑﲏ ﻓﻼﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟـﺼﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺑـﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴ‪‬ﺎﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﺴﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‪ ،‬ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ‪١٩٧٢ ،‬ﻡ‪ ،٩٢٤/٢ ،‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ »ﻥ ﺱ ﺏ«؛ ﺍﻟﻐﻤﺮﺍﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﱳ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺎﺝ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻞ‪١٤٠٨ ،‬ﻫـ‪١٩٨٧ ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.٢٦١‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﻫﻮ‪» :‬ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﲔ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﲔ ﺑﺎﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﰲ ﻭﻻﺩﺓ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ«‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﱯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺑـﻦ‬

‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺒﺎﱐ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﻧﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺂﺭﺏ ﺑﺸﺮﺡ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ‪ ،‬ﺣﻘﻘﻪ ﻭﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ‪ :‬ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﻴـﺪ ﺍﻷﺛـﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺼﻠﻴﺔ‪/‬ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.٥٥/٢ ،‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ‪» :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻷﺏ ﻣﻌﲔ«‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻵﰊ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﱀ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ‪ :‬ﺟﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻞ ﺷﺮﺡ ﳐﺘﺼﺮ ﺧﻠﻴـﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﰊ ﺍﳊﻠﱯ‪١٣٣٢ ،‬ﻫـ‪١٩١٤ ،‬ﻡ‪.١٠٠/٢ ،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺮﻑ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ‪» :‬ﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﲟﻦ ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺪﺍﺩ«‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺑﻴﲏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﴰﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑـﻦ ﳏﻤـﺪ‬

‫ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﻣﻐﲏ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻣﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﰊ ﺍﳊﻠﱯ‪١٣٧٧ ،‬ﻫــ‪١٩٥٨ ،‬ﻡ‪،‬‬
‫‪.٢٥٩/٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺮﻑ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻟﻔﻆ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻚ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺮﺑﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪﺕ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ«‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﺣﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺷـﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﺒﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣـﺸﻖ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠـﻢ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪،٢‬‬
‫‪١٤٠٦‬ﻫـ‪١٩٨٦ ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.٣٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺮﻓﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪» :‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻭﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﻧﻔﺼﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﻋﺼﻤﺔ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺛﺎﺑﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺸﺒﻬﲔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻟﻠﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺋﻪ«‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻳﺎﺳﲔ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ‪ :‬ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺟﺪ‪‬ﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤٠٧ ،١‬ﻫـ‪١٩٨٧ ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.١٠‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) ﴾ Ê É È Ç Æ Å Ä Ã Â Á À ¿ ¾ ﴿ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ‪.(٥٤/‬‬

‫‪- ١٧ -‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻷﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻟﺪﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) ﴾ b a ` _ ^ ﴿ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﺔ‪ .(٢/‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻓﺮﻕ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻜﺎﺡ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺎﺳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﻛﻤﻦ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺑﻮﻟﺪ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻠﻚ ﳝﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻌﺔ ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻡ ﰲ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙ‬
‫ﻓﻼ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻮﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻧﻔﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺣﻘـﻮﻕ ﺃﺧـﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻛﺤﻔﻈـﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺮﺑﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺿﺎﻉ ﻭﺣﻀﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﻧﻔﻘﺔ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﺟﺰ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﲝﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺘﲏ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺴﻤﺘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻄﻠـﺒﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺧﺼﺼﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺭﻛﺰﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﱴ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﻮﻟﺪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺎﺳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺸﺒﻬﺔ؛ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺯﻧﺎ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻨـﺴﺐ ﻣﻨـﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻﺯﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﳍﺎ ﻧﻔﻴﻪ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺐ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﺄﻣﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﻭﻟﺪ‬
‫ﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻓـﺮﺍﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻗـﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻼﻋﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﱴ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﻮﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﺛﺒﺖ ﻧﺴ‪‬ﺒﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﻗﱡ ٍ‬
‫ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺡ‪.‬‬

‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺳﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻋﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪ :‬ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺋﻊ ﰲ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ‪ ،‬ﺑـﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜـﺮ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪،١‬‬
‫‪١٤١٦‬ﻫـ‪١٩٩٦ ،‬ﻡ‪.٢٥٣/٦ ،‬‬

‫‪- ١٨ -‬‬

‫ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳒﻴﻢ)‪» :(١‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻷﻡ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻣﺘﻴﻘﱠﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺘﻬﺎ؛ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻧﺴﺐ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻭﻭﻟـﺪ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻼﻋﻨﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺮﺛﻪ ﻭﻳﺮﺛﻬﺎ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺼﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻛﻌﻀﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺣﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺣﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ«)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ)‪» :(٣‬ﺍﻷﻡ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﻔﻲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﺎ ﺃﺑﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﻪ ﻻﺣﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺎﻝ؛ ﻟﻮﻻﺩ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻪ«)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺟﻲ)‪» :(٥‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﳌﻼﻋﻨﺔ ﻭﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺒﻄﻞ ﻧﺴ‪‬ﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﻣﻪ؛ ﻷﻧـﻪ ﻻ‬
‫ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﺇﳊﺎﻗﻪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻘﺪ ﻧﻜﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﻔﻲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻠﻌﺎ ٍﻥ ﻭﻻ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺰﻧﺎ«)‪.(٦‬‬
‫ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ)‪» :(٧‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﻔﻰ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻔﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧ‪‬ﺴﺐ«)‪.(٨‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺯﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑ ﺑـ»ﺍﺑﻦ ‪‬ﻧﺠﻴﻢ«‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻴﻪ ﺣﻨﻔﻲ ﻣﺼﺮﻱ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٩٧٠‬ﻫـ‪١٥٦٣/‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﻣـﻦ ﻛﺘﺒـﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺷﺒﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﻖ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻷﰊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺡ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻲ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﺷﺬﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ ﰲ ﺃﺧﺒـﺎﺭ ﻣـﻦ ﺫﻫـﺐ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٣٩٩ ،١‬ﻫـ‪.٣٥٨/٨ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﳒﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺯﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻛﱰ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻪ‪ :‬ﺗﻜﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣـﺔ ﺍﻟـﺸﻴﺦ‬
‫ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭﻱ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﺿﺒﻄﻪ ﻭﺧﺮﺝ ﺁﻳﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﻋﻤﲑﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘـﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤١٨ ،١‬ﻫـ‪١٩٩٧ ،‬ﻡ‪.٢٥١/٤ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺣﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻳﻘـﺎﻝ ﻟـﻪ‬
‫»ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ«‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺑ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﻃﺒ‪‬ﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٣٦٨‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻮﰲ ﺑﺸﺎﻃﺒﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٤٦٣‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻓﻀﻠﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﺪﻟﺴﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺣﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺩ‪/‬ﺷﻮﻗﻲ ﺿﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌـﺎﺭﻑ‪،‬‬
‫ﻁ‪١٣٧٤ ،٣‬ﻫـ‪١٩٥٥ ،‬ﻡ‪.٤٠٧/١ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺬﻛﺎﺭ‪.٢٣١/١٧ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٥‬ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻴﱯ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺟﻲ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﻟﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺑﺎﺟﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﺪﻟﺲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٤٠٣‬ﻫــ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗـﻮﰲ‬
‫ﺑﺄﳌﺮﻳﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٤٧٤‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﺇﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﻰ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺮﺣﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺒﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.١٢٠‬‬

‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﻰ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻣﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٣٣٢ ،١‬ﻫـ‪.٣٤٢/٥ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٧‬ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺮﻑ ﺑﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﳏﻴﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻠﻘﺐ ﺑـ»ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ«‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺳـﻨﺔ ‪٦٣١‬ﻫــ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻮﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٦٧٦‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠـﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺩ‪/‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﳊﻠﻮ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪/‬ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻨﺎﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﺣﻴـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺘـﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬

‫‪١٣٨٣‬ﻫـ‪١٩٦٤ ،‬ﻡ‪.١٦٥/٥ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٨‬ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﳏﻴﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﻬﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.١٩٩/١٩ ،‬‬

‫‪- ١٩ -‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮﻱ‪» :‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻣﻪ«)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻴﻤﲔ)‪» :(٢‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻡ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺏ«)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ)‪» :(٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺯﻧﺖ ﻭﲪﻠﺖ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺟﻞ«)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺐ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﺄﻣﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﳊﻖ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﳌﻼﻋﻨﺔ ﺑﺄﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻻﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﺮ‪‬ﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ)‪.(٦‬‬
‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪» :‬ﻭﺃﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ«‪» :‬ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﺮﻑ ﻧﺴﺒﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻣﻪ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﺴﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺏ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺇﳊﺎﻗﻪ ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﻷﻧـﻪ ﺃﻗﺎﻣﻬـﺎ ﻟـﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻣﻨﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﺴﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺃ ٍ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺏ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ«)‪.(٧‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺪﻣﻴﺎﻃﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮﻱ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺷﻄﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻞ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﳌﻌـﲔ‪ ،‬ﺑـﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ ،٤‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.١٢٨/٢ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺁﻝ ﻋﺜﻴﻤﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﶈﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪١٣٤٧‬ﻫـ‪١٩٢٩/‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗـﻮﰲ ﰲ ﺟ‪‬ـﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﺳـﻨﺔ‬
‫‪١٤٢١‬ﻫـ‪٢٠٠١/‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﺡ ﺭﻳﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﺡ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻨﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﺡ ﺃﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻴﻤﲔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻴﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻨﻊ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ‪ :‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺁﺳـﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻨـﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤١٦ ،٤‬ﻫــ‪،‬‬
‫‪١٩٩٥‬ﻡ‪.٤٤٠/١٣ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﳏﻤﺪ‪ .‬ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻷﻧﺪﻟﺲ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺑ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﻃﺒ‪‬ﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٣٨٤‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﰲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ‬
‫‪٤٥٦‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﶈﻠﻰ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ‪‬ﺧﱢﻠ ﹶﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ‪ :‬ﻭﻓﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﻧﺒﺎﺀ ﺃﺑﻨﺎﺀ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺩ‪/‬ﺇﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺻﺎﺩﺭ‪١٩٦٨ ،‬ﻡ‪.٣٤٠/١ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﺍﻷﻧﺪﻟﺴﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﶈﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﻵﺛﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺷﺎﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﳏﻤـﺪ‬
‫ﺧﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳍﺮﺍﺱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻣﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.٣٢٣/١٠ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻓﺆﺍﺩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‪ ،‬ﺇﺳﺘﺎﻧﺒﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫‪١٩٧٩‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‪.٢٢٢/٦ ،٥٣١٥ :‬‬

‫)‪ (٧‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺟﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﻰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٣٢٩/٥ ،‬‬

‫‪- ٢٠ -‬‬

‫ﺻ‪‬ﻴﺮﻩ ﳍﺎ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﻧﻔﺎﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ)‪» :(١‬ﻣﻌﲎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ »ﺃﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺑﺄﻣﻪ« ﺃﻱ‪ :‬‬
‫ﻓﻼ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﻪ ﻓﺘﺮﺙ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﺽ ﺍﷲ ﳍﺎ«)‪.(٢‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻼﻋﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﹸﻓﺮ‪‬ﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﱂ ﳚﺘﻤﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩ‪‬ﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻷﻣﻪ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﻼﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﻋﺼﺒﺘﻪ ﻳﺮﺛﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺮﺛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺩﻋﺎﻩ ﻟﺰﻧﻴﺔ ﺟ‪‬ﻠﺪ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﻷﻥ ﻣﺎﺀﻩ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﹰﺎ ﲟﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻓﲑﺟﺢ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻬﺎ؛ ﻭﻷﻧﻪ ﻣﺘﻴﻘﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺘﻬﺎ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺼﺎﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﻌﻀﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺣﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺣﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻛﺎﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﺳﺒﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ‪‬ـﺎ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺣﻼﻝ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﺢ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﲪﻠﺘﻪ)‪.(٥‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺏ‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺻﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺰﻳﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨـﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺣ ‪‬ﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻴﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﻷﻣﻪ ﺗﺪﺭﺃ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻻ‪‬ﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺤﺸﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻘ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﻷﺑﻴﻪ ﳛﻔﻆ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻪ ﻭﻭﻟﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺑﺄﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻌﱪ ﻋﻨـﻪ‬
‫ﲝﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﺻﻴﺎﻧ ﹰﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺩﻧﺲ ﻭﺭﻳﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﺗﺒﲎ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳـﺎﺱ ﻣـﺘﲔ‬
‫ﻣﻜﲔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﺑﻂ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺑﺎﻁ ﻗﻮﻱ ﳏﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﲡﺎﺫﺏ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻙ‪.‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻘﻼﱐ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ‪ ،‬ﺷﻬﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٧٧٣‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻮﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٨٥٢‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﴰﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﻊ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.٣٦/١ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻘﻼﱐ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺸﺮﺡ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻑ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻓﺆﺍﺩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﳏﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪١٣٧٩ ،‬ﻫـ‪١٩٥٩ ،‬ﻡ‪.٤٦٠/٩ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﰊ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﻦ ‪‬ﺮﺍﻡ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪ ،‬ﺣﻘﻘﻪ‪ :‬ﺩ‪/‬ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺩﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺎ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣـﺸﻖ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤١٢ ،١‬ﻫـ‪١٩٩١/‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﰲ ﻣﲑﺍﺙ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﻋﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ‪ .١٩٤٠/٤ ،٢٩٦٥ :‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﳏﻘﻘﻪ‪» :‬ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ؛ ﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ«‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻧ‪‬ﺠﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﻖ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٢٥١/٤ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ‪ :‬ﺍﶈﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٣٢٣/١٠ ،‬‬

‫‪- ٢١ -‬‬

‫ﻓﻌﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪ ‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﲰﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﳌﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻼﻋﻨﺔ‪» :‬ﺃﳝﺎ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺪﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺟﻨﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﳝﺎ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺟﺤﺪ ﻭﻟﺪﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻨﻈـﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻓﻀﺤﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺀﻭﺱ ﺍﳋﻼﺋﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﲔ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ«)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ ‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪» :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻟﺪﻩ ﻟﻴﻔﻀﺤﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓـﻀﺤﻪ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺀﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺎﺩ«)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ ﺁﺑﺎﺋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪» :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﺩﻋﻰ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ ﺃﺑﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻏﲑ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳉﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ«)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻷﻭﻻﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺘﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻣﻬﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻓـﻮﺭ ﻭﻻﺩ‪‬ـﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﲦﺮﺓ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﻓﺎﺳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻭﻳﺜﺒﺖ ‪‬ﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ؛ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻄﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤١١ ،١‬ﻫـ‪١٩٩٠ ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ‪.٢٠٣/٢ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺒﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﺭﻧﺎﺀﻭﻁ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤١٦ ،١‬ﻫــ‪،‬‬
‫‪١٩٩٥‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‪ .٤١٤/٨ ،٤٧٩٥ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﺭﻧﺎﺀﻭﻁ‪» :‬ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺣﺴﻦ«‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻐﺎﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﻏﺰﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄـﺎﺋﻒ‪ ،‬ﺭﻗـﻢ ‪ ،١٩٩/٥ ،٤٣٢٦‬ﻭﻛﺘـﺎﺏ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﺩﻋﻰ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‪١٩٤/٨ ،٦٧٦٦ :‬؛ ﺍﻟﻘﺸﲑﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑـﻦ ﺍﳊﺠـﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻴـﺴﺎﺑﻮﺭﻱ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻓﺆﺍﺩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٣٧٥ ،١‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺇﳝـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺭﻏﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‪.٥٧/١ ،٢٢٩ :‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺑﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﶈﻘﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﻣﲔ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪ :‬ﺣﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﺭﺩ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻜﻔﻲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﱳ ﺗﻨـﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺑـﺼﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻠ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮﺗ‪‬ﺎﺷﻲ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺎﺩﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﻌﻮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘـﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤١٤ ،١‬ﻫــ‪،‬‬
‫‪١٩٩٤‬ﻡ‪.٤١٤/١٠ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺷﺪ ﺍﳊﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﺴﻮﻑ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ‪ :‬ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪ ﻭ‪‬ﺎﻳـﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺘـﺼﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٣٩٨ ،٤‬ﻫـ‪١٩٧٨ ،‬ﻡ‪٤٥/٢ ،‬؛ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻡ‪ ،‬ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻑ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻫـﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.٢٥٤/٥ ،‬‬

‫‪- ٢٢ -‬‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﻧﻜﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺔ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑـ»ﻃﺮﻕ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ«)‪ ،(٢‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺃﺭﺑﻌـﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ »ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ«‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﺔ »ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ«‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﳏﻞ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻓﺒﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ)‪:(٤‬‬
‫ﺃﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ)‪» :(٥‬ﻓﺄﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﻓﺄﲨﻌﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ«)‪ .(٦‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑـ»ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ«‪ :‬ﻓﺮﺍﺵ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪ ﺷﺮﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻮﻓﺮﺕ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻃﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻔﺖ ﻣﻮﺍﻧﻌﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳍﻤﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪ :‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﺟﺰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﲑ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘـﺮﺍﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.٣٢٩/٤ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳚﺐ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺸﻘﻲ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻫﺪﻱ ﺧﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺒـﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴـﻖ‪ :‬ﺷـﻌﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﻧﺎﺀﻭﻁ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﻧﺎﺀﻭﻁ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤٠٥ ،٨‬ﻫـ‪.٤١٠/٥ ،‬‬
‫)‪» (٤‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ« ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻮﻁﺀ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﺘﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﻻﺩﺓ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈـﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺮﺟـﺎﱐ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤٠٣ ،١‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.١٧٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ »ﻓﺮﺍﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ«‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،٣٢٧/٦ ،‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ »ﻑ ﺭ‬

‫ﺵ«؛ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﺳﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺋﻊ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٢٤٢/٦ ،‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻳﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺇﻃﻼﻗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﱪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺵ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‪:‬‬

‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪٣٦/١٢ ،‬؛ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ‪ :‬ﻧﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻃﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺻﺪﻗﻰ‬
‫ﳏﻤﺪ ﲨﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤٢١ ،١‬ﻫـ‪٢٠٠٠ ،‬ﻡ‪.٢٩٦/٣ ،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﻔﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﱃ؛ ﻷ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﺘﺮﺷﺎ‪‬ﺎ«‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﻔﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﲢﻔﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺫﻱ ﺑﺸﺮﺡ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪١٤١٥ ،‬ﻫـ‪.٣٢١/٤ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺸﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﴰﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑـ»ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻳﺔ«‪ .‬ﻣﻮﻟﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺩﻣـﺸﻖ ﺳـﻨﺔ‬
‫‪٦٩١‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٧٥١‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ‬

‫ﻛﺜﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺸﻘﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٣٨٨ ،١‬ﻫـ‪.٢٣٤/١٤ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٤١٠/٥ ،‬‬

‫‪- ٢٣ -‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻁﺀ ﺑﺸﺒﻬﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﻁﺀ ﺑﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺜﺒﻮﺕ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻮﻟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻁﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺗﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺁﺓ ﺑﻮﻟ ٍﺪ ﳑﻦ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﳌﺜﻠﻪ ﻟﺴﺘﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﻮﻁﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻁﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‬
‫ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﺇﺫﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﺣﻘﻴﻘ ﹰﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻜ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺪﺍﺕ؛ ﻟﻘﻮﻟـﻪ ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟـﺪ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﻭﻟﻠﻌﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ«)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻁﺀ ﲟﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌـﱪ ﻋﻨـﻪ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺑـ»ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻼﺩ«‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺳ‪‬ﺮﻳﺔ ﻳﻄﺌﻬﺎ ﲟﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻓﺮﺍﺷ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ)‪ .(٢‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﲑﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻠﺘﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺑﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻗﻪ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺗﻔـﺼﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻟﺜﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﲪﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ)‪ .(٤‬ﻓﻠـﻮ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﺻﻐﲑ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻻ ‪‬ﻳﺘﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺘﻠﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﻋﻨـﺪ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﺛﻨﱵ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺳﻨﲔ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻼﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺷـﺮﻁ ﻋﻨـﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﳌﻈﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﺣﺮﺓ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‪،٦٧٤٩ :‬‬
‫‪.١١/٨‬‬

‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻪ‪ :‬ﺣﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻫـﻮﱐ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻌـﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻳـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪،١‬‬
‫‪١٣٠٦‬ﻫـ‪.١٨٧/٤ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺑﺪﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺣﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﺭﺩ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٢٣٠/٥ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻐﻤﺮﺍﻭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﱳ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.٢٦١‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻟﺒﻬﻮﰐ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﻛﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﻣﱳ ﺍﻹﻗﻨـﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜـﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻣـﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻄﺒﻌـﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪١٣٩٤‬ﻫـ‪١٩٧٥ ،‬ﻡ‪.٤٠٥/٥ ،‬‬

‫‪- ٢٤ -‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻗﻲ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ »ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻁﺀ« ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺃﻗـﺼﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﲣﻠﻒ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻃﻮﻫﺎ ﻟﺜﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻻ ﻳﺜﺒـﺖ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺩﻋﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺻﺤﻴﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﺘﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻭﻟﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻔﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﺘﻔﻲ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻔﺎﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻼﻋﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‬
‫ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻻ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬
‫ﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮﺕ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻔﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻗﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺻـﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻼ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻼﻋﻨﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻟـﺪ‬
‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺎﻥ ﺃﻫ ﹰ‬
‫ﺣﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﻨﻔﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻌﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﳑﻦ ﳛﺪ ﻗﺎﺫﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻧﻔﻲ ﻧﺴﺐ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻃﺎﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺬﻑ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻌﺎﻥ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﺑـ»ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺐ«‪ .‬ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻻﺩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨـﺴﺐ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻋﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﳛﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺑﻮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻧﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٧٣/٧ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﱐ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﲏ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺸﻘﻲ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻠﺒﺎﺏ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﲑﺓ ﺷﺮﺡ ﳐﺘﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻭﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﺍﺩﺍﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﳋﲑﻳﺔ‪١٣٢٢ ،‬ﻫـ‪١٩٠٤ ،‬ﻡ‪.٢٠٨/٢ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻴﻨﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻣﻄﺒﻌـﺔ ﻣـﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﺒـﺎﰊ ﺍﳊﻠـﱯ‪،‬‬
‫‪١٣٥٥‬ﻫـ‪١٩٣٦ ،‬ﻡ‪.٢٣/٢ ،‬‬

‫‪- ٢٥ -‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﳛﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﺑﻮﺓ؛ ﻛﺎﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻷﺧﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﰲ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﲔ ﺷﺮﻭﻃﹰﺎ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻘﻘﻬﺎ ﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺷﺘﺮﻃﻮﺍ ﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻼ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍ‪‬ﻨﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﻘﻮﳍﻢ‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻐ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﺎﻗ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﳑﻦ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﻧﺴﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﳌﺜﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﺃﻗـﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻩ ﻋﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻩ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭﻩ؛ ﻻﺳﺘﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺎﺩ ﹰﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﹶﺮ ﻟﻪ ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺇﺑﻄﺎﻝ ﻧﺴﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﲝﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺬﺑﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻹﻗـﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺃﻻ ﻳﻜﺬﺏ )ﺍﳌﻘﺮ‪‬ﺏ( ﺍﳌﻘﹶﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﻘِﺮ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻫ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﺃﻻ ﻳﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﺍﳌﻘﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺃﺣﺪ‪‬؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺎﺯﻋﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺟﺢ ﻷﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻷﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺑﺎﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ)‪.(١‬‬
‫‪ -٦‬ﺃﻻ ﻳﺼﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﻘِﺮ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﹶﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻟﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺻﺮﺡ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭﻩ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻧـﺎ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺒﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ؛ ﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﻭﻟﻠﻌﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ«)‪ .(٢‬ﻭﻫـﺬﺍ ﻣـﺬﻫﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺗﻮﻓﺮﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻘﹶﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘِﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺐ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺑﺪﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺣﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﺭﺩ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٤٨٥/٢ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.٢٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺹ‪.٣١‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺳﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺋﻊ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪٢٢٨/٧ ،‬؛ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﳐﺘﺼﺮ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟـﻊ ﺳـﺎﺑﻖ‪١٠٥/٦ ،‬؛ ﺍﳋﻄﻴـﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺑﻴﲏ‪ :‬ﻣﻐﲏ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٢٥٨/٢ ،‬‬

‫‪- ٢٦ -‬‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﺔ »ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ«‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺟﻠﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻛﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﻋﺎﺩﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺷـﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﳝﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﲨـﺎﻫﲑ‬
‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺒﻞ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺟﻠﲔ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻟﲔ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﳊﻖ ﻧﺴﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﲨﻴـﻊ ﺍﻷﺣﻜـﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘـﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﺑﺎﻷﺑﻮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺣﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﺻﺢ ﲰﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﳎﺮﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺣﻖ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﻟﺬﺍﺗﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ – ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﻪ – ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺍﻷﺑـﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨـﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﱂ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻊ ﺇﻻ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺣﻖ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻛﺎﻟﻨﻔﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺙ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﻟﺬﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﳌﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻲ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﲑﺍﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﰱ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻭﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳊﻜﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﻋﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﲑﺍﺙ ﻳﻘﺘـﻀﻲ‬
‫ﺿﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺐ‪.‬‬

‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺑﺪﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺣﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﺭﺩ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٤١٥/٤ ،‬‬

‫ﳋﺮ‪‬ﺷﻲ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﳐﺘﺼﺮ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪٢٠٠/٧ ،‬؛ ﺍﻟﺸﲑﺍﺯﻱ‪،‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻴﻨﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪١١٧/١ ،‬؛ ﺍ ﹶ‬

‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻬﺬﺏ ﰲ ﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻪ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﻬﺬﺏ ﶈﻴﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﺍﻟـﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪/‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪٣٣٤/٢ ،‬؛ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﴰﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻮﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒـﺔ ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻒ‪ :‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪١٥/٣ ،‬؛ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ‪ :‬ﺍﶈﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٣٥٩/٩ ،‬‬

‫‪- ٢٧ -‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺟﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺎﻣﻊ)‪ ،(١‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻓﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻻ ﻳﻄﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﱂ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺩﻯ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺮﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺭﺙ ﻭﺣﺮﻣﺔ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺎﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﻧـﻪ‬
‫ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﺑﻨﺎ ًﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻣﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﺗﺼﺢ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪﺍﻥ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ‬
‫ﱂ ﻳﻌﺎﻳﻨﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﲰﻌﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺗﺮﺩ ﺷﻬﺎﺩ‪‬ﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻗﺎﻻ‪ :‬ﺇ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺎﻳﻨﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﻭﺃﺧﱪﻧـﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﺜﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺒﻠﺖ ﺷﻬﺎﺩ‪‬ﻤﺎ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻓﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻒ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻳﺘ‪‬ﺒﻊ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﻭﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻌﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻓﺔ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪» :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﻔﺮﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﻭﻧﻈﺮﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﻟﻮﺩ«)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺑﻴﲏ)‪ (٦‬ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪» :‬ﻣﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﲟﺎ ﺧﺼ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ«)‪.(٧‬‬

‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﴰﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻬﻞ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺒﺴﻮﻁ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪،٣‬‬
‫‪١٣٩٨‬ﻫـ‪١٩٧٨ ،‬ﻡ‪.١١١/١٦ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺪﺳﻮﻗﻲ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ‪ :‬ﺣﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺘﺼﺮ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ »ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ«‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪١٩٨/٤ ،‬؛ ﺍﳉﻤ‪‬ﺎﻋﻴﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﱠﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺳﻲ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻐﲏ ﺷﺮﺡ ﳐﺘﺼﺮ ﺍﳋﺮﻗﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺩ‪/‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﶈﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪/‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳊﻠﻮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻫﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤٠٧ ،١‬ﻫـ‪١٩٨٦ ،‬ﻡ‪.١٦١/٩ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳍﻤﺎﻡ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٢٢ ،٢١/٦ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻔﲑﻭﺯﺁﺑﺎﺩﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،١٨٨/٣ ،‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ »ﻕ ﻑ ﻭ«‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﳉﺮﺟﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.٩١‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺑﻴﲏ‪ ،‬ﴰﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻴﻪ ﺷﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻔﺴﺮ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٩٧٧‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﲑ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺁﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻨﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺣﻞ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺃﰊ ﺷﺠﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻐﲏ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺎﺝ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺩ‪ :‬ﺷﺬﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳـﺎﺑﻖ‪،‬‬

‫‪.٣٨٤/٨‬‬

‫)‪ (٧‬ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺑﻴﲏ‪ :‬ﻣﻐﲏ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٤٨٨/٤ ،‬‬

‫‪- ٢٨ -‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﺑﺎﳊﻜﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻮﻟﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴ‪‬ﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﳊﻘﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﺯﻋﲔ ﻧ‪‬ـﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﹸﳊﻖ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﲔ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﻳﻦ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ‪ .‬ﻭﺑـﻪ ﻗـﺎﻝ ﲨﻬـﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ)‪ (٢‬ﻭﺍﳊﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ)‪ (٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﺔ)‪ (٤‬ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻻﺩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺬﻫﺒﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻻﺩ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺋﺮ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻭﳑﺎ ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﹰﺎ ﺷـﺮﻋﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﺢ؛ ﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟـﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﳍﻢ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‪» :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺩﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﺧﻠﻔﺎﺋﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟـﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑـﻮ‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺒﺴﻮﻁ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪٧٠/١٧ ،‬؛ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻨﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﱯ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻫﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ؛ ‪١٤٠٢/٤‬؛ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳒﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﻖ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳـﺎﺑﻖ‪،‬‬
‫‪.٢٩٧/٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﲑﺍﺯﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻬﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪٤٤٤/١ ،‬؛ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﴰﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﲪﺰﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ ﺍﻟـﺪﻳﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻣﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﰊ ﺍﳊﻠﱯ‪١٣٥٧ ،‬ﻫـ‪.٣٥١/٨ ،‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫ﳉ ‪‬ﻤﺎﻋﻴﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﱠﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺳﻲ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ ﰲ ﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺯﻫﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻭﻳﺶ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻜﺘـﺐ‬
‫ﺍﹶ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤٠٨ ،٥‬ﻫـ‪١٩٨٨ ،‬ﻡ‪٣٦٨/٢ ،‬؛ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺳﻲ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠـﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻗﻨـﺎﻉ‬

‫ﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺩ‪/‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﶈﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻫﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤١٨ ،١‬ﻫـ‪.٤٠٩/٢ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ‪ :‬ﺍﶈﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،٤٣٥/٩ ،‬ﻭ‪.١٤٨/١٠‬‬

‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻷﺻﺒﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺪﻭﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺳﺤﻨﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻣﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‪١٣٢٣ ،‬ﻫـ‪٣٣٩/٣ ،‬؛‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺮﺣﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﺍﳊﻜﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻋﺘﲎ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﲨﺎﻝ ﻣﺮﻋﺸﻠﻲ‪،‬‬

‫ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤١٦ ،١‬ﻫـ‪١٩٩٥ ،‬ﻡ‪٩١/٢ ،‬؛ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﳐﺘﺼﺮ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.١١٠/٦ ،‬‬

‫‪- ٢٩ -‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺭﺑﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻳﺎﺱ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ)‪ ،(١‬ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﳑﻦ ﺑﻌـﺪﻫﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟـﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﺻـﺤﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ ﻭﺃﺻـﺤﺎﺑﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ)‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺛﻮﺭ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻝ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧـﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺘﻔـﻲ ﺑـﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻗﺎﺭﺏ«)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻒ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻬـﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻒ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﻠﻔﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪ ﹰﻻ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﲰﻴﻌ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺼﲑ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎﺭﻓﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﳎ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﺑﺎﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻒ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﳊﻜـﻢ ﺑﺈﺛﺒـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﻨﺎ ًﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺒﻞ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺛﻨﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺒﲏ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻒ ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳐﱪ؟‬
‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﻝ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺍﻛﺘﻔﻰ ﺑﻮﺍﺣﺪ)‪.(٦‬‬

‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻬ ِﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ‪ .‬ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻣﺼﺮ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻩ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﻟﺪﻩ ﰲ ﻗﻠﻘﺸﻨﺪﺓ ﺳـﻨﺔ ‪٩٤‬ﻫــ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﻭﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ‪١٧٥‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ‪‬ﺧﱢﻠﻜﹶﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻭﻓﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.١٣٩ ،١٣٥/٤ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﳐﻠﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻈﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑـ»ﺍﺑﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻳﻪ«‪ .‬ﻋﺎﱂ ﺧﺮﺍﺳﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻋـﺼﺮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪١٦١‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﰲ ﺑﻨﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﺭ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٢٣٨‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ‪‬ﺧﱢﻠﻜﹶﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻭﻓﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٦٤/١ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﱯ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺪﺍﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺛﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻣـﺎﺕ ﺑﺒﻐـﺪﺍﺩ ﺷـﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨﺎ ﺳـﻨﺔ‬
‫‪٢٤٠‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺪﺍﺩﻱ‪ :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.٦٥/٦ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺸﻘﻲ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﳏﻤـﺪ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻣﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﶈﻤﺪﻳﺔ‪١٣٧٢ ،‬ﻫـ‪١٩٥٣ ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.١٩٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺮﺣﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺗﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﺍﳊﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪٩١/٢ ،‬؛ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﰊ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﻄـﺎﻟﺒﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻨﺒﻮﻉ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﺩﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻲ‬
‫ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﻌﻮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤١٢ ،١‬ﻫـ‪١٩٩٢ ،‬ﻡ‪٣٧٤/٨ ،‬؛ ﺍﻟﺒﻬﻮﰐ‪ :‬ﻛﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟـﻊ ﺳـﺎﺑﻖ‪،‬‬

‫‪٢٠٢/٤‬؛ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ‪ :‬ﺍﶈﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.١٤٨/١٠ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.٢١١‬‬

‫‪- ٣٠ -‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛـﺮﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﱐ ﻟﻮﻟﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﺭﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺮ‪‬ﻕ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳓﺮ‪‬ﺭ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻭﺑﻴ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ ﺍﻷﻡ‬
‫ﻓﺮﺍﺷﹰﺎ ﻓﺎﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻓﺮﺍﺷﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻭﺃﻗﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻧﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺯﻧﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻓﺮﺍﺷﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻬﻨـﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻌﺎﻥ ﻭﻳﻔﺮ‪‬ﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺮﻗﺔ ﺃﺑﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻭﻟﺪ ﻟﻌﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺯﻧﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻏﲑ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﱐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻬﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﻟـﺪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺜﺒـﺖ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﻪ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻏﲑ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ ﻭﺃﻗ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﱐ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﻓﻬﻨﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﲔ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﱐ ﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﱏ ﻟﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﺎﻥ‪:‬‬‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻓﺮﺍﺷ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻓﺮﺍﺷ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﻧﺴﺐ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﱐ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻣﻪ ﻓﺮﺍ ‪‬ﺷﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻧـﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﺛﺒـﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﹸﺃﻗﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ﺯﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻛﺎﳊﻜﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻣـﻪ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪- ٣١ -‬‬

‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﻧﻜﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻼﻋﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻔ ‪‬ﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺮﻗﺔ ﺃﺑﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﻟﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻼﻋﻨﺔ ﻻ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺯﻧﺎ‪ .‬ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﻄﻊ ﻧﺴﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻼ ِﻋﻦ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻷﺣﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﻖ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨـﺴﺐ؛ ﻷﻥ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺑﻨﻔﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺡ ﺻﺤﻴ ٍﺢ؛ ﳌﺎ‬
‫ﺵ ﻧﻜﺎ ٍ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻠﻲ)‪» :(٢‬ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﳑﺎ ﺗﻘ ‪‬ﺮﺭ ﻋﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ ﻣﻨﻔﻲ ﺑﻠﻌﺎ ٍﻥ ‪‬ﻭِﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺍ ِ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺑﻄﺎﻝ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﰲ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻗﻪ«)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻩ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﲨﻊ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻩ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻭﻟﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﻩ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻻﺣﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﳎﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﲟﻦ ﻳﺪﻋﻴﻪ ﺑﺈﲨﺎﻉ؛ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﻭﺗﺴﻜﻦ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻭﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﻭﻧﺺ«)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ)‪» :(٦‬ﻭﺃﲨﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻓﺎﺩﻋﺎﻩ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻪ«)‪.(٧‬‬

‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺒﺴﻮﻁ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٢٠٥/٧ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﲪﺰﺓ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣﻠِﻲ‪ ،‬ﺷﻬﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻮﻓﻴﺔ ﲟﺼﺮ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﰲ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٩٥٧‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓـﺘﺢ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺩ ﺑﺸﺮﺡ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻐﺰﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.١١٩/٢ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.١٠٨/٥ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪ ﳌﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻱ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺌﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤٠٢ ،٢‬ﻫــ‪١٩٨٢ ،‬ﻡ‪٥٦٤/٣ ،‬؛‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﻭﺭﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﰲ ﻓﻘﻪ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ‪ ‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﳐﺘﺼﺮ ﺍﳌـﺰﱐ‪،‬‬
‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﻌﻮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺩﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘـﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤١٤ ،١‬ﻫــ‪١٩٩٤ ،‬ﻡ‪،‬‬
‫‪١٦٢/٨‬؛ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪٤٢٢-٤١٤/٥ ،‬؛ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻐﲏ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪١٢٣/٩ ،‬؛ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻠﺢ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﺎﻣﺸﻪ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﻟﻌﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﺍﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻋﺘﻨﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﺮﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‪،‬‬
‫ﻁ‪١٤٠٥ ،٤‬ﻫـ‪١٩٨٥ ،‬ﻡ‪.٥٢٨/٥ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٥٦٩/٣ ،‬‬
‫ﳉﻤ‪‬ﺎﻋِﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺳﻲ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﳏﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﱠﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﰲ ﻧﺎﺑﻠﺲ ﺳـﻨﺔ ‪٥٤١‬ﻫــ‪،‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﹸﻗﺪ‪‬ﺍﻣﺔ ﺍ ﹶ‬

‫ﳋ ‪‬ﺮﻗِﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟـﻊ ﺳـﺎﺑﻖ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻮﰲ ﰲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٦٢٠‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻐﲏ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺑﻪ ﳐﺘﺼﺮ ﺍ ِ‬
‫‪.٩٩/١٣‬‬

‫)‪ (٧‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻐﲏ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.١٢٣/٩ ،‬‬

‫‪- ٣٢ -‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺗﻪ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﻌﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ«)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﻰ‪» :‬ﻭﻟﻠﻌﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ« ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻫﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﱐ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻇﺎﻫ ‪‬ﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻮ ﺍﻟﺰﻧـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺁﰒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺧﻔﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺨﺬﻩ ِﺧ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑـﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‪) ﴾ y x w v u t s r q p ﴿ :‬ﺍﻷﻋـﺮﺍﻑ‪ .(٣٣/‬ﻭﺃﻧـﺰﻝ‪:‬‬

‫﴿‪t‬‬

‫‪) ﴾ v u‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.(٢٥/‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻬﺮ ﺑﺄﻣﺔ ﳝﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﺰﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻟـﺪ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻓﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﺃﺣﻖ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻀﻰ ‪ ‬ﺑﺎﳊﺠﺮ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻫﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﲎ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﺑﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻢ ﻻ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺟﻢ‬
‫ﺯﺍﱐ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ‪ ‬ﱂ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳـﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ«)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‪» :‬ﻧﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ« ﻣﻌﻨﻴﺎﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻨﻔﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻧﻔﺎﻩ ﲟﺎ ‪‬ﺷﺮﻉ ﻛﺎﻟﻠﻌﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻫﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ«‪ ...‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪» :‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟـﻪ‪» :‬ﻭﻟﻠﻌـﺎﻫﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺠﺮ« ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻟﻠﺰﺍﱐ ﺍﳋﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻣﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻬﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﲎ ﺍﳋﻴﺒﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﺣﺮﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻋﻴﻪ«)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﻌﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ« ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ؛‬
‫ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﺇﺯﺍﺭﻩ ﻭﳊﺎﻓﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﳐﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟـﺼﺎﺣﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﻭﺍﳊﺠﺮ ﻟﻠﺰﺍﱐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻗﺘﻀﻰ ﺃﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﳌﻦ ﻻ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ ﳌﻦ ﻻ ﺯﻧﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ؛ ﺇﺫ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻤﺔ ﺗﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.٢٤‬‬

‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺟﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﻰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٣٤١/٧ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‪ :‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪٣٧ ،٣٦/١٢ ،‬؛ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﰊ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﳏﲕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﺡ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪.٣٧/١٠ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺳﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺋﻊ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٢٤٢/٦ ،‬‬

‫‪- ٣٣ -‬‬

‫‪ -٢‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺼﻢ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﻗﺎﺹ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻣﻌﺔ)‪ (١‬ﰲ ﻏﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﱄ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺑﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻣﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺧﻲ‬
‫ﺳﻌﺪ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﺧﻲ ﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﻗﺎﺹ)‪ (٢‬ﻋﻬﺪ ﺇ ﱠ‬
‫ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻟﻴﺪﺗﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﻨﻈﺮ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻓﺮﺃﻯ ﺷﺒ ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﺎ ﺑﻌﺘﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪» :‬ﻫﻮ ﻟﻚ ﻋﺒﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﻌﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺠﱯ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺯﻣﻌﺔ«‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﺮﻩ ﺳﻮﺩﺓ ﻗﻂ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﻗﺎﺹ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﺩﻋﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺯﻧﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻋﻮﺍﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺯﻣﻌﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻫـﻮ‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻣﺔ ﺯﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﺩﻋﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺯﻣﻌﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻭﻁﺀ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﳍﺎ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪» :‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﺃﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ«)‪.(٥‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ«)‪.(٦‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻧﺴﺐ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﱐ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻣﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻏﲑ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﱐ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻓﺮﺍ ‪‬ﺷﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﲔ‪:‬‬

‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﴰﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﺻﺤﺎﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺧﻮ ﺳﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺯﻣﻌﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻷﺑﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﻛﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﺪﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺻﺎﺩﺭ‪١٣٨٠ ،‬ﻫـ‪١٩٦٠ ،‬ﻡ‪.١٣٥ ،١٣٤/٦ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﻗﺎﺹ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﺞ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺴﺮ ﺭ‪‬ﺑﺎﻋﻴﺘﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ .‬ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺇﻧـﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﻘـﻞ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺛﲑ‪ :‬ﺃﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺑﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟـﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪١٣٩٣ ،‬ﻫـ‪١٩٧٣ ،‬ﻡ‪.٥٦٥/٣ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﺩﻋﻰ ﺃﺧ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺑـﻦ ﺃﺥ‪ ،‬ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ‪،٦٧٦٥ :‬‬
‫‪.١٥/٨‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺯﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺰﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺧﺪﳚﺔ ﲟﻜﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺒﺖ ﻳﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﻟﻌﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈـﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺛﲑ‪ :‬ﺃﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.١٥٧/٧ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺟﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﻰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٣٣٦/٧ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٤١٠/٥ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﺣﺮﺓ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‪.١٩١/٨ ،٦٧٥٠ :‬‬

‫‪- ٣٤ -‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺍﱐ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﳌـﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌـﺔ)‪ ،(١‬ﻭﺍﳌـﺬﻫﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻱ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻠﻲ‪» :‬ﻭﳝﺘﻨﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻣﻄﻠ ﹰﻘﺎ«)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻔﻠﺢ)‪» :(٤‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﻣﻄﻠ ﹰﻘﺎ«)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺍﱐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﻭﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻓﺮﺍ ‪‬ﺷﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﻩ ﺷـﻴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ)‪ ،(٦‬ﻭﺭﺟﺤﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ)‪ ،(٧‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﳌﻐﲏ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ‬
‫ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ‪» :‬ﻻ ﺃﺭﻯ ﺑﺄ ‪‬ﺳﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺯﱏ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﺤﻤﻠﺖ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺰﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﲪﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻭﻟﺪ‬
‫ﻟﻪ«)‪.(٨‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫﻮﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﲑﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺳﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺋﻊ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪٢٤٣/٦ ،‬؛ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺒﺴﻮﻁ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪١٥٤/١٧ ،‬؛ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺷـﺪ ﺍﳊﻔﻴـﺪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪٣٥٨/٢ ،‬؛ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪٥٥٦/٢ ،‬؛ ﺍﳌﺎﻭﺭﺩﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬

‫ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪١٦٢/٨ ،‬؛ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻔﻠﺢ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﺮﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺒﺪﻉ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﻘﻨـﻊ‪ ،‬ﺑـﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻜﺘـﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤٠٢ ،١‬ﻫـ‪١٩٨٢ ،‬ﻡ‪.٧٠/٧ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ‪ :‬ﺍﶈﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.١٤٢/١٠ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.١٠٨/٥ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻔﻠﺢ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﻟﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٨١٦‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٨٨٤‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻷﺭﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺪﻉ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﻊ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.١٥٢/١ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻔﻠﺢ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺒﺪﻉ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٦٠/٧ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻔﻠﺢ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺒﺪﻉ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٧٠/٧ ،‬‬

‫ﳊﺮ‪‬ﺍﻧِﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺸﻘﻲ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﲑﻱ ﺍ ﹶ‬
‫ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﰲ ﺣﺮﺍﻥ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٦٦١‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٧٢٨‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨـﻬﺎﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.١٣٥/١٤ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٧‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٤٢٥/٥ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٨‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻐﲏ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.١٢٣/٩ ،‬‬

‫‪- ٣٥ -‬‬

‫ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﻌﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ«)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ( ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﱂ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻭﻟﺪﺍ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ ﻛﻤﺎ ﱂ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻫﺮ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳊﺎﻕ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺍﱐ‬
‫ﺇﳊﺎﻕ ﻟﻠﻮﻟﺪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﳊﺮﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻫﺮ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺏ( ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺍﱐ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺪﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟـﺰﺍﱐ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﻖ ﻭﻟﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﳉﺼﺎﺹ)‪» :(٤‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ« ﻗﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﻰ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻼ ﻧﺴﺐ ﻟﻪ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ« ﺍﺳـﻢ ﻟﻠﺠـﻨﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛـﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟـﻪ‪:‬‬
‫»ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ« ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺲ‪ ،‬ﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺒﻖ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺇﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﺍﺩ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﱪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺄﻧﻪ ﻗـﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻭﻟﺪ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ«)‪.(٥‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳌﺎ ﹸﻓﺘﺤﺖ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻡ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻓﻼ‪‬ﻧﺎ ﺍﺑﲏ ﻋﺎﻫﺮﺕ ﺑﺄﻣﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪» :‬ﻻ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﻌﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻷﺛﻠﺐ«‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﺛﻠﺐ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪» :‬ﺍﳊﺠﺮ«)‪.(٦‬‬

‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.٢٤‬‬

‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺳﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺋﻊ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٢٤٢/٦ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻔﻠﺢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٥٢٦/٥ ،‬‬

‫ﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٣٠٥‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٣٧٠‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﻜـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺁﻥ‪،‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﳉ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺷﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٨٤/١ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﳉﺼﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﻗﻤﺤﺎﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺑـﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﺣﻴـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪١٤٠٥ ،‬ﻫـ‪.٣٩٦/٣ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‪.٢٨٣/٢ ،٢٢٧٤ :‬‬

‫‪- ٣٦ -‬‬

‫ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﺴﺮ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ ﺃﻡ ﻻ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺓ)‪ (١‬ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺳـﺎﻋﻰ ﰲ‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪» :‬ﻻ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﳊﻖ ﺑﻌﺼﺒﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﺩﻋﻰ ﻭﻟ ‪‬ﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺭﺷﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺮﺙ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﺭﺙ«)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﻟﻐﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺎﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻔﺎ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﰒ ﺑﲔ ‪ ‬ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺙ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﺭﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺙ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﰲ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻓﺮﺍﺷﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻖ ﺍﺳ‪‬ﺘﻠﺤﻖ‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ)‪ (٤‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻗﻀﻰ ﺃﻥ »ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻋﻰ ﻟﻪ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﻩ ﻭﺭﺛﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻀﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺔ ﳝﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺃﺻﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﳊﻖ ﲟﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﳑﺎ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﻣﻦ ﻣﲑﺍﺙ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺴﻢ ﻓﻠـﻪ ﻧـﺼﻴﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻋﻰ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻧﻜﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺔ ﱂ ﳝﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﺓ ﻋﺎﻫﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﺈﻧـﻪ ﻻ‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻤﻌﻲ ﳚﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺀ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺋﺮ؛ ﻷ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﻦ ﻳﺴﻌﲔ ﳌﻮﺍﻟﻴﻬﻦ ﻓﻴﻜﺴﱭ ﳍﻢ ﺑـﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺠﺮﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﺎﻋﺎﻫﺎ ﻓﻼﻥ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺠﺮ ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻛﺄﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻳـﺴﻌﻰ‬
‫ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﻏﺮﺿﻪ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺰﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﳎﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻷﺛﺮ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪:‬‬

‫ﻃﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻱ ﻭﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻨﺎﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪ ،٩٣٥/٢ ،‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ »ﺱ ﻉ ﻱ«‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‪٢٧٩/٢ ،٢٢٦٤ :‬؛ ﺃﲪـﺪ ﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﺣﻨﺒﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‪ .٢٦٥ ،٢٦٤ ،٦٦٨١ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﺭﻧﺎﺀﻭﻁ‪» :‬ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺣﺴﻦ«‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﳋ ﱠﻄﺎﰊ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻪ‪ :‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻟﻺﻣﺎﻡ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺃﻳـﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻋـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑـ»ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻳﺔ«‪ ،‬ﻭﳐﺘﺼﺮ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺯﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻱ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺃﲪـﺪ‬
‫ﳏﻤﺪ ﺷﺎﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪١٤٠٠ ،‬ﻫـ‪١٩٨٠ ،‬ﻡ‪.٢٧٣/٣ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٤‬ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﺑـﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ‪:‬‬

‫ﺻﺪﻭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﰲ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﺋﻒ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ١١٨‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺰﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﲨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺩ‪/‬ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﻋﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﻣﺆﺳـﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳـﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤٠٣ ،٣‬ﻫــ‪١٩٨٣ ،‬ﻡ‪،‬‬
‫‪٧٠/٢٢‬؛ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻘﻼﱐ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻠﺐ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤٠٦ ،١‬ﻫـ‪١٩٨٥ ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.٧٣٨‬‬

‫‪- ٣٧ -‬‬

‫ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻋﻰ ﻟﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﻩ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺯﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﺓ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺔ«‪ .‬ﻭﰲ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‪» :‬ﻫﻮ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺯﻧﺎ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺃﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺣﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺔ«)‪.(١‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ)‪ (٢‬ﻣﻌﻠ ﹰﻘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪» :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻗﻀﻰ ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﺍﺋـﻞ ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﻖ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺭﺛﺘﻪ ﻭﻟ ‪‬ﺪﺍ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺭﺛﺘﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺮﺙ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺃﻧﻜﺮﻩ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﳊﻘـﻪ ﻭﻭﺭﺙ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺴﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺮﺙ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺔ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻛﺎﺑﻦ ﻭﻟﻴﺪﺓ ﺯﻣﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﺓ ﺯﱏ ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﺙ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻟﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻃﺊ ﱂ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﻪ؛ ﻓـﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻧـﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺜﺒـﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ«)‪.(٣‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪» :‬ﺃﳝﺎ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻋﺎﻫﺮ ﲝﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺯﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺮﺙ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﺭﺙ«)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﱐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﻖ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﺛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﻷﻣﻪ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺭﺙ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺙ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﺭﺙ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﻫﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﺮﺍ ‪‬ﺷﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٦‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻧﻌﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻌﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺼﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺗﻨﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻧﺎ)‪.(٦‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‪.٢٨٠/٢ ،٢٢٦٥ :‬‬
‫ﺴﱵ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٣١٩‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﰲ ﰲ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪٣٨٨‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﳋﻄﱠﺎﰊ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ‪‬ﺧﱢﻠﻜﹶﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻭﻓﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.١٦٦/١ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺁﺑﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﴰﺲ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ :‬ﻋﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺒﻮﺩ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺎﻣﺸﻪ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴـﻖ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٣٩٩ ،٣‬ﻫـ‪.٣٥٧ ،٣٥٦/٦ ،‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺇﺑﻄﺎﻝ ﻣﲑﺍﺙ ﻭﻟـﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧـﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ‪،٢١١٣ :‬‬
‫‪ .٤٢٨/٤‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٤٢٨/٥ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﲨﻌﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﲏ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤١٠ ،١‬ﻫـ‪١٩٩٠ ،‬ﻡ‪.١٩٠ ،١٨٩/٢ ،‬‬

‫‪- ٣٨ -‬‬

‫‪ -٧‬ﺇﻥ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺷﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ‪» :‬ﻷﻥ‬
‫ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺷﺮ ‪‬ﻋﺎ ﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎﺀﻩ ﻳﻀﻴﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺤﺮﺯ ﻋﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ«)‪.(١‬‬
‫‪ -٨‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﻑ ﺑﺰﻧﺎﻩ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻭﻟﺪﺕ ﻭﻟ ‪‬ﺪﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺍﱐ ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻠﺤﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻟﻮ ﳊﻖ ﺑﺎﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﱐ‬
‫ﺇﻳﺎﻩ ﻟﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻗﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻧﺎ)‪.(٢‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺧﱪ ‪‬ﺟﺮﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺟﺮ ‪‬ﳚﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻐﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺯﻧـﺖ‬
‫ﺃﻣﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺍﻋﻲ‪» :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻮﻙ ﻳﺎ ﻏﻼﻡ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻋﻲ«)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﱐ ﻭﻟﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﳊﻖ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻟﻮﻟﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻓﺠ‪‬ﺮﻳﺞ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻟﻠﺰﺍﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺪﻕ ﺍﷲ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﲟﺎ ﺧﺮﻕ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻧﻄﻖ ﺍﳌﻮﻟﻮﺩ ﺑﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪» :‬ﺃﰊ ﻓﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻋﻲ«‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻠﺰﻡ ﺃﻥ ﳚﺮﻱ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺑﻮﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺓ)‪.(٥‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺃﻭﻻﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﲟﻦ ﺍﺩﻋـﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ)‪.(٦‬‬
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺒﺴﻮﻁ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٢٠٧/٤ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﳌﺎﻭﺭﺩﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.١٦٢/٨ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻋﺖ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗـﻢ‪،١٢٠٦ :‬‬

‫‪٧٦/٢‬؛ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱪ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‪:‬‬
‫‪.١٩٧٦/٤ ،٢٥٥٠‬‬

‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٤٢٦/٥ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‪ :‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.٥/٦ ،‬‬

‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﻷﺻﺒﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﳛﲕ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺜﻲ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻓﺆﺍﺩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﺣﻴـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٤٠٦ ،١‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻗﻀﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﺈﳊﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺑﺄﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ‪.٢٨٢/٢ ،١٤٢٠ :‬‬

‫‪- ٣٩ -‬‬


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