2014 COURS Gestion de projet .pdf



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Gestion de projet et Architecture
des Systèmes d’Information
2014-2015

Grégory GIGOI
EXPERIENCE PRO
• 7 ans d’expérience en conseil en gestion des risques
• Manager Accenture Finance & Risk
• Compétences : Bâle II, Bâle III, Gestion de programme /
projet, Processus de gestion des risques
• Clients : SNCF, Bolloré, PSA, La Banque Postale,
BPCE, Mairie de Paris, etc.
FORMATION
• Ecole Supérieure d’Optique (Centrale)
• HEC : Mastère en Management des Risques
Internationaux
PERSO
• Football
• Marathon
Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

2

Les trois objectifs majeurs du cours

Savoir mettre en
place les moyens
pour piloter la
réalisation d’un
projet

Comprendre les
différentes
composantes du
management de
projet

Echanger, poser
des questions,
disposer d’un
retour
d‘expérience

Table of contents
1

Introduction : The storm of financial and risk regulatory

2

Definition of project and project management

3

The five phases of a project

4

Stakeholder management

5

How to be the perfect Project Manager ?

1
Introduction : The storm of financial and risk
regulatory

Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

5

Still under investigation

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6

Introduction
• Since end of 2011, regulatory evolutions maintained momentum : US congress passed into law the
« Basel II » recommendations and EU voted the CRD IV. Many additional evolutions are under way to :
‒ Build a stronger financial system
‒ Implement more intensive and proactive oversight, and
‒ Address topics not or under-covered by Basel II
• With 3 more additional years, intented consequences of the regulation are visible for the banking
industry :
‒ Balance sheet de-leveraging
‒ Higher capital buffer (recapitalization plan for european banks was evaluated to114.7bn €)
•…and some unintended consequences* … as well : :
‒ Developpment of the shadow banking (it represents 50% of US total Banking assets)
‒ Regulatory arbitrage
• We are also witnessing new forms of supervision : « banking union » in Europe with a more intrusive
approach through more on-site audits
• The transformation phase that we foressen 3 years ago is happening … BUT things may change in the
coming years since the Basel Committee is starting to ask himself :
> What if we have been too far in our regulation ambition ? <
* See « Banking regulation and supervision in the next 10 years and their unintended consequences » - Daniele Nouy, May 2013
Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

7

Introduction
• Danielle NOUY, Chair of the Supervisory Board of the Single Supervisory Mechanism (ECB),
previously Director of ACPR wrote this article in 2013 :

Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

8

On the European side
• European Union voted the CRD IV on April 15th, 2013

• Going further in the supervision and the integration of the European financial bodies through the set up of the
Banking Union composed of 3 pillars :
o Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM). « the ECB will be the central authority of the SSM and it will be supported
by national supervisory authorities. Its mandate will be to supervise the whole banking sector of the euro area, plus
those of any non-euro area Member State wishing to join. The ECB will be entrusted with the whole toolbox for
banking supervision including: authorising and withdrawing bank licences, collecting on and off-site information,
undertaking on-site inspections in cooperation with the national supervisors, and validating banks internal models
and risk controls. Whenever necessary, the ECB will also be able to solicit additional capital, liquidity and other
prudential requirements… The “singleness of the SSM” is ensured by applying the same common supervisory
approach to all banks (“Single Rule Book”):
1) the Supervisory Manual will be binding for all Banks under SSM supervision, although some alleviated reporting
might be envisageable for less significant institutions
2) national supervisory authorities will have to comply with ECB regulations, guidelines or general instructions;
3) the ECB will have access to all data of all banks; and
4) the ECB, can decide to exercise supervisory powers directly.” (1)
o Single Resolution Mechanism (SRM) : « indispensable to resolve non-viable banks. Without an SRM, we might
face a misalignment of incentives between the supervisory and the resolution functions. Moreover, the supervisor’s
judgments must also be enforceable. The Commission recently proposed setting up a single resolution authority
backed by a single bank resolution fund. The authority and the fund must be separate from the SSM, independent
and supranational. Jointly, they constitute a single resolution system with the ability to intervene directly in banks
losses, dividing them among shareholders and creditors […] (1)
o Harmonized Deposit Guarantee Scheme (DGS)
(1) Extract from the speech of Yves Mersh : towards a European Banking Union – Sept. 30th, 2013
Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

9

Evolutions under way in the Basel III Framework

SIFIs

Regulation evolutions under way
Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

Source : Moodys Analytics – mars 2011

10

Overview of the new regulation for banks
Bank Regulations

Capital Markets / Settlement / Collaterals / Payments

• Basel 2.5: Market Risk, Trading Book, Remuneration Policy, Large
Exposure, Securitization, Re-Securitization, Disclosure
Securitization Risks, Cross Border Supervision
• Basel III: Hybrid Capital Instruments, Definition of Capital, Capital
Require-ments, Leverage Ratio, Liquidity Risk Management,
Liquidity Standards, Counterparty Credit Risk (CCR),
Countercyclical Measures, Systemically Important Financial
Institution (SIFI), Living Wills, Single Rule Book
• EMIR: Central Counterparty (CCP)
• EBA: Stress Tests
• Dodd Frank: E.g. Volcker Rule, Legal Entity Identifier (LEI), Central
Counterparty (CCP), OTC Regulations, Swap Pushout Rule etc

• Consultation on Central Securities Depositories (CSDs)
• Target 2 Securities (T2S)
• Collateral Central Bank Management (CCBM2)
• Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA) Migration
• Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on Short
Selling and certain aspects of Credit Default Swaps
• New Market Abuse Directive (MAD)
• Securities Law Directive (SLD)

Taxation

Data Protection / Anti-Corruption

• European Financial Transaction Tax (FTT)
• FATCA – Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act
• Double Tax Agreements (DTA)
• US Estate Tax

Investment Service Regulations

• Consumer Data Protection Regime for Singapore
• UK Bribery Act 2010

Accounting / Financial Reporting

• MiFID I + MiFID II /MiFIR – Markets in Financial Instruments
• IFRS 9 – Financial Instruments (Replacement of IAS 39)
Directive
• IFRS 13 – Fair Value Measurement
• UCITS III / IV – Undertaking for Collective Investment in
• COSO – The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the
Transferable Securities
Treadway Commission
• ESMA-Consultation of Exchange-traded and Structured OGAWFunds
• AIFMD – Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive
• Regulations on Credit Rating Agencies
• In addition tighter interpretation of existing standards which is not announced explicitly
• Prospectus Directive
• Example ICAAP-Standards or MiFID Post-Trade Transparency Rules
Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

Overview of the new regulation for banks

Source : BCG
Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

12

Main impacts on banks
For Investment Banks
Capital
o Significantly higher RWA for OTC derivatives
o Trading book securitization become uneconomical
o Risk weights increase for transactions with large and unregulated Financial Institutions
(like Hedge Funds)
Liquidity
o Issuers of Financial Institutions bonds will need to find new investors as banks will no
longer be willing to hold each other’s paper …
For Commercial Banks
Capital
o Risk weights increase for transactions with large Financial Instit. ,eg trade finance
o Structured finance will be effected through embedded derivative components
suffering under higher exposure measures and capital charges
Liquidity
o Incentive for corporate banking business to concentrate on customers from whom they
can also collect deposits
For Retail Banks
Leverage
o Leverage ratio can put constraints on low risk business, e.g. residential mortgages
Liquidity

Liquidity
o Less affected by higher liquidity costs
* Based upon « how will Basel III drive business model change – Deutshe bank / Risk Mind Dec 2012
Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

13

BCBS239 : RDA&R principles
I. Overarching governance and infrastructure
Principles
1.Governance








2. Data
architecture
and IT
infrastructure

RDA&R principles addresses a very large range of common
topics for banks. They are classified in three areas of
improvment (*)

Sub-categories













Board-level oversight
Awareness of limitations in
risk data aggregation
capabilities & coverage
Organisational governance
Data governance & data risk
Documentation & validation
Resilience
Architecture governance
Architecture vision &
roadmap
Enterprise data models
Identifiers
Data taxonomies
Risk metadata
Data lineage
Data ownership
IT infrastructure
self-assesment
IT infrastructure
investment
BCP

II. Risk data aggregation capabilities
Principles

3. Accuracy and
Integrity

4. Completeness

5. Timeliness

6. Adaptability

Sub-catagories









Golden source
Risk data dictionary
Aggregation methodologies
Traceability
Control framework
Process automation
End User Computing
Data access controls





Self-assessment of risk data
Data monitoring & management
Implementation constraints





Self- assesment of risk data
timeliness
Critical risk data
Remediation activities






Flexible aggregation capabilities
Flexible risk reporting tools
Flexible access to data
Supervisory queries

III. Risk Reporting practices
Principles

7. Accuracy








Self assesment of reporting accuracy
Data quality management
Reconciliation & sign-off of risk data
Adjustments
Risk approximations
Stress testing & scenario analysis

8. Comprehensiveness







Risk report inventory
Risk coverage
Risk management context
Enterprise risk management
Forward looking risk measures

9. Clarity and
usefulness







Suitability of Board reports
Suitability of Senior Management reports
Suitability of operational reports
Risk Management Information framework
Risk data glossary

10. Frequency





Requirements
Regular reporting capabilities
On demand and stress / crisis period

11. Distribution





Risk reporting policies & procedures
Risk reporting mechanisms
Data security
14

(*) There is a fourth area: « Supervisory review, tools and cooperation »
Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

Sub-categories

BCBS239 : I. Overarching governance and infrastructure
Principle

Main requirements
• A group risk data aggregation and risk reporting framework should exist and be approved by the
board and senior management. It should be documented and be independently reviewed
using adequate expertise. Reviews should be submitted to the board and senior management
and adequate resources should be devoted to address material gaps

Principle 1
Governance

• The framework should cover:
• SLA for risk data related processes
• Policies on risk data confidentiality, integrity and availability
• Processes for handling material impacts of strategic initiatives on the framework (new
product or activity, M&A)
• The board should define his reporting needs and be aware of current limitations of reporting
provided

Principle 2
Data
Architecture

• A bank should reinforce integrated data architecture across the banking group, which includes
information on the characteristics of the data (metadata), as well as use of single identifiers
and/or unified naming conventions for data including legal entities, counterparties, customers and
accounts
• Key data for decision making should be allocated a business owner to responsible for ensuring
data quality and a dedicated sign off process should be implemented
• Risk data aggregation and risk reporting should be explicitly accounted for in the BCP

Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

15

BCBS239 : II. Risk data aggregation capabilities
Principle

Principle 3
Accuracy
and Integrity

Principle 4

Completenes

Principle 5
Timeliness

Principle 6

Adaptability

Main requirements
• Risk data should be reconciled with bank’s sources, including accounting data where appropriate. Controls
surrounding risk data should be as robust as those applicable to accounting data
• A bank should strive towards a single authoritative source for risk data per each type of risk
• A Group “dictionary of concepts” should establish a clear definition of concepts used for critical reporting. Any
significant implementation shortcuts should be documented and mitigation actions be planned and prioritized based on
the materiality of the shortcut
• Manual processes should be carefully documented and additional controls be implemented to prevent operational
risk. Mitigation actions should be planned based on risk level and materiality
• Policies should define and document
- Classification and segmentation axis used for reporting to board and senior management (business line,
legal entity, asset type, industry, region, etc.)
- Approaches used to aggregate exposures for each risk measure
• Tolerance levels of materiality should be explicitly defined and validated. Risk reporting completeness when
measured against agreed threshold should be systematically controlled and any significant gaps notified and
resolution of which are the object of dedicated action plans
• Based on reporting frequency requirements set forth in Principle 10 – Frequency, should establish requirements for
risk data reporting production timeframe in times of crisis
• Timing should be adapted to the materiality of the risk to the bank risk profile and to the risk volatility (liquidity
buffer, counterparty risk on institutions vs. credit risk on retail clients )
• The bank should be able to generate aggregate and up-to-date risk data in a timely manner while meeting principles
relating to accuracy and integrity, completeness and adaptability
• Risk aggregation tools should be supported by sound data models that accurately reflect the economics behind the
different types of risks thus enabling to address both current risk reporting needs as well as potential future needs
• The complexity of the data model should remain reasonable to keep the data model robust and user friendly
• For each type of risk, the bank should define the axis it wants the data to be broken down by (i.e. by country, by
industry, by maturity, by contract, etc.) so that it can address evolving needs
• Reporting tools need to enable end users to query and manipulate data easily
• Data should be properly modeled so that to ensure ability to incorporate changes in the regulatory framework

Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

16

BCBS239 : III. Risk reporting practices
Principle

Principle 7
Accuracy

Principle 8
Comprehensive
ness

Main requirements
Requirements and processes to reconcile reports to risk data should be defined. It includes:
• Reasonableness checks (automated and manual), including an inventory of the validation rules applied to quantitative
information
• Identification of data errors and weaknesses in data integrity and documentation/ explanation in exceptions reports
• For both regular and stress/crisis reporting the bank has to define its accuracy and precision requirements with prioritizing
position and exposure information on which critical decisions are based
Bank’s reporting should be adapted to bank’s risk profile. They have to:
• Suite bank’s business model and risk profile
• Include exposure and position information for all significant risk areas and all significant components of those risk areas
• Identify emerging risk concentrations, provide information in the context of limits and risk appetite/tolerance and propose
recommendations for action where appropriate
• Provide the ability to monitor emerging trends through forward-looking forecasts and stress test
• Include the status of measures agreed by the board or senior management to reduce risk or deal with specific risk situations



Principle 9
Clarity and
usefulness






Principle 10



Frequency



Principle 11



Reporting policies and procedures recognize the different needs for information of the board, senior management and
other levels of the organization
Reports have to be meaningful and tailored to the needs of the recipients, with an appropriate balance between risk
data, analysis and interpretation, qualitative interpretation, recommended conclusions:
The bank’s board has determined its own risk reporting requirements that allows it to fulfill its governance mandate to
the bank and the risks to which it is exposed. When information it receives is not adapted it provides feedback to senior
management
Senior management determines its risk reporting that allows it to fulfill its management mandate relative to the bank and the
risks to which it is exposed
Globally, the bank confirms periodically with all recipients that reports are appropriate for governance and decisionmaking process

Bank should assess periodically the purpose of each report and should set requirements for how quickly the reports
need to be produced in both normal and stress/crisis situation
Bank should routinely test its ability to produce accurate reports within established timeframes, particularly in stress/crisis
situation
In times of stress/crisis all relevant and critical credit, market and liquidity position/exposure reports has been available
within a very short period of time allowing management to react effectively to evolving risks
The list of reports that should be distributed to relevant parties at the frequencies established for each report is detailed

Copyright © 2014 Accenture
All rights reserved.
• Distribution
of those reports meet required confidentiality level

Distribution

17

Impact on the data architecture of banks
Very High

High

Medium

Low

Principles
1. Governance
2. IT infrastructure
3. Accuracy & integrity
4. Completeness
5. Timeliness
6. Adaptability
7. Accuracy
8. Comprehensiveness
9. Clarity & Usefulness
10. Frequency
11. Distribution

Conclusion (1/2)
• Since the 2009 crisis, european banks are facing regulatory burden

• New regulation are still coming (Asset Encumbrance within COREP, Additional Monitoring
Metrucs within LIQUIDITY, etc.)
• Therefore, banks need to prioritize regulation to comply with and projects to launch
in the coming years

Source : BCG
Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

19

Conclusion (2/2)
“To the victors,
The handful of huge global banks seem likely to increase their dominance even further. Even so, the
handful of global banks that already bestride capital markets seem likely to increase their dominance even
further. Kian Abouhossein, an analyst at JPMorgan, forecasts that in 2014 the six largest investment banks
(currently JPMorgan, Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, Barclays, Citi and Deutsche Bank) between them
will control nearly half the industry’s total revenue, whereas the ten smallest will have just 10% of the
market between them. And even the list of industry giants is not immutable. At the moment it contains two
pure investment banks, Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley. But Morgan Stanley’s share of key markets
has slipped in recent years and it pays more than its rivals for its funds. It may well be ousted from its
position by a rising universal bank, HSBC, which has quietly doubled the size of its investment bank in
recent years.
Banks such as Morgan Stanley and Europe’s contenders, UBS, Credit Suisse and France’s BNP Paribas
and Société Générale, will not disappear, nor will they retreat entirely to their home turf. By concentrating
on narrower markets and serving mainly domestic clients they should still be able to earn decent enough
returns. Yet their aspirations to become big global investment banks have moved out of reach.
As for the global titans, they will come under ever greater pressure to cut costs—and will respond by
expanding even more to gain economies of scale and scope. Paradoxically, stricter regulation intended to
tame banks that were thought too big to fail is leading to the creation of even bigger and more systemically
important institutions”
Extract from the Economist, Special reports on International Finance May 2013
Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

20

2
Definition of project and project
management

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21

Some questions to start
• How many of you have been involved in a project ? A regulatory project ?
• Anyone serve as a project manager during a previous internship?

• What are the main components of a project ?
• How to make a project successful ?

Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

22

Definition of a project

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23

Definition of a project

Source : AFNOR

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24

Examples of projects
• Ancient projects

– The Egyptian pyramids
– The Parthenon
– The Maya temples
– The great wall of China
• Projects of today
– Organizing a FIFA WC in Qatar during Summer
– Planning a wedding
– Launch a new product
– Opening a new store
– Designing a new plane
– Introducing a new product to the market
– Implementing a new information system
– Complying with Basel III on liquidity aspects
– Performing major maintenance or repair
– Producing and directing a movie

Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

25

What is a project ?









A definitive deliverable (objective and goal)
Takes time
Consumes resources
Definite starting and stopping dates
Is broken up into tasks (activities, steps)
Consists of processes
Proceeds through milestones
Based on personal integrity and trust

• AND has a CUSTOMER !
• It has a well-defined objective stated in terms of scope, schedule, and costs.
• Project s are “born” when a need is identified by the customer – the people or
organization willing to provide funds to have the need satisfied.
• It is the people (project manager and project team), not the procedures and techniques,
that are critical to accomplishing the project objective.
• Procedures and techniques are merely tools to help the people do their jobs.

Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

26

What is project management ?
• “The initiation, planning, execution, control and termination of projects in a formal,
directed and intelligent fashion” (Project Management Institute)
• Law of project management :
« No major project is ever installed on time, within budget, or with the same staff that
started it.”
• Holy grail :

TIME

COST

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SCOPE

27

Critical sucess factors
• Clarity of mission and objectives
• Sponsorship of top management
• Project scheduling and control
• Acceptation by the customer
• Motivation and commitment of the staff

• Communication

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28

Some statistics on project management

Source : Standish Group 2011

• Why ?

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29

Many project management approaches…
• PMI (Project Management Institute)

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30

Many project management approaches…
• PRINCE2 (PRojects IN Controlled Environments)

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31

Many project management approaches…
• Approach based on the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

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32

Roles : The Project Manager
• The Project Manager’s (PM) role is to ensure schedule management processes are
applied in order to support the project’s objectives. He is responsible for coordinating and
integrating activities across multiple, functional lines.
• Project manager responsibilities

– Marketing and continued contact / Client relation
– Personal preparation and team management
– Manpower planning and assembly of the project team
– Managing the project

– Quality management
– Project status reporting
– Billing and collection

• Need hard skills
– Budget, planning, control, risks…
• Need soft skills
– Dealing with people  Communicator, leader, negociator, mediator
Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

33

Roles : The Project Management Office (PMO)

Source : Gartner

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34

Roles : The Project Management Office (PMO)
Principles, Beliefs, Expectations, Vision,
Mission, Goals, Objectives, Action Plans
Critical Success Factors, Strategies,
Continuous Improvement of Projects,
Investments, Incentives,
Communication, Policies, Attitudes, Practices
Work Product, Quality, Time,
Productivity, Cost, Impact,
Defects, ROI, Value,
Satisfaction

Methods, Specifications, Outputs,
Procedures, Techniques, Standards,
Guidelines, Controls,

Culture
Measurement

Methodology

Skills

Technology

Project
Management
Office

Experience, Method Training,
Technical Training, Management
Education, On-the-Job Training,
Learning Curves

Organization

Tools, Tool Classes, Platforms,
Standards, Protocols, Architectures,
Physical Environment

Roles,
Jobs and Responsibilities,
Formal and Informal Structures,
Resources and Resource Allocations,
Support Staff Services,
Relationships
Copyright © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved.

35

See in Chap5

Stakeholders

Example with a Bank
operating model

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36

3
The five phases
of a project

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37

The five phases of a project

DEFINITION

PLANNING

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EXECUTION

CONTROL

CLOSING

38

Should have be…

DEFINITION

PLANNING

EXECUTION

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CONTROL

CLOSING

39

1. Definition : Why is it so important ?

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40

1. Definition

1

Key Questions





Is this the right project?
What results should it achieve?
How will success be measured ?



Define the project objectives, the
project specifications and
requirements and the organization
of the whole project
Understand stakeholder interests
and expectations
Establish a shared high-level
understanding of the proposed
project and its intended results



2
3

Key activities





Key Deliverables

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Business Case
Project results
Project organisation

41

1. Definition : Project Definition Document
• Business case (WHY?)
– Link with goals (operational plan)

– Cost/benefits

WHAT
Content
Led

• Project result (WHAT?)

– The table-test
Issue

WHY
Based
• Project organisation (WHO?)

Digitall
WHO
y
Enable
d

– Roles and responsabilities
– Stakeholders

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42

1. Definition : Business Case
• Business Case or Project Overview Statement (POS) or « Cadrage »

Issue

WHY
Based

Defines the scope and the business rationale of the project. It is intended to
communicate to all project personnel and stakeholders exactly what will be
implemented and why. Not just why it is needed, but why it needs to be implemented
in this way.

Problem /
Opportunity

Project objectives

Success criterias

Assumptions /
Risks /
Obstacles

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43

1. Definition : Project result
• When the project is ‘good enough’?

– Depends on the goal

WHAT
Content
Led

– Depends on the expectation of the client
• Be SMART!
– Specific
– Measurable
– Achievable
– Relevant
– Time

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44

1. Definition : Project organisation
• Roles within the organisation

– Steering committee

Digitall
WHO
y
Enable
d

– Sponsors
– Line management
– Project leader
– Project team members
– Etc.
• Responsabiilities have to analysed for each people within the project

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45

1. Definition : Project organisation
• Steering committee

– Responsible for the acceptation of the project

Digitall
WHO
y
Enable
d

– Commitment determines the success of the project

• Sponsor
– Fan of the project, active support
– Politicial and financial support
– High hierarchical position

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46

1. Definition : Project organisation
• Project team members

– Execute day-by-day work

Digitall
WHO
y
Enable
d

– Their performance determines the success of the project

• Project manager
– Manages the project
– Enter into contact with supplies, clients and project team members

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47

1. Definition : Project organisation

Digitall
WHO
y
Enable
d

• Pure project organization

CEO

Marketing

Production

Finance

+
Broad range of specialists
Very responsive and flexible
No priority conflict
No resource conflict

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HR

R&D

Project

Limited technological depth
Little transfer of know-how
Duplication of resources

48

1. Definition : Project organisation

Digitall
WHO
y
Enable
d

• Functional project organization

CEO

Marketing

Production

Finance

HR

R&D

Project

+
Technological depth
Transfer of know-how
No duplication of resources

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Rarely a high-priority item
Slow communication
Slow problem solving

49

1. Definition : Project organisation

Digitall
WHO
y
Enable
d

• Matrix project organization

CEO

Marketing

Production

Finance

HR

R&D

1

3

1

2

0,5

Project
+
Flexibility
Functional expertise available
Transfer of know-how
Efficient use of resources

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Split authority
Dual reporting
Problem of balancing power between
project and line manager

50


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