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A Systematic Approach To
The Evaluation Of Acute
Unexplained Crying In Infants
In The Emergency Department

March 2014

Authors

Volume 11, Number 3

Lauren Allister, MD
Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of
Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital,
Boston, MA
Stephanie Ruest, MD
Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital
for Children, Boston, MA
Peer Reviewers

Abstract
Crying is a common behavior of infancy that can be a signal of a
broad spectrum of conditions ranging from the normal needs of
hunger and sleep to significant medical or surgical pathology. In
the medical setting, crying is often seen in concert with other signifiers of disease or distress, such as fever, vomiting, rash, or trauma.
However, challenges in evaluation of infants may arise when crying
is the only sign. A thorough, systematic, and appropriate history
and physical examination are needed. Additionally, a broad range
of medical possibilities coupled with caregiver concern need to be
considered to ensure proper evaluation. In this issue, we will review
crying as a chief complaint in the emergency department setting and
provide a systematic and practical approach to the evaluation of crying infants.

Martin I. Herman, MD, FAAP, FACEP
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Attending, Sacred Heart
Children's Hospital, Pensacola, FL; Professor of Pediatrics
and Emergency Medicine, Florida State University College
of Medicine, Tallahassee, FL
Ran Goldman, MD
Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of British
Columbia; Co-Lead, Division of Translational Therapeutics;
Research Director, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, BC
Children’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada
CME Objectives
Upon completion of this article, you should be able to:
1.
Identify and differentiate common and life-threatening
etiologies of infant crying.
2.

Define components of an ED evaluation proven to
contribute to uncovering a diagnosis in a crying infant.

3.

Demonstrate practical, cost-effective methods of
evaluation and disposition to crying infants based on
confirmed or unconfirmed underlying illness.
Prior to beginning this activity, see “Physician CME
Information” on the back page.

Editor-in-Chief

Ilene Claudius, MD
Emergency Medicine, Attending
Associate Professor of Emergency
Physician, Children's Hospital
Adam E. Vella, MD, FAAP
Medicine, Keck School of Medicine
of the King's Daughters Health
Associate Professor of Emergency
of the University of Southern
System, Norfolk, VA
Medicine, Pediatrics, and Medical
California, Los Angeles, CA
Ran D. Goldman, MD
Education, Director Of Pediatric
Ari Cohen, MD
Professor, Department of Pediatrics,
Emergency Medicine, Icahn
University of British Columbia;
School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Chief of Pediatric Emergency
Medicine
Services,
Massachusetts
Co-Lead, Division of Translational
New York, NY
General Hospital; Instructor in
Therapeutics; Research Director,
Associate Editor-in-Chief
Pediatrics, Harvard Medical
Pediatric Emergency Medicine, BC
School, Boston, MA
Children's Hospital, Vancouver, BC,
Vincent J. Wang, MD, MHA
Canada
Associate Professor of Pediatrics, T. Kent Denmark, MD, FAAP,
Keck School of Medicine of the
University of Southern California;
Associate Division Head,
Division of Emergency Medicine,
Children's Hospital Los Angeles,
Los Angeles, CA

FACEP
Medical Director, Medical
Simulation Center, Professor,
Emergency Medicine, Pediatrics,
and Basic Science, Loma Linda
University School of Medicine,
Loma Linda, CA

Mark A. Hostetler, MD, MPH
Clinical Professor of Pediatrics
and Emergency Medicine,
University of Arizona Children’s
Hospital Division of Emergency
Medicine, Phoenix, AZ

Tommy Y. Kim, MD, FAAP, FACEP
Ghazala Q. Sharieff, MD, FAAP,
Assistant Professor of Emergency
FACEP, FAAEM
Medicine and Pediatrics, Loma
Clinical Professor, Children’s
Linda Medical Center and Children’s
Hospital and Health Center/
Hospital, Loma Linda, CA
University of California; Director
of Pediatric Emergency Medicine,
Brent R. King, MD, FACEP, FAAP,
California Emergency Physicians,
FAAEM
San Diego, CA
Professor of Emergency Medicine
and Pediatrics; Chairman,
Department of Emergency
Medicine, The University of
Texas Houston Medical School,
Houston, TX

Christopher Strother, MD
Robert Luten, MD
Assistant Professor, Director,
Professor, Pediatrics and
Undergraduate and Emergency
Emergency Medicine, University of
Simulation, Mount Sinai School of
Florida, Jacksonville, FL
Medicine, New York, NY

Garth Meckler, MD, MSHS
Alson S. Inaba, MD, FAAP
Associate Professor of Pediatrics,
Marianne Gausche-Hill, MD,
Associate Professor of Pediatrics,
University of British Columbia;
Jeffrey R. Avner, MD, FAAP
FACEP, FAAP
University of Hawaii at Mãnoa
Division Head, Pediatric
Professor of Clinical Pediatrics
Professor of Clinical Medicine,
John A. Burns School of Medicine,
Emergency Medicine, BC
and Chief of Pediatric Emergency
David Geffen School of Medicine
Division Head of Pediatric
Children's Hospital, Vancouver,
Medicine, Albert Einstein College
at the University of California at
Emergency Medicine, Kapiolani
BC, Canada
of Medicine, Children’s Hospital at
Los Angeles; Vice Chair and Chief,
Medical Center for Women and
Joshua Nagler, MD
Montefiore, Bronx, NY
Division of Pediatric Emergency
Children, Honolulu, HI
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics,
Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical
Steven Bin, MD
Madeline Matar Joseph, MD, FAAP,
Harvard Medical School;
Center, Los Angeles, CA
Associate Clinical Professor,
FACEP
Fellowship Director, Division of
Division of Pediatric Emergency
Michael J. Gerardi, MD, FAAP,
Professor of Emergency Medicine
Emergency Medicine, Boston
Medicine, UCSF Benioff Children’s
FACEP
and Pediatrics, Chief and Medical
Children's Hospital, Boston, MA
Hospital, University of California,
Associate Professor of Emergency
Director, Pediatric Emergency
Steven Rogers, MD
San Francisco, CA
Medicine, Icahn School of
Medicine Division, University
Assistant Professor, University of
Medicine at Mount Sinai; Director,
of Florida Medical SchoolRichard M. Cantor, MD, FAAP,
Connecticut School of Medicine,
Pediatric Emergency Medicine,
Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL
FACEP
Attending Emergency Medicine
Goryeb Children's Hospital,
Professor of Emergency Medicine
Anupam Kharbanda, MD, MS
Physician, Connecticut Children's
Morristown Medical Center,
and Pediatrics, Director, Pediatric
Research Director, Associate
Medical Center, Hartford, CT
Morristown, NJ
Emergency Department, Medical
Fellowship Director, Department
Director, Central New York
Sandip Godambe, MD, PhD
of Pediatric Emergency Medicine,
Poison Control Center, Golisano
Vice President, Quality & Patient
Children's Hospitals and Clinics of
Children's Hospital, Syracuse, NY
Safety, Professor of Pediatrics and
Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

Editorial Board

Gary R. Strange, MD, MA, FACEP
Professor and Head, Department
of Emergency Medicine, University
of Illinois, Chicago, IL

AAP Sponsor
Martin I. Herman, MD, FAAP, FACEP
Professor of Pediatrics, Attending
Physician, Emergency Medicine
Department, Sacred Heart
Children’s Hospital, Pensacola, FL

International Editor
Lara Zibners, MD, FAAP
Honorary Consultant, Paediatric
Emergency Medicine, St Mary's
Hospital, Imperial College Trust;
EM representative, Steering Group
ATLS®-UK, Royal College of
Surgeons, London, England

Pharmacology Editor
James Damilini, PharmD, MS,
BCPS
Clinical Pharmacy Specialist,
Emergency Medicine, St.
Joseph's Hospital and Medical
Center, Phoenix, AZ

Case Presentations
Joseph is a 4-month-old boy whose parents bring him to
the ED after 2 weeks of intermittent episodes of fussiness
and crying that became more frequent and are now being
described as “constant.” He was seen by his pediatrician
earlier in the week and was started on oral ranitidine for
presumed gastroesophageal reflux. However, the family
feels this recent crying is not consistent with the pattern
of crying that he exhibited prior to starting the antireflux
medication. He has had no fever, vomiting, or diarrhea.
He has been taking in a normal amount of liquids orally
with a normal volume of urine output and 3 to 4 mustardy yellow stools per day. The mother had an uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery. He was a full-term infant
and has been growing well. He has no risk factors for sepsis. His physical examination is completely unremarkable,
with normal vital signs for his age. He is well-appearing,
calm, quiet, and in no distress during the initial history
and examination. You consider the following: Could there
be a connection between Joseph’s crying and the recent
diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux? Do the parents’
concerns about the change in their baby’s crying pattern
affect your concern as a clinician? If the baby now appears
well and is afebrile with a normal examination, is any
further testing necessary at this time?

Melissa is a 10-week-old girl born by normal spontaneous vaginal delivery, at term, with no complications. She is
brought to the ED by her mother with a chief complaint of
being “inconsolable.” Per her mother’s report, she had been
in her usual state of health until her 2-month well-child visit
3 days ago, when she received her scheduled vaccinations.
She was slightly “fussy” after getting the vaccinations. She
developed a low-grade temperature to 37.9°C that night, but
slept well and, by the next morning, was afebrile. Yesterday,
she was given a bath and a few hours later began to cry
intermittently. Over the course of the following 24 hours, she
became increasingly irritable and is now inconsolable. Her
mother denies that her daughter has cough, rhinorrhea, rash,
vomiting, diarrhea, decreased oral intake, or change in urine
output, but she has had some difficulty sleeping over the past
24 hours. The mother states that she has 3 other children
at home and does not have any support socially or financially, as the father of this baby is not currently involved.
She admits to feeling overwhelmed. On initial examination,
Melissa is intermittently crying, but consolable, and has no
revealing findings. Vital signs are within normal limits other
than some mild tachycardia that you attribute to her crying.
The vaccination sites on her bilateral thighs are without
induration or tenderness to palpation. Despite the unrevealing examination, you have a “gut feeling” that something
is wrong with Melissa. You tell the mother that you will
observe her in the ED and will return shortly to check her
again. You consider the following: In the setting of recent
vaccinations, could this be an adverse reaction, even 3 days
after administration? What about this history is giving you
such a bad gut feeling, and how should you integrate this
concern into your evaluation, if at all?
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice © 2014 2

Introduction
Crying is the sole method of communication for
infants. There is an extensive body of medical literature describing its physiology, progression, variations, and parental and caregiver responses. Crying
can reflect that an infant's basic needs (such as hunger, thirst, and the need for affection) are unmet, or
it can represent significant distress (anger, discomfort, and pain).1 While crying remains a well-studied
phenomenon, the understanding and management
of the crying infant continues to challenge parents
and caregivers alike.

Parents often have an intuitive sense of why
their babies are crying and can distinguish the cries
of hunger, fatigue, and discomfort from one another
and address those needs.2-4 When crying patterns
deviate from the perceived “norm,” (ie, are seen as
excessive or uncharacteristic) or when efforts to console a crying infant are exhausted, parents will often
seek help from a healthcare provider. At that point,
parents may be anxious, sleep-deprived, troubled,
and in need of care and reassurance themselves.

Crying as a presenting complaint is one of
the most common indications for parents to seek
medical attention in the first 3 months of life.5 It is
also a prevalent presentation for evaluation in the
emergency department (ED). Studies have reported
a percentage of all annual ED visits for infant crying
ranging from 0.25% to 13.6%.6,7,8 Evaluating crying
in preverbal patients and relating to their caregivers may be a significant challenge to emergency
clinicians. Absence of fever, vomiting, respiratory
distress, or other symptoms that more readily lend
themselves to preestablished guidelines for evaluation and management augment the challenge.
Providers must determine a timely and cost-effective
strategy for evaluating these infants.

This issue will present an updated systematic
approach to management of the infant who presents
with acute, unexplained crying in the ED setting.
This article will review pertinent literature, relevant
background information, the common and more
serious diagnoses, and algorithms for evaluating,
treating, and determining disposition for this group
of patients.

Critical Appraisal Of The Literature
A search was performed in PubMed for articles published since 1960 pertaining to children aged
< 2 years, using multiple combinations of the search
terms including, but not limited to: infant crying, fussiness, inconsolability, and irritability. Search terms to
qualify crying patterns were also used, including prolonged, excessive, normal, abnormal, acute, and dangerous.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was
also consulted. Articles relevant to infant crying were
www.ebmedicine.net • March 2014

selected and reviewed. Over 150 articles were reviewed, 70 of which were chosen for inclusion in this
review, including a number of case reports, clinical
reviews, and retrospective and prospective controlled
studies. The challenge in evaluating the literature on
crying is the variability in defining terms applicable
to crying behaviors, the multitude of clinical settings,
and the dearth of large, practice-changing studies.
Crying is a complaint that is not unique to the ED;
therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the literature
must include a broader scope of pediatric studies in
a variety of clinical settings. The underlying etiologies for infant crying are often nonemergent, or not
initially recognized as emergent, so crying infants are
often seen in primary care offices. Of the 70 articles
chosen for this article, approximately 20 to 25 of the
studies were conducted in the outpatient or primary
care setting, 10 were conducted in the inpatient or
hospital setting, and 20 in the ED setting. The remaining articles were large-scale reviews. The data from
these studies and reviews inform the general approach to the care of crying infants, including those
who present for their initial care in the ED.

One of the most referenced papers is a 1991
prospective study of 56 infants performed by Poole
in the ED setting.8 The largest North American study
published in 2009 by Freedman et al retrospectively
reviewed 237 infants who presented to the ED with
crying.7 While recent reviews and larger studies help
guide management of the crying infant, it remains
difficult to define a centralized body of literature as
well as standardized treatment algorithms for evaluating these infants.9

selves. Reported by more than 1 in 5 parents, crying
is one of the most common complaints for which
parents seek care in the first few months of life.14

In 1991, Poole reported that, among the infants
aged < 1 year presenting to a children’s ED with
acute unexplained crying, 60% had a serious cause to
explain their presentation. In that study, a “serious”
diagnosis was one that was “…considered by at least
2 of a panel of 3 pediatricians (who were unaware
of the study) to require prompt treatment or to have
the potential to cause harm if not recognized or left
untreated.”8 Poole’s inclusive definition of a serious
diagnosis, which ranged from gingivostomatitis to
meningitis, may have accounted for the high rate of
patients labeled as having serious conditions. More
reassuringly, Freedman et al reported that in their
2009 patient cohort study of crying infants presenting to the ED, only 5.1% had a serious underlying
etiology for the crying.7 In that study, a “serious”
diagnosis was considered one that met definitions
established prior to the study (and was then agreed
to by a panel of 6 pediatricians) as diagnoses that
could potentially result in an adverse outcome if
undiagnosed. For the purpose of this article (based
on the review of the evidence), we define “serious”
illness as one that is life-threatening or could result
in significant morbidity or mortality if undiagnosed
or untreated in a timely or expeditious manner. The
emergency clinician must integrate multiple etiologic
and epidemiologic features into evaluation of a crying
infant, keeping in mind that even a “normal” amount
of crying may be distressing to certain caregivers,
while appreciating the ability of parents to determine
whether crying is abnormal for their infant.

Etiology And Epidemiology

Differential Diagnosis

For emergency clinicians, it is important to understand the normal or expected patterns of infant
crying in order to effectively evaluate excessive or
abnormal crying. In Brazelton’s 1962 study on infant
crying in the primary care setting, he found that, on
average, infants aged < 12 weeks cried from 1 to 4
hours each day, with a peak at 6 to 8 weeks, and an
improvement by approximately 10 weeks of age.1
Other studies have similarly documented these and
other expected norms of crying at various stages
of infant development to guide parents and clinicians.10-12

Excessive crying, or crying more than what is
normally expected for age, is difficult to quantify
or define largely due to conflicting definitions in
the medical literature.9 It has often been defined by
parental perception,13 which is supported by data
indicating that parents are knowledgeable about the
different cries of their infants.2-4 Whether the crying
is considered “normal” or “excessive,” it is a common presenting complaint to emergency clinicians
as parents seek relief for their infants and themMarch 2014 • www.ebmedicine.net

The global differential diagnosis for crying as a chief
complaint is extensive and involves every organ
system. (See Table 1, page 4.) This comprehensive
list would be difficult to consider for every crying
infant who presents to the ED. The workup would
be stress-inducing for parents and clinicians, costly,
and, for most infants, unnecessary. What this broad
list does serve to do, however, is remind providers
that crying is not always a minor complaint, and
that its presence can signal significant pathology.
With acute crying, as with all clinical complaints,
the role of the emergency clinician in evaluating a
patient is 2-fold: (1) to avoid missing a serious or
life-threatening etiology and (2) to determine the
common/treatable diagnoses underlying a patient’s
chief complaint.

Life-Threatening Causes Of Crying

As with all ED patients, the most likely critical
causes for a patient’s presentation should be considered and addressed prior to contemplation of less3

Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice © 2014

likely pathology. These are the diagnoses generally
considered to cause harm to the patient if undiagnosed or left untreated.

The most common serious underlying etiology
for crying, especially in young infants, is urinary
tract infection (UTI). UTIs have been reported as an
underlying diagnosis for afebrile crying infants in
multiple studies.7,8,15 In Freedman et al’s retrospective study of 237 crying infants, UTI was the most
common underlying serious etiology for crying,
especially in infants aged < 4 months.7

Other serious infections should also be considered. Presentation of fever in conjunction with fussy
or irritable behavior will often prompt an extensive

and appropriate workup for infection or sepsis,
while crying without fever or other symptoms may
not. In 1999, Ruiz-Contreras et al published a case
series of 6 infants with sepsis in whom persistent
crying was the predominant manifestation for 2 to
10 hours before the appearance of fever or other
well-known symptoms of infection.16 Similarly,
meningitis must be considered for any infant with
crying that seems abnormal, persistent, or raises
true concern of irritability and inconsolability. Serial
examinations, with attention to fever curves, may
increase the chances of identifying an evolving infectious process.

Table 1. Differential Diagnosis For Acute Unexplained Crying In Infants
Organ System

Diagnoses

Organ System

Diagnoses

Head, eyes, ears,
nose, throat

• *Trauma (skull fracture, hematoma)
• *Palatal burns/trauma
• Local trauma (tight hair braids/traction
alopecia)
• Corneal abrasions
• Foreign body (ocular, nasal, aural)
• Glaucoma
• Otitis media/externa
• Oral lesions (thrush, stomatitis, pharyngitis)
• Teething
• Nasal obstruction (congestion, foreign
body, choanal atresia)

Musculoskeletal

• *Vaso-occlusive crises/dactylitis (sickle
cell disease)
• Digital hair/fiber tourniquet
• Fractures (accidental and nonaccidental)
• Dislocations
• Subluxations
• Osteomyelitis
• Myositis
• Arthritis (inflammatory, infectious,
autoimmune)

Dermatologic






Neurologic






*Meningitis
*Encephalitis
*Neonatal abstinence syndrome
*Increased intracranial pressure (hydrocephalus, mass lesions, intracranial
hemorrhage, cerebral edema)

Toxic/metabolic
endocrinological










*Inborn errors of metabolism
*Hypoglycemia
*Hypo/hypernatremia
*Hypo/hyperthyroidism
*Toxic ingestion/exposure
*Carbon monoxide poisoning
*Dehydration
*Central/nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

Other







*Hunger/underfeeding/malnourishment
*Sepsis
Immunization reactions
Idiopathic
Colic

Cardiac

Respiratory

Gastrointestinal

Genitourinary

• *Dysrhythmias (supraventricular tachycardia)
• *Congestive heart failure
• *Endocarditis/myocarditis/pericarditis
• *Congenital cardiac disease (coarctation
of the aorta, Tetralogy of Fallot, coronary
anomalies)
• Kawasaki disease





*Foreign body aspiration
*Pneumothorax
*Pneumonia
Upper/lower respiratory tract infection















*Small/large bowel obstruction
*Intussusception
*Gastroenteritis
*Malrotation/midgut volvulus
*Appendicitis
*Incarcerated/strangulated hernia
Constipation
Anal fissure
Hemorrhoids
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
Hirschsprung disease
Milk-protein allergy
Esophagitis







*Testicular/ovarian torsion
*Urinary tract infection
Genital tourniquets
Balanitis/posthitis/balanoposthitis
Mastitis

Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice © 2014 4

*Burns
*Cellulitis
Insect/other bites
Pruritic eruptions (allergic, idiopathic,
Gianotti-Crosti syndrome)
• Atopic dermatitis

*Serious or life-threatening diagnoses.

www.ebmedicine.net • March 2014

ferentiating serious from less-serious underlying
illnesses. Following are some clinical indications that
may help clarify the acuity of illness when evaluating a crying infant.

Nonaccidental Trauma And Crying
A critical diagnosis to which every clinician should
be alert is nonaccidental trauma. Crying has been
shown to be a risk factor for abuse as well as a manifestation of abusive injuries in infants. Emergency
clinicians should be aware that a crying infant may
lower a family’s threshold for nonaccidental trauma
or it may be a hallmark of injury that has already
been inflicted. Studies have demonstrated that
infant crying induces stress, negative feelings, and
thoughts of infanticide in parents.17,18 A 2004 study
from the Netherlands reported that 5.6% of parents
smothered, slapped, or shook their infants at least
once to stop their crying.19 A risk factor in this study
was crying that was deemed by the parents as being
“excessive.” A 1992 case report describes the death
of an infant secondary to abusive injuries whose crying had initially been attributed in the ED to colic,
further underscoring the potential severity of missed
abuse in a crying infant.20 Additionally, physical examination findings and injury should correlate to the
patient’s age and developmental stage. Numerous
studies highlight the concept that an isolated bony
injury that is deemed accidental in an older infant
or toddler may be the only representation of nonaccidental trauma in a younger infant.21-24 Persistent
crying in an infant coupled with any concerning social factors or physical examination findings should
heighten the concern for nonaccidental trauma.

Heightened Parental Concern
Multiple studies have documented that parents
can recognize their child’s cry and can distinguish
between the different causes of crying (ie, hunger or
fatigue versus distress).2-4 In a retrospective review
conducted in 2010, Van den Bruel et al sought to
identify which clinical features were predictive of
serious illness in children in a variety of ambulatory
care settings (including outpatient, urgent care, and
ED settings). Of the variables cited, parental concern
was found to be a “red flag” in identifying serious
illness, with a positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 14.4
(95% confidence interval [CI], 9.3-22.1).25
Heightened Clinician Concern
As with parental/caregiver concern, a higher degree
of clinician concern has been shown to predict the
likelihood that a patient has a more serious underlying condition. In the 2010 study by Van den Bruel et
al, clinician instinct regarding severity of illness was
seen as a strong “red flag” for serious disease with
a positive LR of 23.5 (95% CI, 16.8-32.7).25 A 2012
observational study looked prospectively at clinician
“gut feeling” in identifying children with serious
underlying infections in the primary care setting.
For children initially assessed as having a nonserious illness, a clinician’s “gut feeling” that something
was wrong, despite the assessment, substantially
increased the likelihood of serious illness with a LR
of 25.5 (95% CI, 7.9-82).26 These studies suggest that
clinician intuition, however formulated, plays a key
role in identifying infants with serious illness.

Common Causes Of Crying

The largest and most relevant studies on crying in
infants highlight the fact that the majority of diagnoses accounting for unexplained crying are not serious,
not life-threatening, and are often treatable illnesses.
In their study of 200 crying infants who presented
to the ED, Fahimi et al found that the 3 most common diagnoses were colic (29.5%), acute otitis media
(15.5%), and constipation (5.5%).15 Freedman et al
and Poole reported similar diagnoses as the most
common in their respective studies, including crying
syndromes/colic, gastroesophageal reflux disease,
viral illnesses, constipation, acute otitis media, and
idiopathic crying.7,8 Calado et al examined the reasons for neonatal visits to an ED over a 1-year period,
and excessive crying was the second most common
reason for presentation (13.6% of patients). Most diagnoses for this group of neonates were considered to
be “nonserious” (including nonapparent pathology,
infant colic, and physiologic jaundice).6 This evidence
should serve as reassurance that the most common
complaints encountered in an acutely crying infant
are not serious or life-threatening.

Objective Patient Variables
In Poole’s 1991 retrospective study, 34 infants were
judged to have a serious condition as a cause for
their crying, and it was concluded that persistent,
excessive crying in the ED beyond the time of the
initial assessment was predictive of serious illness
(sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 77%; and positive
predictive value, 87%).8 As noted previously (see Etiology And Epidemiology, page 3), due to the definition of “serious illness” in that study, the inclusion of
non-life-threatening diagnoses (such as herpangina,
acute otitis media, and corneal abrasions) was allowed. This likely overestimated the true prevalence
of serious illness, as defined for the purposes of this
issue, in the crying infant patient population. However, in that study, no serious underlying illnesses
were missed when a concerning physical examination was coupled with persistent crying. The study
also found that if results of the physical examination
were normal and the infant did not continue to cry

Clinical Clues To Differentiate Serious
Illnesses From Less-Serious Illnesses

There are a number of features of a crying infant’s
presentation on examination that can assist in difMarch 2014 • www.ebmedicine.net

5

Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice © 2014

beyond the time of initial assessment, serious illness
was unlikely (no infants meeting these criteria had a
serious illness).

In the 2009 Freedman study of 237 crying
infants, unwell appearance also suggested a more
serious etiology.7 This study also underscored a
low likelihood of serious illness in crying infants
in the ED; only 5.1% of the 237 infants studied had
a serious or life-threatening underlying cause for
their crying, as per their definition (ie, one that
could potentially result in an adverse outcome if
undiagnosed).7

While there is no single finding to predict a
more serious etiology, there are certainly parental,
clinician, and patient features to guide the degree of
concern and subsequently to focus the workup and
further investigations of each individual patient.

Prehospital Care
Crying infants may present to the ED/hospital
setting with emergency personnel or with family
or caregivers by private vehicle, depending on the
degree of concern, the infant's level of distress, and
other medical or social characteristics. If emergency
personnel are called upon, they should care for
these infants according to authorized stabilization
protocols. These infants have the potential to harbor serious illness and should be treated accordingly, with appropriate assessment of airway, breathing, and circulation (ABCs) in addition to other
interventions as deemed necessary (intravenous
access and infusion of intravenous fluids, bedside
glucose measurement, supplemental oxygen, etc).
Any information about the presenting episode from
the caregivers and the description of the patient’s
appearance and vital signs en route can be helpful
for the receiving emergency clinician. Prehospital
providers should be discouraged from making false
reassurances to caregivers or dissuading them from
seeking an ED evaluation given the possibility of
serious underlying illness in these infants.

Emergency Department Evaluation
History

A detailed and thorough history is crucial to making a diagnosis or directing further workup. The
history has been reported as diagnostic in 20% to
86% of cases, alone or in conjunction with physical
examination findings.7,8,15 While the data clearly
indicate the importance of conducting a systematic
history, completing it can be difficult in the case of
a crying infant. There will never be a true first-hand
account of the event or events, as a preverbal child
cannot provide information. The caregivers of a
crying child may also be anxious and unable to
offer a coherent and chronological description of
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice © 2014 6

the event(s) leading to ED presentation. Obtaining
a history in high-acuity situations may be interrupted until the patient is stabilized.

Many serious and life-threatening illnesses can
present with crying, and attention must be paid to
the ABCs upon first patient encounter.27 All resuscitative and stabilization measures must be implemented prior to or during the history-taking process,
which can contribute to ongoing caregiver anxiety
and make a cohesive collection of information more
difficult. We recommend an age-appropriate, thorough, and systematic history-taking. Key points are
noted in Table 2 (see page 7).

Physical Examination

In a busy ED, it is both acceptable and often necessary to perform limited and focused examinations. When the range of possible etiologies is
broad and potentially life-threatening for a crying
infant, a more thorough and systematic physical
examination is recommended. Larger retrospective
studies demonstrate that the physical examination is instrumental in making a final diagnosis,
contributing to diagnoses in > 50% of cases, alone
or in conjunction with history or follow-up examinations.7,8,15 In the sections following, the most
significant clinical signs and features of the physical examination are highlighted, focusing on those
associated with the most common and the most
serious or life-threatening diagnoses, as supported
by the literature to date. (See Table 1, page 4.) An
algorithm for evaluation and management of a crying infant is presented on page 9.
Initial Impression And General Appearance
Observation Period

The information obtained in the brief observational
period has been shown to be both important and
predictive in determining significant illness in the pediatric population. An emergency clinician’s intuition
of a serious underlying etiology has been shown to
be associated with a “substantially increased risk of
serious illness.” The clinical features most strongly associated with a clinician’s gut feeling about a serious
illness include the child’s overall response (drowsiness, no laughing) among other more system-specific
findings.26 These findings should be taken into account when determining plans for further workup.
Inconsolability

A child who cannot be consoled is concerning for a
more serious etiology. Persistent, excessive crying
in the ED beyond the time of the initial assessment
can be predictive of a serious illness and should
also be taken into account when performing the
physical examination and determining management of the patient.

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etiology for crying in infants who are found to have
abrasions that may be incidental and not causative.
Therefore, in the ED, suspicion for a corneal abrasion or injury should be heightened in the presence
of facial scratches, photophobia, excessive tearing, or
presence of foreign bodies, and fluorescein staining
should be considered in these cases.

Head And Neck
Corneal Abrasions

A number of studies and case reports have investigated the relationship between excessive crying as
it relates to the presence of corneal abrasions. There
have been conflicting data published regarding
excessive crying that can be directly attributed to the
presence of a corneal abrasion versus the incidental finding of an abrasion in a crying infant. While
Poole and Harkness have published data identifying corneal abrasions as the likely cause for crying
in a number of infants,8,32,33 larger cohort studies
have not supported the identification of corneal
abrasions as the lone cause of excessive crying.7,15
Furthermore, a study by Shope et al in 2010 found
that nearly 50% of 1-month-old infants presenting
to a primary care center had corneal abrasions that
could be identified by fluorescein staining; however, there was no association between the presence
of these abrasions and the mean length of crying
time.34 This study cautioned primary care providers to beware of missing a more serious underlying

Acute Otitis Media

Multiple large studies have shown acute otitis media
to be one of the most common identified etiologies
in crying infants, highlighting the importance of
a thorough external ear and otoscopic examination.7,8,15 Please refer to the Pediatric Emergency
Medicine Practice April 2013 issue, "An EvidenceBased Approach To Managing Acute Otitis Media"
for additional information.
Nonaccidental Trauma

The head is one of the most commonly targeted
areas of abuse in infants.35 One case control study
of infants and toddlers in a pediatric intensive care

Table 2. Patient History Of Illness
History of present illness






Onset, duration, frequency, and timing of crying episodes
Attempted interventions and outcomes
Associated activities/behaviors (sleep, feeding, relation to physical position, etc)
History of similar episodes and any prior evaluations

Birth history






Prenatal and birth history (gestational age, birth weight, etc)
Pregnancy and/or perinatal complications
Prenatal screening results
Substance use during pregnancy

Feeding/intake history*






If breastfeeding – frequency, difficulties, maternal medications, supplements, and diet
If formula-feeding – type of formula and method of preparation (mixing and temperature of water used)
Temporal relationship between crying and feeds
Any unusual signs/symptoms during feeds (diaphoresis, cyanosis, choking/gagging, emesis, etc)

Voiding/stool history†

• Normal voiding/stool patterns
• History of prior urinary tract infection or known anatomic abnormalities
• History of prior laxative, enema, or stool softener use

Past medical history






Family history

• Congenital, genetic, or metabolic disorders

Social history

• Home environment (stress, domestic violence, social services involvement)
• Caregivers
• Exposure to tobacco§, alcohol, or drugs in the home

History of prior illnesses/hospitalizations
Developmental milestones, growth, and weight gain
Current or recent medications
Immunization status (when possible, review specific vaccines recently given‡)

*There have been multiple studies and case reports of infant discontinuation syndromes and withdrawal symptoms in infants exposed to medications via
breast milk. A study by Hale et al in 2010, showed that 17% of 930 infants exposed to antidepressants in breast milk developed “inconsolable crying”
and an additional 25% were described as irritable.28

Multiple studies have found that 2 of the more common causes of persistent crying in infants are constipation and occult urinary tract infections.7,8,15
Freedman et al also noted that the most common serious underlying disease was occult urinary tract infection, accounting for 25% of all serious etiologies.7

Persistent crying associated with painful local reactions after vaccine administration has been reported, especially with the diphtheria, tetanus, and
pertussis vaccine.29,30
§
A Dutch study of 5845 infants aged 0 to 3 months found that infants whose parents were current heavy smokers or whose mothers had been heavy
smokers during pregnancy had a 69% higher prevalence of “excessive crying” than infants of nonsmoking parents (rates: 6.3% and 3.7%, respectively;
odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.57).31

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unit found that characteristics predictive of abuse
included bruising on the ear or neck in a child aged
≤ 4 years and bruising in any region for an infant
aged < 4 months.36 Additionally, injuries to the oral
frenula are concerning for nonaccidental trauma
and are considered pathognomonic for abusive
injury in younger (nonmobile) infants.37 Presence
of frenula trauma should prompt evaluation of the
head, skeletal system, and visceral system for occult trauma.38,39
Oropharyngeal Pathologies

While oropharyngeal pathologies are less common
causes of excessive crying, retropharyngeal cellulitis
has been identified as a cause of crying in an infant.40 Additionally, trismus or torticollis in an infant
should raise concern for peritonsillar abscess, deep
neck space infections, tetany, or dystonia (ie, secondary to an ingestion).
Thorax
Clavicular Fractures

In a neonate, identified clavicular injuries may have
occurred during delivery and tend to be midclavicular fractures. Typically, there is a history of difficult
delivery, shoulder dystocia, or fetal macrosomia
(large for gestational age).41 Clavicular fractures
identified in nonambulatory infants outside of the
neonatal period (in the setting of a history without
risk factors for birth trauma) should raise the concern for nonaccidental trauma.
Vertebral Osteomyelitis And Discitis

Vertebral and disc pathologies are less common
causes of excessive crying; however, certain studies
have found that these pathologies can have nonspecific findings in infants and toddlers and may present with crying and irritability with or without refusal to walk.42,43 There may be localized tenderness
to palpation over the affected areas or decreased
range of motion of the spine due to pain.
Rib Fractures

Rib fractures have been identified as a cause of
crying in infants and should raise suspicion for
nonaccidental trauma. On examination, these may
be identified as bony step-offs or crepitus over the
affected area. A 2010 review of injuries indicative
of child abuse noted that rib fractures have a very
high specificity for abuse (probability of abuse of
71%, 95% CI, 42%-91%).39 While there can be rib
fractures in the presence of birth trauma, metabolic
bone disease, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation,
these are quite rare causes.39
Mastitis

Breast tissue, especially in neonates, should be examined for possible breast mass, abscess, or celluliPediatric Emergency Medicine Practice © 2014 8

tis. A 2001 case report cited infantile mastitis as the
cause of unexplained infant crying.44
Heart And Cardiovascular System
Arrhythmias

In Poole’s 1991 study, 2 of 56 infants presenting
with crying were found to have supraventricular
tachycardia.8 A 2007 review article noted that the
diagnosis of supraventricular tachycardia is often
made in triage when a nurse reports a heart rate
that is “too fast to count,” or a heart rate that is
documented at > 220 beats/min.5
Congenital Heart Disease And Heart Failure

Infants with congenital heart disease may present
with irritability and crying, as they may have trouble
with feeding, etc. There may be cardiopulmonary
abnormalities in addition to hepatosplenomegaly.45
There have been case reports of infants with anomalous left coronary arteries that present with nonspecific signs (such as crying and fussiness), including
a report of a 12-week-old infant who presented with
a chief complaint of paroxysms of irritability and
was found to have anomalous left coronary artery
originating from the pulmonary artery.46
Abdomen
Constipation

Multiple large studies have shown constipation to
be one of the most common causes of infant crying.7,8 This diagnosis can often be made by history
and careful palpation of the abdomen. Like many
components of the physical examination in a crying
baby, all maneuvers considered more “invasive”
(such as a digital rectal examination) should be tailored to the individual patient. While larger studies
do not support the routine use of digital rectal exam
as a diagnostic test in the evaluation of a crying
infant,7,47 smaller studies have found the digital
rectal exam to be contributory to a final diagnosis in
this group of patients.15 Emergency clinicians may
consider including a digital rectal exam if indicated
by clinical suspicion.
Hirschsprung Disease

This etiology should be considered in infants with a
suggestive history, especially with constipation and
an empty rectal vault on digital rectal exam.
Pyloric Stenosis

A 2012 case report presented a 9-week-old infant
with an atypical presentation of pyloric stenosis that consisted of poor feeding and fussiness
alone.48 An abdominal mass may not be palpable in
an infant with pyloric stenosis, as evidenced by a
2004 retrospective review of 70 infants who underwent pyloromyotomy for pyloric stenosis, and in
whom only 50% had a palpable mass.49 However, if
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Clinical Pathway For Evaluation Of Acute Unexplained Crying In Infants

Perform initial evaluation of ABCs; any clinically unstable
patient should be stabilized before proceeding.

Clinically stable by vital signs and mental status for age?

• Apply cardiorespiratory monitor (Class II)
• Obtain IV access and consider 10-20 mL/kg normal saline bolus
(Class II)
• Consider checking bedside blood glucose (Class II)
• Provide supplemental oxygen and/or respiratory support as
needed (Class II)
• Provide blood pressure support with IV fluids and/or pressors as
needed (Class II)
• Consider admission/transfer to PICU as needed (Class II)
• Continue workup after initial stabilization

NO

YES

Fever of > 38°C or hypothermia of < 35°C?

YES

Refer to the American Academy of Pediatrics Practice
Guidelines for Febrile Infants (Class II)

NO

Toxic or ill-appearing?

NO

History or examination findings to identify
a source of illness or injury?
YES

Able to determine a differential diagnosis?

YES

NO

NO

Easily consolable or stops crying spontaneously?

YES

NO

• Consider ancillary tests to confirm or rule out diagnoses (ie,
laboratory tests, imaging)
• Consider screening UA in infants aged < 1 month (Class II)
• Treat as indicated by presumed diagnosis
• Admit versus discharge (refer to Table 3, Disposition Criteria
For Crying Infants, page 13)

YES

• Observe and perform serial examinations
• Consider ancillary tests as needed or indicated by repeat examinations
• Admit versus discharge (refer to Table 3, Disposition Criteria
For Crying Infants, page 13)

Abbreviations: ABCs, airway, breathing, and circulation; IV, intravenous; PICU, pediatric intensive care unit; UA, urinalysis.

Class Of Evidence Definitions
Each action in the clinical pathway section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice receives a score based on the following definitions.
Class I
Class II
• Always acceptable, safe
• Safe, acceptable
• Definitely useful
• Probably useful
• Proven in both efficacy and effectiveness
Level of Evidence:
Level of Evidence:
• Generally higher levels of evidence
• One or more large prospective studies
• Non-randomized or retrospective studare present (with rare exceptions)
ies: historic, cohort, or case control
• High-quality meta-analyses
studies
• Study results consistently positive and
• Less robust randomized controlled trials
compelling
• Results consistently positive

Class III
• May be acceptable
• Possibly useful
• Considered optional or alternative treatments

Level of Evidence:
• Generally lower or intermediate levels
of evidence
• Case series, animal studies,
consensus panels
• Occasionally positive results

Indeterminate
• Continuing area of research
• No recommendations until further
research

Level of Evidence:
• Evidence not available
• Higher studies in progress
• Results inconsistent, contradictory
• Results not compelling

This clinical pathway is intended to supplement, rather than substitute for, professional judgment and may be changed depending upon a patient’s individual
needs. Failure to comply with this pathway does not represent a breach of the standard of care.
Copyright © 2014 EB Medicine. 1-800-249-5770. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any format without written consent of EB Medicine.

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palpable, a mass tends to be most readily identified
after an episode of emesis and is most often found
in the right upper quadrant.
Malrotation With Volvulus

This serious pathology can present with nonspecific
findings of irritability/crying and abdominal pain
with later development of bilious emesis and bloody
stools.50 Emergency clinicians should consider further
investigation in an ill-appearing infant with these
signs or a nonreassuring abdominal examination.
Intussusception

A retrospective chart review by Eshel et al of 97
patients with intussusception found that, while
vomiting (with or without other signs and symptoms) was the most common clinical presentation
of intussusception, 74% of children with intussusception initially presented with crying episodes.51
The index of suspicion should be high in an infant
who presents with waves of crying and/or apparent abdominal pain who may also have vomiting
and/or bloody stools, lethargy, or intermittent
flexing of the lower extremities. A mass may or
may not be present on examination, particularly if
the intussuscepted bowel has already self-reduced
prior to abdominal examination.

accounts for up to 80% of fractures.54 Emergency clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for abusive
injuries whenever a suspected fracture is found on
examination, particularly with nonambulatory infants.
Nervous System
Hypoglycemia/Nervous Irritability

Hypoglycemia in infants can have a variety of presenting signs, including jitteriness, abnormal or highpitched cry, irritability, poor feeding, and seizures.55
In older infants, hypoglycemia can be indicative of an
inborn error of metabolism, infection/sepsis, pituitary
or adrenal dysfunction, or inadequate nutritional
intake.56,57 In these suspected cases, a thorough genitourinary examination should be performed to assess
for any anatomic abnormalities that may be associated with adrenal or other hormonal disturbances (such
as congenital adrenal hyperplasia). A bedside glucose
measurement is an easy and minimally invasive test
that can provide a vastly important piece of information, especially in younger infants who have lower
glycogen stores and lower physiologic reserve.
Central Nervous System Infections

Uncircumcised males are at higher risk for UTI, and
multiple large studies have found that occult UTI
may present with crying and fussiness in the absence of fever or other obvious urinary symptoms.7,8

Irritability can be the presenting sign of a serious
underlying infection (including meningitis and encephalitis) prior to development of a fever.16 If there
are no focal findings to suggest a central nervous
system infection, but the infant is ill-appearing or
has inconsolable crying throughout the history and
physical examination, prolonged monitoring and/
or admission with repeat vital signs and reexaminations should be considered, as more localizing signs
may develop over serial examinations.

Inguinal Hernias

Occult Head Injury

Genitourinary System
Occult Urinary Tract Infection

A 2006 study reported that when inguinal hernias
are present at birth, the risk of the hernia becoming
incarcerated within the first 6 months of life may be
as high as 60%.52 Consider transillumination of an
enlarged scrotum to differentiate between hydrocele
and other causes of scrotal swelling. Also consider
ultrasound imaging with Doppler flow and obtaining urinalysis studies if the diagnosis is unclear
based on physical examination findings alone.8,52
Extremities
Septic Arthritis

Septic arthritis in neonates and young infants is a
relatively rare phenomenon; however, case reports
have been published on neonates with septic joints
who presented with crying, particularly with diaper
changes.53 Any evidence of reproducible pain with
movement of a joint, swelling, or erythema over a
joint should prompt further investigation.
Fractures

Fractures have been identified as a common presentation of abuse, and in infants aged < 1 year, abuse
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice © 2014 10

A 1999 prospective study of 608 children aged < 2
years who presented to the ED with head trauma
found that 30% of the children with identified intracranial injuries had irritability with or without other
focal signs.58 Rubin et al reviewed 65 cases of children aged < 2 years who presented to an urban children’s hospital with “high-risk” injuries, including
rib fractures, multiple fractures, and facial injuries.
Over one-third of these children had an occult head
injury (37.3%, 95% CI, 24.2-50.4) identified on head
imaging.59 This study highlights the importance of
considering head imaging to identify occult head
injury in high-risk children.
Skin
Ecchymoses

Nonaccidental trauma can be a cause of crying, and
evidence of these injuries is often manifested as new
or old lesions on the skin of an infant or young child.
Full exposure of the infant during physical examination is paramount to identifying these physical
signs. A cross-sectional survey evaluating bruising
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assess for an occult UTI, especially in very young
infants.7 The prevalence of this serious bacterial
infection in infancy and its potential morbidity if left
undiagnosed or untreated contribute to the strength
of urinalysis as a screening test. In Freedman’s infant cohort study, all of the occult UTIs occurred in
infants aged < 4 months, with the highest incidence
in infants aged < 1 month.7 This age range should
serve as a guideline to providers as to which infants
may benefit from urine testing as part of their initial
diagnostic workup.

No other laboratory test has been put forth as
a universal screening tool for infants. We caution
against a “kitchen sink” approach to laboratory
testing in this population, as it is low yield. The
evidence does not support its routine use, invasive
testing is stressful to patients and caregivers, and
it is not a cost-effective approach to patient care
in the ED. Laboratory testing should be tailored
to concerns raised individually by the history and
physical examination.

patterns in 973 children aged < 36 months presenting for routine well-child checks revealed that only
0.6% of children aged < 6 months had any bruises,
whereas 17.8% of cruisers and 51.9% of walkers had
bruises.60 Furthermore, the study found that the
most frequent sites of bruises were over the anterior
tibia and knee as well as on the forehead and upper legs of walkers. Conversely, bruises on the face
and trunk were rare and bruises on the hands and
buttocks were not observed at any age. Accidental
bruises tend to be localized to bony prominences
in mobile children.60,61 Therefore, location of the
bruises should be considered when assessing the
infant for nonaccidental trauma.
Burns

Patterned burns in the shape of hot objects (such as
cigarettes) or immersion of a body part or area into
a hot liquid are most consistent with inflicted (rather
than accidental) injuries. In a 2004 case series by
Daria et al, it was reported that burns to the bilateral
lower extremities, buttocks, and perineum are more
likely to represent in an inflicted injury rather than
an accidental burn.62 A review by Maguire found
that the majority of accidental burns are scald burns,
which are generally “pull-over” scalds, occurring
when a child pulls over a container of hot fluid.
These burns tend to affect the face, upper limbs, anterior trunk, and/or the neck, are usually asymmetric, and have an irregular edge and irregular burn
depth.39 Circumferential burns or “stocking/glove”
burns are very concerning for immersion injuries.
Any concerning patterns of injury on examination
should always prompt consultation with social services and/or child protection services.

Imaging

There are no recommendations for routine use of
imaging of any kind (radiography, ultrasound, etc)
for screening purposes. Similar to laboratory testing,
imaging studies should be considered individually for each patient based on indications from the
history and physical examination. Given the established and evolving body of literature documenting
the longitudinal oncologic risks from ionizing radiation in pediatric patients,63-65 we strongly recommend carefully weighing the risks and benefits of
an irradiating examination in the infant population.
If nonirradiating studies (ie, ultrasound, magnetic
resonance imaging) are available, these may be appropriate first-line imaging studies for this population, if imaging is deemed necessary.

Diagnostic Studies
There is a wide array of testing that could be performed on a crying infant due to the breadth of diagnostic possibilities for underlying etiologies. Given
the fear of “missing something” in an infant, emergency clinicians may overevaluate these patients with
unnecessary laboratory and imaging studies. There
are no algorithms or practice guidelines devoted
specifically to this topic, which makes evaluation of
these infants challenging, yet it underscores the importance of a thoughtful and individualized workup.
The best diagnostic strategy is one that is evidencebased, tailored to each patient, and clinically effective,
with attention paid to time and healthcare costs. The
elements of an ED evaluation that meet these criteria
are presented below, highlighting high-yield versus
low-yield testing in the ED setting.

Serial Examinations

If the initial history and physical examination are
not revealing, and/or if initial testing is not indicated or is not informative, a period of observation
in the ED may be useful in determining an eventual
diagnosis. This allows other accompanying features
to manifest (ie, fever, signs of acute abdominal
conditions), allows the emergency clinician time to
observe the infant’s behaviors and crying pattern,
and may guide the use of additional diagnostic
tests and disposition planning. There is no defined
number of hours cited in the literature to observe a
crying infant. Each emergency clinician must decide
the appropriate number of hours to observe and reexamine an infant such that the child may be safely
discharged or admitted to the hospital for continued
crying or ongoing concerns.

Laboratory Testing

The most helpful laboratory test, from a screening perspective, is a urinalysis and urine culture to
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Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice © 2014

Follow-Up As A Key To Diagnosis

Close follow-up is critical for crying infants evaluated in the ED. For infants with treatable or identifiable causes, follow-up ensures a second visit to
document improvement with instituted treatments
or for caregiver reassurance. For infants whose crying remains unexplained at the completion of the ED
evaluation, close follow-up serves as a second point
in time that a cause for crying may be determined.
Poole et al found that a final diagnosis was made on
a follow-up visit in 39% of patients.8

Treatment
Treatment of a crying infant in the ED falls into 2
categories: (1) infants with recognizable, treatable
illnesses, and (2) infants who continue to cry without a clear, identifiable cause, but who need formal
discharge instructions or “treatment” guidelines
from emergency clinicians.

Treatment for identifiable causes will depend
on the nature of the underlying complaint which
will be further qualified by the need for inpatient
or outpatient therapy based on both the clinical diagnosis and other factors that contribute to disposition planning.

The more difficult treatment plan is for the
infant who continues to cry without an identifiable cause. For the subset of these infants who meet
criteria for admission to the hospital, treatment will
hinge upon further observation and examinations
and is not reliant on the ED personnel, at that point.
Infants who are crying without an identifiable cause
who meet outpatient treatment or discharge criteria
require a treatment plan from emergency clinicians
at the time of discharge. It is difficult to standardize a treatment plan for crying, given the myriad
of presentations and possible underlying causes.
The following elements of an ED discharge plan are
recommended for a crying infant and may help to
reassure and empower caregivers with emphasis
on the importance of follow-up and being aware of
more serious symptoms for which to seek care:
• Outpatient follow-up within 24 hours: If an
underlying etiology is unclear, there may be
lingering parental or clinician concern about an
evolving diagnosis. If there is significant concern from one or both parties, the infant should
not be discharged until the diagnosis is clear or
concerns are assuaged. If all parties are reassured in the ED, a next-day appointment gives
both parents and clinicians a definitive next step
in evaluation of the infant. Outpatient followup for crying infants has been instrumental in
uncovering previously unclear diagnoses and
should be part of the ongoing treatment plan.
• Avoidance of medicating the unknown or
unclear: Medicating an infant without a known
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice © 2014 12

underlying illness may mitigate the symptoms
of an evolving illness and delay diagnosis or
definitive treatment. Nonstandardized or unapproved therapies may also have unknown negative side-effect profiles.
• Reassurance: After a period of observation and
individualized testing in the ED without a clear
diagnosis, sometimes the only real ”treatment”
that can be offered for a crying infant is reassurance to the caregiver that the more concerning
organic pathology has been ruled out. For a
caregiver for whom reassurance is not effective, consultation with social services or further
observation in the ED should be considered. A
caregiver who is not reassured or remains too
distressed may not be able to care for an infant
at home or appropriately comply with discharge
instructions.
• Supportive measures: Caregivers should be
attentive to the basic needs of their infant (such
as hunger, fatigue, diaper changes) at home to
ensure that these needs are being met and not
contributing to ongoing periods of crying. Emergency clinicians should also discuss soothing
techniques with caregivers.
• Clear reasons to return for emergency care:
Caregivers should have a low threshold to
seek care for their infant if there is ongoing
concern. Detailed and age-appropriate instructions should be reviewed with the caregiver
for reasons to return to the ED (including fever
in infants aged < 3 months, true irritability or
inconsolability, inability to eat or drink, or an inability of the caregiver to contend with the stress
of caring for the crying infant/feeling overwhelmed, or any new or concerning symptoms).

Special Circumstances
Crying Without A Clear Cause: Crying, Colic,
And Concerned Parents

The mandate of the emergency clinician is to
consider those rare but serious diagnoses in every
patient, knowing that, for the majority of patients,
common illnesses will be most prevalent. Of the infants who present to the ED with a chief complaint
of crying, the majority will not have significant
underlying disease. The challenge to the emergency
clinician is that once underlying disease is ruled
out, there may not be a diagnosis to make in the
case of the crying infant. The crying itself may be a
manifestation of a normal range of crying behavior,
not necessitating a diagnosis, but a discussion with
caregivers on crying norms, soothing patterns, resources, and ongoing management at home. Emergency clinicians can play a pivotal role in educating families, destigmatizing crying behaviors, and
helping to reduce parental anxiety during infancy,
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which is an already stressful period of time.

Colic, a term familiar to many clinicians and
caregivers, has typically been viewed as a syndrome
distinct from normal crying patterns. This may be
due to the fact that the presentation of the most extreme cases are seen in the clinical setting, such that
continuity with normative crying behaviors is not
observed by emergency clinicians and is, therefore,
characterized as discrete behavior.66 Colic has historically been defined as paroxysms of excessive crying
lasting > 3 hours per day, occurring > 3 days in any
week for 3 weeks, in an otherwise healthy baby aged
2 weeks to 4 months.67 It is estimated to affect 10%
to 30% of infants worldwide.68 Compared to what
is considered normal developmental crying, the
crying of colic has been shown to be more difficult
to stop or console.66 Proposed causes include cow’s
milk protein allergy or intolerance, gastrointestinal
reflux disease, feeding difficulties, sleep difficulties,
and neurodevelopmental immaturity.5,66,69,70 While
the term “colic” may be clinically applicable to some
infants, the term itself may connote to families that
something is “wrong” with the baby, the parenting,
or the baby-parent interaction, which can lead to
more distress.

Whether or not colic is indeed its own diagnosis,
or just a point on the spectrum of normal infant cry-

ing behaviors, crying without a “cause” will likely
be distressing to parents no matter what term is
applied. Emergency clinicians should take the strategy of reassurance, education, empowerment, and
provision of resources for the caregivers of a crying
infant, including close post-ED follow-up.

Disposition
There are no evidence-based guidelines to direct
disposition of the infant who presents to the ED with
acute unexplained crying. As with other chief complaints, disposition will largely be affected by the
workup in the ED. Again, a period of observation
time in the ED is advocated to help guide disposition planning (ie, admission versus discharge to
home). General criteria for admission and discharge
of a crying infant are presented in Table 3.

It is easiest to assign disposition to the extremes
of any clinical spectrum, including crying as a
chief complaint. Any toxic, unstable, or critically ill
infant should be admitted to a general inpatient or
intensive care unit setting, regardless of diagnosis.
The converse is true for the very well-appearing
infant, one who is stable, with a nonfocal history and
physical examination, who is no longer crying, and
whose diagnosis is clear and amenable to outpatient
therapy or whose diagnosis is unclear but not concerning, and can be followed up promptly.

The “gray area” infants are the hardest to disposition. These are the infants who continue to cry or
remain inconsolable without a clear-cut diagnosis.
For these infants, a dedicated period of observation in
the ED is recommended to allow for serial examina-

Time- And Cost-Effective
Strategies
• Do not initiate an expensive and extensive
workup on every crying infant patient. Evaluations should be individualized with an understanding that most crying infants do not have
serious underlying illness. History and physical
examinations are the cornerstones of diagnosis
in most cases. Laboratory and other tests are
not routinely indicated; however, urinalysis
has been shown to be the most useful testing in
making a diagnosis.
• Disposition is not dependent on identifying a
clearcut etiology for crying in the ED. Recognize that the etiology of an infant’s crying may
not always be clear while the infant is in the ED.
However, disposition can still be determined
in a timely fashion. Infants with concerning
features should be admitted to an observation or
inpatient unit for additional observation or testing as indicated. Well-appearing or less-concerning infants may be discharged to home, with the
caveat that follow-up in unclear cases should be
arranged within 24 hours from the ED visit.
• Urine studies are the highest-yield laboratory
test for young infants presenting with crying.
No other testing has been shown to have the
same diagnostic utility.
March 2014 • www.ebmedicine.net

Table 3. Disposition Criteria For Crying
Infants
Criteria For Admission

Criteria For Discharge






• Well-appearing/consoled
• Clinically stable with a condition treatable in outpatient
therapy (oral antibiotics,
analgesics)
• Access to immediate followup care
• Resolution of crying in the
ED or ongoing crying that is
baseline or not concerning to
provider or caregiver
• No social concerns
• Parents are comfortable with
discharge plan and understand next steps regarding
treatment and follow-up








Toxic-appearing
Hemodynamically unstable
Critical illness
Clinically stable with a
condition requiring IV therapy
(fluids, antibiotics)
No access to immediate
follow-up care
Ongoing crying without
a clear-cut etiology after
examination, observation, and
appropriate testing
Social concerns (poor support
at home, unsafe environment
for the infant, risk factors for
abuse or neglect)
Failure to meet discharge
criteria

Abbreviations: ED, emergency department; IV, intravenous.

13

Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice © 2014

Risk Management Pitfalls For Acute Unexplained Crying In Infants
1. “The baby did not have a fever, so I did not
consider that he could have a serious infection.”
Sepsis and other significant infections can
present as crying, alone or in conjunction with
other findings. An infant may not manifest
a fever as a sign of infection or, conversely,
he may be hypothermic as a manifestation
of infection. For a crying infant, all serious
etiologies, including infection, should be
considered and investigated when appropriate,
with or without the presence of fever.

6. “If I am not going to perform any diagnostic
tests (such as blood, urine, imaging), I should
just send this baby home. There is no reason
for him to sit around in the ED.”
Observation and serial examinations are
paramount to the evaluation of a crying infant
for whom a diagnosis is not immediately clear.
This may allow for the acquisition of additional
information to guide further ED testing,
allow for clinicians and caregivers to follow a
trajectory of illness in the ED, and provide relief
for stressed caregivers and time for education.

2. “Of course the baby had an elevated heart rate;
he was crying.”
Crying can often lead to tachycardia in infants.
However, tachycardia can be a manifestation
of infection, dehydration, evolving fever,
pain, or distress. Vital signs should be taken
repeatedly on a crying infant, in both the crying
and noncrying state, to avoid inappropriately
attributing abnormal findings to crying rather
than other potentially serious underlying causes.

7. “The more tests I perform, the closer I will be
to making a diagnosis.”
There is no one test or series of tests universally
recommended for the evaluation of a crying
infant. History and physical examination remain
the cornerstone of diagnosis in crying infants.
“Kitchen sink” testing is expensive, invasive,
and inappropriate for most infants who present
to the ED with acute unexplained crying.

3. “I had a bad feeling about this baby, but how I
feel shouldn’t impact my investigations.”
As with parental concern, clinician concern
and “gut instinct” regarding pediatric
pathology has been supported as an accurate
tool in determining serious illness. Emergency
clinicians should acknowledge their concern
and factor their intuition into an evaluation of a
crying infant.
4. “The parents seem really nice, so there is no
need to consider nonaccidental trauma.”
Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to predict
which caregivers may cause nonaccidental
trauma. It must be considered in any infant with
persistent or unexplained crying regardless of a
family’s stature or protestations.
5. “All babies cry. This is a normal finding and is
nothing to worry about.”
While some amount of crying is normal in all
infants, any crying that exceeds the duration
or quality of the infant’s typical crying, is
concerning to parents or providers, or is
accompanied by a change in behavior should be
considered significant and potentially pathologic
until proven otherwise. The spectrum of normal
crying for an infant is variable by age and by
individual infant, so caregiver descriptions of
deviations should be taken seriously.
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice © 2014 14

8. “This baby just has colic.”
Colic and unexplained crying are common
diagnoses, but should only be applied to infants
for whom other etiologies for acute crying have
been considered first.
9. “This baby seems fine; there is no need for this
family to follow up with their primary care
provider.”
Close follow-up is critical for crying infants
evaluated in the ED. First, it ensures a second
visit to document improvement or worsening
for diagnosed conditions in which treatment
may have been instituted. Second, it allows an
additional diagnostic examination for infants in
whom the ED visit was unrevealing and in whom
an illness may now be more apparent. Lastly, it
ensures a session with the primary care provider,
someone who can provide reassurance and
support to the family on a more long-term basis.
10. “Parents are always anxious about their babies,
but it doesn’t mean anything is truly wrong
with the infant.”
The degree of parental concern has been shown
to correlate with disease severity in infants.
Parents can differentiate the cries of their infants
and can intuit pathology, as well. Parental
concern should be one of multiple features to
factor into the evaluation of a crying infant and
should not be dismissed by providers.
www.ebmedicine.net • March 2014

tions, further testing as prompted by ongoing history
or physical examination features that may present.

examination, you noticed some subtle swelling over the
right proximal tibia, and palpation over this area resulted
in reproducible high-pitched crying. Due to concern for
a possible fracture, you told the mother that you would
order an x-ray to look at her lower leg as the first step
in your evaluation. A right lower extremity x-ray was
obtained and revealed an acute “bucket handle” (metaphyseal) fracture of the proximal tibia. Knowing that this
fracture raises suspicion for nonaccidental trauma, you
spent additional time speaking with Melissa’s mother. She
eventually stated that 1 day ago, she had pulled and twisted the baby's right leg during a crying episode while the
infant was strapped into a changing table. She denied any
other episodes of this kind. You involved social services
and child protection in this case. The baby was admitted
to the hospital for further treatment and to provide social
support for the family.

Summary
Crying is a common reason that caregivers seek
medical attention for infants and it is distressing for
both caregivers and emergency clinicians. There is
a broad array of diagnostic possibilities for crying
infants, from the serious and life-threatening to
the benign. Emergency clinicians should be aware
of the clinical variables that can help distinguish
among this spectrum of clinical diagnoses. The most
important elements of the ED evaluation with the
highest diagnostic yield are the history and physical
examination. While there are no universally recommended laboratory or imaging tests for a crying
infant, urinalysis is recommended in young infants
to evaluate for an occult UTI presenting as acute
unexplained crying. While colic and unexplained
crying are more common than serious underlying pathologies, they are diagnoses that should
be made after consideration and/or evaluation of
other possible causes of crying. Infants who have
an unrevealing history or physical examination but
who continue to cry should be observed in the ED
with serial examinations. Continued crying should
prompt ongoing dedicated evaluation and consideration of admission to the hospital. If a crying
infant does not have a clear-cut diagnosis from the
ED evaluation, emergency clinicians should take the
time to reassure, educate, empower, and provide
resources for caregivers to encourage good care and
follow-up. The disposition of crying infants from the
ED is multifactorial and must include consideration
of medical, social, and follow-up factors.

References
Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are
equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective,
random­ized, and blinded trial should carry more
weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each
reference, pertinent information about the study
will be included in bold type following the ref­
erence, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined
by the authors, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next
to the number of the reference.
1.* Brazelton TB. Crying in infancy. Pediatrics. 1962;29:579-588.
(Review)
2.

Case Conclusions
3.

You decided to observe Joseph for a longer period of time,
and you initiated additional testing based on the degree of
his parents’ concern and due to the risk of occult UTIs in
afebrile crying infants. You obtained a catheterized urine
specimen, and the urinalysis was positive for nitrites and
50 to 100 white blood cells per high-power field. Because
of the evidence for an occult UTI on urinalysis, you
obtained a CBC with differential and blood culture. The
CBC was reassuring and the infant remained well-appearing throughout the ED visit. Given his well appearance, lack of fever, tolerance of feeds, and assured appropriate follow-up, you decided that he was a candidate for
outpatient therapy. He was given a dose of intramuscular
ceftriaxone and observed to tolerate 2 bottles and make
an additional wet diaper. You discharged him home with
a course of oral antibiotics and instructions to follow up
with his pediatrician the next day.

You returned to the other room again to reexamine
Melissa systematically from head to toe. On this repeat
March 2014 • www.ebmedicine.net

4.

Green JA, Gustafson GE. Individual recognition of human infants on the basis of cries alone. Dev Psychobiol.
1983;16(6):485-493. (Descriptive study; 20 infants)

Leavitt LA. Mothers’ sensitivity to infant signals. Pediatrics.
1998;102(5 Suppl E):1247-1249. (Review)

Petrovich-Bartell N, Cowan N, Morse PA. Mothers’ perceptions of infant distress vocalizations. J Speech Hear Res.
1982;25(3):371-376. (Descriptive study)

5.* Herman M, Le A. The crying infant. Emerg Med Clin North
Am. 2007;25(4):1137-1159. (Review)
6.

Calado CS, Pereira AG, Santos VN, et al. What brings newborns to the emergency department?: a 1-year study. Pediatr
Emerg Care. 2009;25(4):244-248. (Retrospective study; 540
infants)

7.* Freedman SB, Al-Harthy N, Thull-Freedman J. The crying
infant: diagnostic testing and frequency of serious underlying disease. Pediatrics. 2009;123(3):841-848. (Retrospective
study; 237 infants)

8.* Poole SR. The infant with acute, unexplained, excessive crying. Pediatrics. 1991;88(3):450-455. (Retrospective study; 56
infants)
9.* Reijneveld SA, Brugman E, Hirasing RA. Excessive infant crying: the impact of varying definitions. Pediatrics.
2001;108(4):893-897. (Cross-sectional population-based
survey; 3345 infants)

15

Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice © 2014

10. Hunziker UA, Barr RG. Increased carrying reduces
infant crying: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics.
1986;77(5):641-648. (Randomized controlled trial; 99
mother-infant dyads)

11. Baildam EM, Hillier VF, Ward BS, et al. Duration and pattern of crying in the first year of life. Dev Med Child Neurol.
1995;37(4):345-353. (Prospective study; 157 infants)

12. St James-Roberts I, Halil T. Infant crying patterns in the first
year: normal community and clinical findings. J Child Psychol
Psychiatry. 1991;32(6):951-968. (Prospective cohort study; 468
infants)
13. Barr RG, Paterson JA, MacMartin LM, et al. Prolonged and
unsoothable crying bouts in infants with and without colic. J
Dev Behav Pediatr. 2005;26(1):14-23. (Case control longitudinal controlled study; 77 patients)
14. Wake M, Morton-Allen E, Poulakis Z, et al. Prevalence, stability, and outcomes of cry-fuss and sleep problems in the first 2
years of life: prospective community-based study. Pediatrics.
2006;117(3):836-842. (Prospective cohort study; 483 infants)
15.* Fahimi D, Shamsollahi B, Salamati P, et al. Excessive
crying of infancy; a report of 200 cases. Iran J of Pediatr.
2007;17(3):222-226. (Cross-sectional study; 200 infants)

16.* Ruiz-Contreras J, Urquia L, Bastero R. Persistent crying as
predominant manifestation of sepsis in infants and newborns. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1999;15(2):113-115. (Case series; 6
infants)
17. Levitzky S, Cooper R. Infant colic syndrome--maternal
fantasies of aggression and infanticide. Clin Pediatr (Phila).
2000;39(7):395-400. (Prospective study; 23 mother-infant
dyads)

18. Wilkie C, Ames E. The relationship of infant crying to parental stress in the transition to parenthood. J Marriage Fam.
1986;48:545-550. (Prospective study; 30 parent couples)
19. Reijneveld SA, van der Wal MF, Brugman E, et al. Prevalence of parental behaviour to diminish the crying of
infants that may lead to abuse. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd.
2004;148(45):2227-2230. (Descriptive study; 3345 infants)

20. Singer JI, Rosenberg NM. A fatal case of colic. Pediatr Emerg
Care. 1992;8(3):171-172. (Case report; 1 patient)
21. Oral R, Blum KL, Johnson C. Fractures in young children:
are physicians in the emergency department and orthopedic clinics adequately screening for possible abuse? Pediatr
Emerg Care. 2003;19(3):148-153. (Descriptive retrospective
chart review; 653 charts)
22. Pandya NK, Baldwin K, Wolfgruber H, et al. Child abuse
and orthopaedic injury patterns: analysis at a level I pediatric trauma center. J Pediatr Orthop. 2009;29(6):618-625.
(Retrospective review; 500 cases)
23. Ravichandiran N, Schuh S, Bejuk M, et al. Delayed identification of pediatric abuse-related fractures. Pediatrics.
2010;125(1):60-66. (Retrospective review; 258 patients)

24. Thomas SA, Rosenfield NS, Leventhal JM, et al. Long-bone
fractures in young children: distinguishing accidental
injuries from child abuse. Pediatrics. 1991;88(3):471-476. (Retrospective review; 215 patients)
25.* Van den Bruel A, Haj-Hassan T, Thompson M, et al. Diagnostic value of clinical features at presentation to identify
serious infection in children in developed countries: a systematic review. Lancet. 2010;375(9717):834-845. (Retrospective review; 3890 patients)

26.* Van den Bruel A, Thompson M, Buntinx F, et al. Clinicians’
gut feeling about serious infections in children: observational study. BMJ. 2012;345:e6144. (Observational study; 3369
children)
27.* Trocinski DR, Pearigen PD. The crying infant. Emerg Med
Clin North Am. 1998;16(4):895-910. (Review)
28. Hale TW, Kendall-Tackett K, Cong Z, et al. Discontinua-

Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice © 2014 16

tion syndrome in newborns whose mothers took antidepressants while pregnant or breastfeeding. Breastfeed Med.
2010;5(6):283-288. (Cross-sectional study; 930 mothers)

29. Blumberg DA, Lewis K, Mink CM, et al. Severe reactions associated with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine: detailed
study of children with seizures, hypotonic-hyporesponsive
episodes, high fevers, and persistent crying. Pediatrics.
1993;91(6):1158-1165. (Review)

30. Bonhoeffer J, Vermeer P, Halperin S, et al. Persistent crying
in infants and children as an adverse event following immunization: case definition and guidelines for data collection,
analysis, and presentation. Vaccine. 2004;22(5-6):586-591.
(Case definition and guidelines)
31. Reijneveld SA, Lanting CI, Crone MR, et al. Exposure to tobacco smoke and infant crying. Acta Paediatr. 2005;94(2):217221. (Cross-sectional study; 5845 infants)
32. Poole SR. Corneal abrasion in infants. Pediatr Emerg Care.
1995;11(1):25-26. (Retrospective study)

33. Harkness MJ. Corneal abrasion in infancy as a cause of
inconsolable crying. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1989;5(4):242-244.
(Case report; 1 patient)

34. Shope TR, Rieg TS, Kathiria NN. Corneal abrasions in young
infants. Pediatrics. 2010;125(3):e565-e569. (Cross-sectional
study; 96 infants)
35. McMahon P, Grossman W, Gaffney M, et al. Soft-tissue
injury as an indication of child abuse. J Bone Joint Surg Am.
1995;77(8):1179-1183. (Retrospective review; 371 children)

36. Pierce MC, Kaczor K, Aldridge S, et al. Bruising characteristics discriminating physical child abuse from accidental
trauma. Pediatrics. 2010;125(1):67-74. (Case control study; 95
children)

37. Macintyre DR, Jones GM, Pinckney RC. The role of the dental
practitioner in the management of non-accidental injury to
children. Br Dent J. 1986;161(3):108-110. (Descriptive study)

38. Hornor G. Medical evaluation for child physical abuse: what
the PNP needs to know. J Pediatr Health Care. 2012;26(3):163170. (Review)
39. Maguire S. Which injuries may indicate child abuse? Arch
Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2010;95(6):170-177. (Review)

40. Bourgeois FT, Shannon MW. Retropharyngeal cellulitis in a
5-week-old infant. Pediatrics. 2002;109(3):E51. (Case report; 1
patient)
41. Lurie S, Wand S, Golan A, et al. Risk factors for fractured clavicle in the newborn. J Obstet Gynaecol Res.
2011;37(11):1572-1574. (Retrospective case control study; 45
newborns)
42. Karabouta Z, Bisbinas I, Davidson A, et al. Discitis in toddlers: a case series and review. Acta Paediatr.
2005;94(10):1516-1518. (Case series and review)

43. Oymar K, Svihus R. Discitis in children. Description of the
condition illustrated by two case reports. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1997;117(15):2184-2186. (Case reports; 2 patients)

44. Brown L, Hicks M. Subclinical mastitis presenting as acute,
unexplained, excessive crying in an afebrile 31-day-old
female. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2001;17(3):189-190. (Case report; 1
patient)
45. Woods WA, McCulloch MA. Cardiovascular emergencies in the pediatric patient. Emerg Med Clin North Am.
2005;23(4):1233-1249. (Review)

46. Mahle WT. A dangerous case of colic: anomalous left coronary artery presenting with paroxysms of irritability. Pediatr
Emerg Care. 1998;14(1):24-27. (Case report; 1 patient)
47. Reuchlin-Vroklage LM, Bierma-Zeinstra S, Benninga MA, et
al. Diagnostic value of abdominal radiography in constipated children: a systematic review. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.
2005;159(7):671-678. (Review)

www.ebmedicine.net • March 2014

48. Onesimo R, Giorgio V, Monaco S, et al. A crying baby: not
simply infant colic. BMJ Case Rep. 2012. (Case report; 1 patient)

CME Questions

49. Shaoul R, Enav B, Steiner Z, et al. Clinical presentation of
pyloric stenosis: the change is in our hands. Isr Med Assoc J.
2004;6(3):134-137. (Retrospective chart review; 70 patients)

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50. Gosche JR, Vick L, Boulanger SC, et al. Midgut abnormalities. Surg Clin North Am. 2006;86(2):285-299. (Review)

51. Eshel G, Barr J, Heyman E, et al. Intussusception: a
9-year survey (1986-1995). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr.
1997;24(3):253-256. (Retrospective chart review; 90 patients)
52. Haynes JH. Inguinal and scrotal disorders. Surg Clin North
Am. 2006;86(2):371-381. (Review)

53. Wang CH, Huang FY. Septic arthritis in early infancy. Zhonghua Min Guo Xiao Er Ke Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi. 1990;31(2):69-75.
(Retrospective review; 18 infants)
54. Pierce M, Bertocci G. Fractures resulting from inflicted
trauma: assessing injury and history compatibility. Clinical
Pediatric Emergency Medicine. 2006(7):143-148. (Review)

55. Losek JD. Hypoglycemia and the ABC’S (sugar) of pediatric
resuscitation. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;35(1):43-46. (Cross-sectional study; 49 patients)
56. Filiano JJ. Neurometabolic diseases in the newborn. Clin
Perinatol. 2006;33(2):411-479. (Review)

57. Sperling MA, Menon RK. Differential diagnosis and management of neonatal hypoglycemia. Pediatr Clin North Am.
2004;51(3):703-723. (Review)

1. Which of the following poses the greatest challenge in performing and interpreting studies
on acute, unexplained, and excessive crying in
infants?
a. Rarity of crying as a chief complaint
b. Lack of a uniform definition of "excessive"
crying
c. Difficulty in obtaining consent for testing in

the ED
d. Epidemiologic changes due to immunizations

58. Greenes DS, Schutzman SA. Clinical indicators of intracranial injury in head-injured infants. Pediatrics. 1999;104(4 Pt
1):861-867. (Prospective study; 608 children)

59. Rubin DM, Christian CW, Bilaniuk LT, et al. Occult head
injury in high-risk abused children. Pediatrics. 2003;111(6 Pt
1):1382-1386. (Prospective study; 65 children)

60. Sugar NF, Taylor JA, Feldman KW. Bruises in infants and
toddlers: those who don’t cruise rarely bruise. Puget Sound
Pediatric Research Network. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.
1999;153(4):399-403. (Cross-sectional study; 973 children)

61. Carpenter RF. The prevalence and distribution of bruising in
babies. Arch Dis Child. 1999;80(4):363-366. (Cross-sectional
study; 177 children)

2. Approximately what percentage of infants
presenting to the ED with acute, unexplained
crying have a serious or life-threatening diagnosis, according to the most recent literature?
a. < 1% b. 5%
c. 25% d. 60%

62. Daria S, Sugar NF, Feldman KW, et al. Into hot water head
first: distribution of intentional and unintentional immersion
burns. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2004;20(5):302-310. (Case series; 28
patients)
63. Brenner DJ. Estimating cancer risks from pediatric CT: going from the qualitative to the quantitative. Pediatr Radiol.
2002;32(4):228-223. (Review and retrospective analysis)

3. What finding in the ED would heighten concern for a more serious underlying etiology in
a crying infant?
a. Night-time versus daytime presentation
b. An infant who continues to cry beyond the

time of the initial assessment
c. An infant who stops crying in the ED
d. Previous diagnosis of colic made after

extensive outpatient testing

64. Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography--an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med.
2007;357(22):2277-2284. (Review)

65. Pearce MS, Salotti JA, Little MP, et al. Radiation exposure
from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet.
2012;380(9840):499-505. (Retrospective cohort study; 355,191
patients)
66. Barr RG. Colic and crying syndromes in infants. Pediatrics.
1998;102(5 Suppl E):1282-1286. (Review)

4. Which elements of the medical evaluation have
been shown to be most useful in making a
diagnosis in an acutely crying infant?
a. Stool guaiac testing
b. Urine testing
c. History and physical examination
d. Abdominal x-ray

67.* Wessel MA, Cobb JC, Jackson EB, et al. Paroxysmal fussing
in infancy, sometimes called colic. Pediatrics. 1954;14(5):421435. (Diary analysis)
68. Kheir AE. Infantile colic, facts and fiction. Ital J Pediatr.
2012;38:34. (Review)

69. Douglas PS, Hill PS. The crying baby: what approach? Curr
Opin Pediatr. 2011;23(5):523-529. (Review)
70. Hiscock H. The crying baby. Aust Fam Physician.
2006;35(9):680-684. (Review)

March 2014 • www.ebmedicine.net

17

Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice © 2014

5. One of the most common etiologies for infant
crying is:
a. Sepsis
b. Supraventricular tachycardia
c. Nonaccidental trauma
d. Constipation
6. Which of the following laboratory tests has
been most commonly recommended as an
appropriate test for an afebrile, acutely crying
infant, especially younger infants?
a. Serum glucose
b. Urinalysis and urine culture
c. CBC
d. Serum electrolytes
7. Before being discharged to home, caregivers of
a now well-appearing or less-concerning infant
should be able to ensure the following for their
infant:
a. Primary care provider/medical follow-up

within 24 hours
b. Primary care provider/medical follow-up

within 72 hours
c. Primary care provider/medical follow-up

within 1 week
d. Hospital admission
8. The young parents of a crying baby tell you
they are overwhelmed at home with the care of
their infant. After an ED evaluation, the infant
appears well without a clear-cut etiology for
the crying, but is now well-consoled. The parents remain distressed and overwhelmed. The
appropriate disposition for this infant is:
a. Discharge to home with reassurance
b. Discharge to home without scheduled
follow-up
c. Discharge to home with follow-up in the

next week
d. Consultation with social services,

reassurance and support with thoughtful

disposition planning, and arrangement of

follow-up care within 24 hours

9. Colic or unexplained crying as a diagnosis in
the ED can be made:
a. If no other clear-cut cause for crying is
uncovered
b. After appropriate consideration of other

etiologies for crying and parental history

confirms a pattern of crying consistent with

standard definitions for the term “colic”
c. If a baby has already been diagnosed with

colic or the parents describe the baby as
colicky
d. If the baby is crying and aged < 3 months
10. For an infant who continues to cry in the ED
without a clear-cut diagnosis, ED evaluation
should include:
a. Automatic admission to the hospital
b. Discharge to home with follow-up only as
needed
c. Continued observation, serial examinations,

and further testing as indicated
d. Comprehensive laboratory work and


imaging until a diagnosis is clear

In upcoming
issues of
Pediatric Emergency
Medicine Practice:
"Diagnosis and Treatment Of Pediatric Urinary
Tract Infections." In this issue, pertinent history
and physical examination findings as well as
recommended diagnostic and treatment modalities
for urinary tract infection (which differ, depending
on the patient’s age group) will be discussed. Novel
concepts, special circumstances, and disposition of
the pediatric patient with a urinary tract infection
will also be discussed.
"Managing The Apparent Life-Threatening Event
in Pediatric Patients." This issue will (1) summarize
the recent literature on apparent life-threatening
events (ALTE); (2) guide the emergency clinician
on risk factors that may place a patient with ALTE
at higher risk for having a serious underlying
disease and/or a future adverse event requiring
intervention; and (3) describe guidelines for
diagnostic testing and admission to the hospital for
infants with ALTE.

Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice © 2014 18

www.ebmedicine.net • March 2014

In the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice 2012 Audio Series,
Dr. Andrew Sloas reviews 4 critical pediatric topics and provides
evidence-based treatment recommendations.
PRODUCT DETAILS:
• Evidence-based reviews on 4 critical pediatric patient
presentations
• Convenient format: MP3 download of all 4 topics
instantly after you order
• Speaker: Dr. Andrew Sloas
• Recording date: December 17, 2012






Length: 81 minutes total
CME: 2 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditsTM
CME expiration date: January 1, 2016
Price: $59

TOPIC #1: Evaluation And Treatment Of Croup
This audio session will refresh your knowledge for the diagnosis and treatment of croup and introduce you to some
new concepts, so you can avoid potential airway disasters. Length: 19 minutes
TOPIC #2: Pediatric Procedural Sedation
This audio review will expand your familiarity with multiple sedation medications, including new drugs, along with
the more traditionally accepted therapies. You'll learn what medication choices are available and which techniques
will increase your sedation safety profile. Length: 23 minutes
TOPIC #3: Acute Appendicitis In Childhood
This audio session examines the clinical manifestations of appendicitis that can vary from the nonspecific to
the typically expected and covers special diagnostic dilemmas for pediatric patients. Detailed history-taking and
appropriate laboratory testing are also discussed as a guide for evaluating the pediatric patient. Length: 22 minutes
TOPIC #4: Ovarian And Adnexal Torsion In Children
This audio review will give you an evidence-based approach to ovarian and adnexal torsion, so you'll know how to
combine all tools available to you (history, physical examination, and ancillary testing) to correctly identify this
disease. Length: 17 minutes
To learn more, visit www.ebmedicine.net/PEMPaudio

Check out the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice archives
TITLE

PUBLICATION DATE # OF FREE CME
CREDITS

Emergency Department Management Of Acute Hematogenous Osteomyelitis In Children

February 2014

4

Pediatric Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: An Evidence-Based Approach To Treatment

January 2014

4

Emergency Department Readiness For Pediatric Illness And Injury

December 2013

4

Emergency Management Of Blunt Chest Trauma In Children: An Evidence-Based Approach November 2013

4 (Trauma CME)

Pediatric Nerve Blocks: An Evidence-Based Approach

October 2013

4 (Trauma CME)

An Evidence-Based Approach To Electrical Injuries In Children

September 2013

4 (Trauma CME)

Diagnosis And Management Of Motor Vehicle Trauma In Children: An Evidence-Based
Review

August 2013

4 (Trauma CME)

Management Of Headache In The Pediatric Emergency Department

July 2013

4

Capnography In The Pediatric Emergency Department: Clinical Applications

June 2013

4

Management Of Acute Asthma In The Pediatric Patient: An Evidence-Based Review

May 2013

4

An Evidence-Based Approach To Managing Acute Otitis Media

April 2013

4

Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis: An Outpatient Perspective On Evaluation And Management

March 2013

4

Evaluation Of The Febrile Young Infant: An Update

February 2013

4

Evidence-Based Emergency Management Of The Pediatric Airway

January 2013

4

To view these articles, go to www.ebmedicine.net/PEMP

March 2014 • www.ebmedicine.net

19

Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice © 2014

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