11 .pdf



Nom original: 11.pdf

Ce document au format PDF 1.4 a été généré par / itext-paulo (lowagie.com)[JDK1.1] - build 132, et a été envoyé sur fichier-pdf.fr le 26/11/2017 à 14:22, depuis l'adresse IP 176.139.x.x. La présente page de téléchargement du fichier a été vue 256 fois.
Taille du document: 117.6 Mo (503 pages).
Confidentialité: fichier public


Aperçu du document


2.U/­

CONFIDENTIAL LIBRARY.
VOLUME XGIV.

C O N T E N T S .
CPs.

Nos.

351(50) to

dated 16.7.30

CP.
351

to

300(50)

10.9.50.

Subject.

Date.

Agricultural Policy - State Assistance for
A l l o t m e n t s f o r U n e m p l o y e d . - Memorandum
by Dr. C A d d i s o n ( M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e
and F i s h e r i e s ) .

16.

7.30.

B r i t i s h Relations with T e r r i t o r i e s in the
Middle East.
The General C o n t r o l
of:
R e p o r t "by a S u b - C o m m i t t e e o f t h e C o m m i t t e e
o f I m p e r i a l D e f e n c e on P o l i t i c a l C o n t r o l
i n Arabia. - Covering note by S e c r e t a r y ,
Cabinet.
'

17.

7.30.

A r m i s t i c e Day.
M e m o r a n d u m b y Mr.
C l y n e s (Home S e c r e t a r y ) .

17.

7.30.

17.

7.30.

Palestine.
The G a r r i s o n and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y
f o r c o n t r o l of t h e F o r c e s . - Note by
S e c r e t a r y , C a b i n e t , c o v e r i n g an e x t r a c t
from C I . D . / 2 4 9 t h m e e t i n g and a Report of a
Sub-Committee of t h e Committee of Imperial
Defence.

29.

7.30.

256

G a r r i s o n of
Treasury.

26.

7.30.

257

Iraq.
Treaty with:
Memorandum b y L o r d
P a s s f i e l d ( S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r the
Colonies), with enclosures.

18.

7.30.

258

Leon Trotsky.
Memorandum b y Mr.
(Home S e c r e t a r y ) .

18.

7.30.

259

New H e b r i d e s .
Future Administration
R e p o r t of C a b i n e t Committee.

17.

7.30.

252

253
254
255

260

261
262

Agricultural Policy.
Adamson ( S e c r e t a r y

of

J.R.

Memorandum b y Mr. \y.
State for Scotland).

trie S u d a n .

Report

by

Secretary,

J.R.Clynes
of

P a r l i a m e n t a r y Programme, 1 9 3 0 - 3 1 .
Memorandum
b y Mr. T h o m a s K e n n e d y
(Parliamentary
Secretary, Treasury).
Economic C o n s e q u e n c e s of
of Cabinet Committee.

Disarmament.

Rent R e s t r i c t i o n .
Memorandum b y Mr.
Greenwood ( M i n i s t e r of H e a l t h ) .

1 8

*

'*

3

0

,

Report
28.

7.30.

a2.

7.30.

A.

CP.
263

264

265
266

267

268

Subject.

Date.

Employment of E x - R e g u l a r S o l d i e r s , e t c . ,
u n d e r t h e O f f i c e o f W o r k s . ­ N o t e b y Mr.
P.Snowden (Chancellor of the Exchequer).

;d2.

7.30

Land V a l u a t i o n B i l l .
N o t e b y Mr. p . S n o w d e n
(Chancellor of t h e Exchequer)
covering
draft B i l l .

22.

7.30

I r o n and S t e e l C o n f e r e n c e .
Note by
Mr. J . R . M a c D o n a l d ( P r i m e M i n i s t e r ) .

21.

7.30

The I n d i a n C o n f e r e n c e .
Q u e s t i o n of the p a r ­
t i c i p a t i o n of t h e O p p o s i t i o n P a r t i e s .
Telegrams between s e c r e t a r y of s t a t e for
I n d i a and t h e V i c e r o y .

a2.

7.30

P r o d u c t i o n of O i l from Coal.
Memorandum
by Lord Thomson, P r e s i d e n t of t h e O i l
Board ( S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r A i r ) .

22.

7.30

F o r e i g n War M e m o r i a l s .
Ceremonies in
connection with:
Memorandum b y Mr.
Henderson (Foreign S e c r e t a r y ) .

269

The K i n g ' s S p e e c h on P r o r o g a t i o n
Parliament, August 1 s t , 1930.

270

271

7.30

S t a t e of Trade.
R e p o r t s by Members o f Board
of T r a d e A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l . ­ C o v e r i n g
memorandum b y M r . W.Graham ( P r e s i d e n t ,
Board of T r a d e ) .
'

25.

7.30

Palestine:
McMahon C o r r e s p o n d e n c e .
Memorandum b y L o r d P a s s f i e l d ( S e c r e t a r y
S t a t e for the C o l o n i e s ) .

25.

7.30

273

B e n g a l C r i m i n a l Law A m e n d m e n t O r d i n a n c e .
Memorandum b y Mr. W. B e n n ( S e c r e t a r y o f
State for India).

276

277

278

7.30
31.

Wheat Q u o t a .

275

-22.

of

272

274

A.

Report

of

Cabinet

of

Committee.

7.30

­
28.

7.30

25.

7.30

29.

7.30

P o l i t i c a l control in Arabia.
Methods of
s i m p l i f y i n g a n d s p e e d i n g up e x i s t i n g
machinery for:
Comments on R e p o r t of
Committee on:
Memorandum b y Mr. W. B e n n
( S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r I n d i a ) .

28.

7.30

London p a s s e n g e r T r a f f i c .
Co-ordination
Memorandum b y Mr. H. M o r r i s o n ( M i n i s t e r
Transport).

28.

7.30

29.

7.30

India.
The P o l i t i c a l S i t u a t i o n i n t h e f o u r t h
week of J u l y , 1 9 3 0 .
­
Memorandum b y
Mr. W . B e n n ( s e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r I n d i a ) .
M a t e r n i t y and S p e c i a l i s t S e r v i c e s .
Incidence
of mortality in maternity cases in Scotland.
Memor-andxam b y M r . W . A d a m s o n ( S e c r e t a r y o f
State for Scotland).

­

of:
of

Palestine.
Comments of H i s M a j e s t y ' s
Government on Report of Permanent Mandates
Commission.
­
Memorandum b y L o r d P a s s f i e l d
( S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s ) .

Sub

C P .

279

Model T r e a t y
preventing
Cabinet.
;

280

281

282

282A

283

284

285

286
287.

288
289

290

291

292

ject.

Date.

t o s t r e n g t h e n the means of
war.
Memorandum b y S e c r e t a r y ,
'

29.

7.30

Model T r e a t y to s t r e n g t h e n t h e means of
p r e v e n t i n g war.
N o t e b y Mr. A. H e n d e r s o n
( F o r e i g n S e c r e t a r y ) , c o v e r i n g a minute by
Lord C e c i l .

30.

7.30

Tibet.
Question of i n s t r u c t i o n s t o B r i t i s h
Envoy t o Lhasa r e g a r d i n g r e s u m p t i o n of
n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h China and f a c i l i t i e s
for
s u p p l y o f A r m s t o T i b e t . ­ Memorandum b y
Mr. V/. B e n n ( S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r I n d i a ) .

28.

7.30

Afghan Government's r e q u e s t f o r a s s i s t a n c e ,
f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of
internal order. ­
Memorandum b y Mr. W.
Benn ( S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r I n d i a ) .

28.

7.30

Agricultural policy.
Draft Statement ­
c i r c u l a t e d b y D r . C. A d d i s o n ( M i n i s t e r
A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s ) .

30.

7.30

Agricultural policy.
Revised draft
state­
men t ­ C o v e r i n g n o t e b y D r . C. A d d i s o n
( M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s ) .

31.

7.30

The P r o b l e m s of B r i t i s h I n d u s t r y .
Memoran­
dum b y M a j o r C . R . A t t l e e ( C h a n c e l l o r o f t h e
Duchy of L a n c a s t e r ) .

a9.

7.30

Tariffs.
Further n e g o t i a t i o n s as t o :
M e m o r a n d u m b y Mr. W. Graham ( P r e s i d e n t ,
Board of T r a d e ) .

31.

7.30

Tariff Truce.
R a t i f i c a t i o n of t h e :
Memorandum b y Mr. W. Graham ( p r e s i d e n t ,
Board of T r a d e ) .

30.

7.30

7.

8.30

Bulk purchase of Dominion Produce.
N o t e by
S e c r e t a r y , C a b i n e t , c o v e r i n g memoranda by
I n t e r - D e p a r t m e n t a l C o m m i t t e e on Economic
Questions.

6.

8.30

E x p o r t o f War M a t e r i a l s .
M e m o r a n d u m b y Mr.
W. G r a h a m ( p r e s i d e n t . B o a r d o f T r a d e ) .

7.

8.30

India.
The G e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l S i t u a t i o n .
M e m o r a n d u m b y Mr. W. B e n n ( S e c r e t a r y o f
for India) .

9.

8. 30

22.

8.30

a6.

8.30

^2.

8.30

Export Credits f o r Russia.
Mr. V/. Graham ( p r e s i d e n t ,

of

Memorandum b y
Board of Trade).

State

Imperial Conference, 1930.
Representation
t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m . ­ Memorandum b y L o r d
P a s s f i e l d ( S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for the
Colonies).
S t a t e of Trade.
Rbports on:
m e m o r a n d u m b y Mr. W. G r a h a m
of T r a d e ) .

of

Covering
( P r e s i d e n t , Board

Iraq.
Treaty Settlement with:
by Lord P a s s f i e l d ( S e c r e t a r y of
the Colonies).

Memorandum
State for

A
C. P .
293
294

295

296

297

298

^99

300

Subject.

pate.

Unemployment P o l i c y .
M e m o r a n d u m b y Mr.
V. H a r t s h o r n (Lord P r i v y S e a l ) .

18.

8.30

D i s p o s a l of S u r p l u s M u n i t i o n s t o F o r e i g n
Countries.
Memorandum b y Mr. T . S h a w
(Secretary of S t a t e for War).

28.

8.30

M i l i t a r y C o n t r i b u t i o n s by C o l o n i a l Govern­
ments.
Memorandum b y L o r d P a s s f i e l d
(Secretary of S t a t e for the C o l o n i e s ) .

28.

8.30

Census, 1931.
J o i n t m e m o r a n d u m b y Mr. W.
Adamson ( S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r S c o t l a n d )
a n d Mr. A. G r e e n w o o d ( M i n i s t e r o f H e a l t h ) .

3.

9.30

C o - o r d i n a t i o n of London P a s s e n g e r T r a n s p o r t .
Memorandum b y Mr. H. M o r r i s o n ( M i n i s t e r o f
Transport).

8.

9.30

Imperial C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 3 0 , Agenda.
Memorandum
b y Mr. J . H . T h o m a s ( S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r
Dominion A f f a i r s ) .

-.

9.30

Imperial Conference, 1930, Procedure.
dum b y Mr. J . H . T h o m a s ( S e c r e t a r y o f
f o r Dominion A f f a i r s ) .

-.

9.30

10.

9.30

Maternal Mortality.
Greenwood ( M i n i s t e r

Memoran­
State

Memorandum b y Mr.
of Health).

A.

( T H I S DOCUMENT I S THE PROPERTY CF H I S BRITANNIC MAJESTY S GOVERNMENT).
f

SECRET
3.P.251/50
CABINET.
AGRICULTURAL POLICY - STATE
'

'

"

"

A "

'"

"

1 1

' "'

" ""

'

'i

ASSISTANCE
'

1 , 1 , 1 , 1

-

FOR ALLQTI£ENTS FOR UNEMPLOYED.
Memorandum b y t h e M i n i s t e r

My c o l l e a g u e s
statement

given below

which has

not

probable

cost

yet
of

on A g r i c u l t u r a l
allotment
1.

will,

allotment

out

of

allotment

for

the

The

for

allotment

provision

districts

State

of

assistance

up any d e f i c i e n c y

due t o

w o r k e r may b e u n a b l e

to

the

estimate,

the

the

unemployed.

the

provision

of

Authorities.
of

CP.234
State

i.e.

plots

duty of

Authorities
gardens.

(30),

of

10

providing

at

I

that

pay an economic

the

poles

these

suggested,

present
In

I

towards

responsible

distressed

Yfould b e m a d e a v a i l a b l e

the fact

of

i n my m e m o r a n d u m

unemployed should,

Local

in

for

from t h e

gardens,

unemployed.

gardens

IV.

Fisheries.

Treasury,

contained

for

assistance

be undertaken by the
the

interested

- provided by Local
Appendix

and

a provisional

(C.P.234(30))

and a l l o t m e n t s

recommended f i n a n c i a l

the

be

b-oan d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e

I n paragraph 5 of

in area for

think,

setting

policy

gardens

provision

Agriculture

certain proposals

Allotment Gardens

the

I

of

to

unemployed

rent.

make

*

On t h e
allotments
that
the

is,

will

he

enough

of

supply,
acre

about

to be

land

with

paths,

Loan

Outgoings,

acres

under t h i s

of

scheme,

plots,

I

estimate

follows:-

fencing,

water)
)
a t £ 2 0 0 an )
)
)

etc.,

charges

repayment

1,000

15,000

as

inclusive.

Annual

that

provided

for

expenditure
Cost

assumption

£200,000.

including

(Interest

5%)

Management,

£10,500

voids,etc.,
say

£2,000
£12,500

Rent

at

say 8 / 2d.

Annual
1,000

Loss

is

it

£6,000
whole

acquired

be

and t h e

the

the

Exchequer

(about

a week)

two y e a r s ,
end o f

plot

when t h e

acres
If

per

£6,500

assumed t h a t
local

financial

the

programme

authorities
year,

the

claim

cost

to

would be

takes

after
the

1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
and o n ­

....

....£3,250
....£6,500

wards.
As r e g a r d s
tenants

to

purchase

t h i s may b e

credit
seeds,

estimated

£30,000

to be r e p a i d ,

rent.

It

sura m i g h t

is

to

prove

be

assistance
manures,

say,

expected

to be

and

at £2 per p l o t ,
in,

to

that

the

tools,

or

two y e a r s

with

one h a l f

irrecoverable,

owing

of
to

M l

the
this

removals,

lack of

contribution

to

means,

loss

would

The a d v a n c e s
£3,75fl

in

1934-35.
succeeding
would

b*:

. Allotments

-

would

provided

estimate
the

£157,050

case

the

Exchequer

£15,000.
fall

due

for

in 1933-34,
be r e p a i d

payment

and a s

as

to

to £3,750

by t h e Exohoquer

irrecoverable

by

1953-.34

.

.

1934-35

.

.

1935-36

.

.

amounts t o

in
be

in
the
provided

the

by

creation
in

area

for

purchased

that

Ihe

present

against

.

£3,750
£7,500

.

£3,750

Minister.
5

on land

during

the

In paragraph

an a c r e

1,500
I

Any l o s s

in which

­

suggested
half

£7,500

and

be

would

1932-33,

year,

etc.,

total
and

(v)

of

the
the
at

Appendix

Minister

of

unemployed.
£200

per

capital

the n e x t

which rents

II

allotments

and 500

(including

financial

in

$CP.234

On t h e

acre

cost

of

a normal

years,

(30)

I

averaging

basis

of

on l a n d

leased,

equipment)
would

year would

bo

amount

to

£3,750.
Loans
at

£10 per

wouM

for

working

man w o u l d

I anticipate

require

prove

to

capital
a
be

further

of.Agriculture

16th

July,

1930.

and

these

Fisheries,

unemployed

£ 2 0 , 0 0 ^ some

irrecoverable.

C .A.

Ministry

for

of

workers

which

( T H I S DOCUMdHT I S 'IHE PROPERTY OIF H I S BBITAwNIO MJUESTf

S GOVj.:HBM.3X4'J?)

1

S .H) 0 g
C.-P-

EJP.

252

COPY HO.

(20)

C A B I

....

GMI&3AL
-

COHTROL Of

E I.

B R I T I S H ' RELATIONS WITH
EAST 7 " '

? £SRlfoSlTS "IS x7iE"MTDDls

The
Committee

cf

accompanying
Imperial

recommendations

existing

machinery

simplified

and

considered

by t h e

on

July

2.

In

Report

Defence

" t o make

held

I

for

as

up'

to

1930

a Sub-Committee

was

set

up

the methods
control

of

Imperial

(CJ.1).

in

March

Arabia

Ho.

249th

1929

can

at

the

the

174-D)

Defence

Minutes

of

by w h i c h

in

(0.1.1). £a oar

7

Committee

14th,

that

political

speeded

by

be

was
a

meeting

Meeting,

Minute

3) .

pointed

out

questions
how t h i s

the

course

that

of

Part

policy,

question

of

II

the

of

and

the

that

should

be

discussion
Report

it

Prime

raised

for

dealt

the

the

Minister

very

controversial

Cabinet

to

decide

with.
y

3.
approve
the

The

generally

Report,

question
control
the

Committee

of
of

Middle

but

as

the

of

East

Defence

recdumondations

regards

transferring
our

Imperial

relations
should

be

Part

to

the

with

II

contained

"to

reserved

in

recommend

foreign

the

agreed

whole
for

to
Part

that

I
the

Office

the

of

territories

the

consideration

of

general

by

the

Cab i n f a t " ­
(3d.)

M.P.A.

Secretary
2,

to

HArlKiiY,
the

Cabinet.

Whitehall Gardens, S.W.1,
July 17th, 1930.

These rocommenuations are
s u b j e c t t o o o n f i miat1oa
.

in

draft

form

and

are

in

THIS DOCUMENT IS THE PROPERTY OF HIS BRITANNIC MAJESTY'8 GOVERNMENT.

Printed

for the Committee

of Imperial

Defence.

December

SECRET.

1929.

Copy No.

68

174-D.
(Also P.G. (Sub.)

18.)

COMMITTEE

OF

IMPERIAL

PERSIAN
(Previous

G.I.D. Papers

DEFENCE.

GULF.

Nos. 1 6 9 - D , 1 7 0 - D and

171-D.)

Report by a Sub-Committee on Political Control.

2, Whitehall
Gardens, S.W.
December 12, 1929.
(20290)

1,

9

COMPOSITION

AND TERMS OF

REFERENCE.

I N accordance w i t h t h e C o n c l u s i o n s t a k e n by t h e P e r s i a n G u l f S u b - C o m m i t t e e
on t h e 18th M a r c h , .1929 ( M i n u t e s P . G . , 9th M e e t i n g , Conclusion 1 ( / ) ) , a
S u b - C o m m i t t e e w a s set u p , composed a s follows :—

COMPOSITION.

Sir W a r r e n Fisher, G . C . B . , G . C . V . O . , Secretary to the Treasury

[Chairman).

L o r d M o n t e a g l e , C . M . G . , M . V . O . , Counsellor, F o r e i g n Office.
S i r J o h n S h u c k b u r g h , K . C . M . G . , C . B . , A s s i s t a n t U n d e r - S e c r e t a r y of State..
Colonial Office.
M r . L . D . W a k e l y , C . B . , A s s i s t a n t U n d e r - S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e , I n d i a Office.
M r . J . G. L a i t h w a i t e , P r i n c i p a l , I n d i a Office.
C a p t a i n R. M . B e l l a i r s , C . M . G . , D i r e c t o r of P l a n s D i v i s i o n , A d m i r a l t y .
*Colonel K . D . M u r r a y , D . S . O . , G e n e r a l Staff, W a r Office:
A i r Commodore C. L . N N e w a l l , C . B . , C . M . G . , C . B . E . , D e p u t y Chief of A i r
Staff, A i r M i n i s t r y .
M r . J . A . Webster, C.B., D . S . O . , P r i n c i p a l Assistant Secretary, A i r Ministry.
L i e u t e n a n t - C o l o n e l BE. L . I s m a y , D . S . O . , A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y , C o m m i t t e e
of I m p e r i a l Defence
(Secretary).
* Colonel M u r r a y succeeded Colonel G. H . R o g e r s , G e n e r a l Staff, W a r Office,
w i t h effect from t h e 1st A u g u s t , 1929.

T E R M S OF R E F E R E N C E .

' ' T o m a k e recommendations? a s to t h e m e t h o d s by w h i c h t h e e x i s t i n g m a c h i n e r y
for p o l i t i c a l control in A r a b i a c a n be simplified a n d speeded u p . "

REPORT.

FOREWORD.

W e u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e necessity for s i m p l i f y i n g a n d s p e e d i n g u p t h e e x i s t i n g
m a c h i n e r y for p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l i n A r a b i a h a s a r i s e n p r i m a r i l y o u t of t h e c h a n g e d
c o n d i t i o n s t h a t h a v e been b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e e x t e n d e d u s e of a i r p o w e r i n g e n e r a l ,
a n d t h e p r o j e c t e d a i r r o u t e a l o n g t h e A r a b i a n l i t t o r a l of t h e G u l f i n p a r t i c u l a r .
W e h a v e t h e r e f o r e e x a m i n e d t h e p r o b l e m w i t h s p e c i a l reference t o t h e s e n e w f a c t o r s .
2. O u r r e p o r t i s d i v i d e d i n t o t w o p a r t s . P a r t I deals w i t h p r o p o s i t i o n s w h i c h
q u i t e definitely lie w i t h i n t h e scope of o u r t e r m s of reference, a n d is s i g n e d b y t h e
whole S u b - C o m m i t t e e . P a r t I I d e a l s w i t h a p r o p o s i t i o n w h i c h , w h i l e o u t s i d e t h e
l i t e r a l scope of o u r t e r m s of r e f e r e n c e , c a n n o t be divorced from t h e i r s u b j e c t - m a t t e r ;
a n d a p o r t i o n of t h e S u b - C o m m i t t e e feel t h a t i t should be v e n t i l a t e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y
P a r t I I is s i g n e d only by t h e C h a i r m a n , a n d t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e A d m i r a l t y ,
W a r Office, a n d A i r M i n i s t r y .

PART
Existing

Political

I.

Arrangements

in the Persian

Gulf.

1. A t t h e o u t s e t of o u r i n q u i r y w e t h o u g h t i t e s s e n t i a l to o b t a i n a p r e c i s e
definition of t h e e x i s t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e v a r i o u s D e p a r t m e n t s concerned i n
P e r s i a n G u l f q u e s t i o n s . T h e n o t e on t h i s s u b j e c t w h i c h w a s p r e p a r e d a t our r e q u e s t ,
a n d h a s been a c c e p t e d by all concerned, i s a t t a c h e d a s a n A p p e n d i x t o t h i s R e p o r t .
The

Setting

Up of Standing

Co-ordinating

Committees.

2. T h i s n o t e shows h o w l a r g e is t h e n u m b e r of G o v e r n m e n t D e p a r t m e n t s w h i c h
have s o m e t i m e s to be consulted before a decision c a n be r e a c h e d over q u e s t i o n s t h a t
arise in the Gulf and adjacent territories. I n the past this consultation h a s taken
t h e form e i t h e r of I n t e r - D e p a r t m e n t a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , or of i n f o r m a l I n t e r D e p a r t m e n t a l conference.
B u t , to j u d g e from t h e i n s t a n c e s of d e l a y w h i c h a r e
q u o t e d in t h e A i r Staff M e m o r a n d u m on " t h e use of a i r p o w e r a s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e
recent o p e r a t i o n s i n A r a b i a " ( E n c l o s u r e t o P a p e r N o . P . G . 2) a n d o t h e r i n s t a n c e s
l a i d before t h e p r e s e n t C o m m i t t e e , n e i t h e r of t h e s e h a s p r o v e d a l t o g e t h e r
s a t i s f a c t o r y ; a n d it a p p e a r s t h a t i t m i g h t be of c o n s i d e r a b l e a d v a n t a g e , as r e d u c i n g
t h e chances of confusion or d e l a y , to m a k e some s y s t e m a t i c a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r
co-ordination.
3. W e t h e r e f o r e r e c o m m e n d t h a t t w o S t a n d i n g C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e s of
t h e C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l Defence, t h e one m i n i s t e r i a l a n d t h e o t h e r official, s h o u l d
be set u p to d e a l w i t h such M i d d l e E a s t q u e s t i o n s as concern t w o or m o r e
Departments.
4.

T h e c o m p o s i t i o n t h a t w e s u g g e s t for t h e m i n i s t e r i a l C o m m i t t e e is :—
The
The
The
The
The
The

5.

S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for F o r e i g n Affairs.
S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for t h e Colonies.
S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for W a r .
S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for I n d i a .
S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for A i r .
F i r s t L o r d of t h e A d m i r a l t y ; w i t h a S e c r e t a r y from t h e C o m m i t t e e of
I m p e r i a l Defence Secretariat.
T h e c o m p o s i t i o n t h a t w e s u g g e s t for t h e official C o m m i t t e e is a s follows : —

C h a i r m a n : T o be n o m i n a t e d by t h e C o l o n i a l Office.
M e m b e r s : R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e F o r e i g n Office, W a r Office, I n d i a Office, A i r
M i n i s t r y a n d A d m i r a l t y ; w i t h a S e c r e t a r y f r o m t h e C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l
Defence Secretariat.
[20290]

6. A s r e g a r d s p r o c e d u r e , w e t h i n k t h a t m e e t i n g s s h o u l d be s u m m o n e d only a s
a n d w h e n r e q u i r e d by o n e or o t h e r of t h e i n t e r e s t e d D e p a r t m e n t s , for t h e e x a m i n a ­
t i o n of a specific p r o b l e m (or problems), t h e i n i t i a t i v e i n e a c h case b e i n g t a k e n by
t h e i n t e r e s t e d D e p a r t m e n t c o m m u n i c a t i n g t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s to t h e S e c r e t a r y , w h o
w o u l d t h e n p l a c e h i m s e l f in c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e C h a i r m a n .
7. F u r t h e r , w e c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e m i n i s t e r i a l C o m m i t t e e n e e d not, g e n e r a l l y
s p e a k i n g , be t r o u b l e d t o assemble e x c e p t (i) to d e a l w i t h q u e s t i o n s u p o n w h i c h t h e
official C o m m i t t e e fail t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t ; or (ii) to r e c o n s i d e r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of
t h e official C o m m i t t e e , w h i c h a n y of t h e M i n i s t e r s concerned m a y find themselves
u n a b l e to a p p r o v e .
References

to London

by the Local

Authorities.

8. A n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h t h e e x i s t i n g m a c h i n e r y m i g h t be r e n d e r e d less
slow a n d cumbrous w o u l d be t o r e d u c e t h e n u m b e r of q u e s t i o n s w h i c h t h e A u t h o r i t i e s
on t h e spot a r e r e q u i r e d to r e f e r H o m e . T h i s m i g h t be done in t w o ways, w h i c h
m u t u a l l y r e a c t on e a c h o t h e r : first by g i v i n g local A u t h o r i t i e s t h e fullest
d i s c r e t i o n a r y p o w e r s t h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e s p e r m i t ; a n d , secondly, by a r r a n g i n g for t h e
closest co-operation between t h e m .
The Discretionary

Powers

of the Local

Authorities.

9. A s r e g a r d s t h e first, we a p p r e c i a t e t h a t , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , i t is
i m p r a c t i c a b l e to l a y d o w n h a r d - a n d - f a s t r u l e s , a n d t h a t e a c h case m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d
o n i t s m e r i t s . B u t t h e p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n of t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e a i r r o u t e a l o n g
t h e A r a b i a n l i t t o r a l of t h e G-ulf f a l l s i n r a t h e r a s p e c i a l c a t e g o r y ; a n d w e t h i n k t h a t
t h e local a u t h o r i t i e s responsible for t h i s p r o j e c t s h o u l d be given i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h
allow t h e m t h e g r e a t e s t l a t i t u d e . W e t h e r e f o r e s u g g e s t t h a t , if t h i s h a s n o t a l r e a d y
been done, t h e R e s i d e n t i n t h e P e r s i a n G u l f s h o u l d be g i v e n definite i n s t r u c t i o n s , i n
t h e l i g h t of t h e decision* t a k e n by t h e C a b i n e t w h e n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf S u b - C o m m i t t e e
R e p o r t w a s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h a t i t i s t h e policy of H i s M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t
t o establish a n a i r r o u t e a l o n g t h e A r a b i a n l i t t o r a l a s economically a n d a s
e x p e d i t i o u s l y as possible, a n d t h a t h e s h o u l d c o n t i n u e , i n d i r e c t c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h
t h e A i r Officer C o m m a n d i n g i n I r a q , t o t a k e s u c h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d e x e c u t i v e
a c t i o n locally as m a y be r e q u i r e d . H e m i g h t be t o l d t h a t h e should r e p o r t p r o g r e s s
p e r i o d i c a l l y to L o n d o n , b u t t h a t r e f e r e n c e s on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or e x e c u t i v e m a t t e r s ,
save w h e r e q u e s t i o n s of policy a r e concerned, s h o u l d be t h e exception.
The Centralisation

of Questions

affecting

the Arabian

Air

Route.

10. A n d t h e r e is a n o t h e r p o i n t w h i c h a r i s e s o u t of t h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n .
A l t h o u g h H i s M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t h a v e d e c i d e d t h a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a n a i r
r o u t e a l o n g t h e A r a b i a n l i t t o r a l is to be p r o s e c u t e d a s a m a t t e r of h i g h s t r a t e g i c a l
importance, the A i r Ministry are placed a t a disadvantage in carrying out this work
i n t h a t , on i t s p o l i t i c a l side, i t does n o t a s a whole concern a n y one D e p a r t m e n t i n
p a r t i c u l a r . U n d e r the e x i s t i n g policy of H i s M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t , t h e r e s p o n s i ­
bilities of t h e I n d i a Office a n d t h e G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a a r e confined t o t h e
m a i n t e n a n c e of m a r i t i m e peace i n t h e G u l f a n d to t h e coastal a r e a of t h e A r a b
littoral; and H i s Majesty's Government have not in the past contemplated any
e x t e n s i o n of these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t o t h e h i n t e r l a n d , w h i c h h a s n o w a s s u m e d
i m m e d i a t e i m p o r t a n c e i n view of t h e a l i g n m e n t of t h e a i r r o u t e . A n y q u e s t i o n of
t h e extension of B r i t i s h r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t o t h e h i n t e r l a n d m a y r a i s e l a r g e q u e s t i o n s
of policy, w h i c h w o u l d , of course, h a v e to be c o n s i d e r e d o n t h e i r m e r i t s . A g a i n , t h e
a i r r o u t e is of i n t e r e s t t o t h e C o l o n i a l Office only i n so f a r a s i t m i g h t r e a c t o n t h e i r
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n I r a q a n d P a l e s t i n e , a n d , i n r e s p e c t of t h e H a s a Section, on o u r
r e l a t i o n s w i t h I b n S a u d . I n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e A i r M i n i s t r y u r g e t h a t , so f a r
a s is possible, all q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e a i r r o u t e s h o u l d be d e a l t w i t h by t h e s a m e
D e p a r t m e n t i n L o n d o n . T h e business m e r i t s of s u c h a n a r r a n g e m e n t a r e incon­
t e s t a b l e . T h i s q u e s t i o n is f u r t h e r developed i n P a r t I I to t h i s R e p o r t , w h i c h ,
however, is s i g n e d only b y a p o r t i o n of t h e C o m m i t t e e .
* Cabinet 49 (28), Conclusion 1, circulated as C.I.D. Paper No. 170-D.

Co-operation

between

the Resident in the Persian
Commanding
in Iraq.

Gulf

and the Air

Officer

11. T u r n i n g n o w to t h e q u e s t i o n of closer c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e local
a u t h o r i t i e s in t h e P e r s i a n G u l f regions, w e h a v e been g i v e n to u n d e r s t a n d t h a t ,
g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , p r e s e n t a r r a n g e m e n t s m a y be r e g a r d e d as s a t i s f a c t o r y .
But
h e r e a g a i n , we t h i n k t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e
R e s i d e n t i n t h e P e r s i a n G u l f a n d t h e A i r Officer C o m m a n d i n g in I r a q i n r e s p e c t of
t h e use of A i r P o w e r in t h e G u l f a n d i t s v i c i n i t y m e r i t s s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n .
We
s u g g e s t t h a t t h e R e s i d e n t , P e r s i a n Gulf, should, s u b j e c t t o g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s t o be
a r r a n g e d i n L o n d o n , be e m p o w e r e d to a p p l y d i r e c t t o t h e A i r Officer C o m m a n d i n g
i n I r a q for a i r a s s i s t a n c e i n connection w i t h A r a b m a t t e r s i n t h e s a m e w a y a s he
now a p p l i e s to t h e S e n i o r N a v a l Officer, P e r s i a n Gulf, for n a v a l a s s i s t a n c e ; i t being,
of course, u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e d e s p a t c h of a i r c r a f t from I r a q , for e m p l o y m e n t i n
t h e Gulf, m u s t a t a l l t i m e s be c o n d i t i o n a l u p o n t h e s i t u a t i o n in I r a q .
12. F u r t h e r , w e t h i n k t h a t t h e R e s i d e n t , P e r s i a n Gulf, s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d
to m a k e use of such f a c i l i t i e s a s t h e A i r Officer C o m m a n d i n g i n I r a q can m a k e
a v a i l a b l e for h i s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n by a i r on h i s v i s i t s t o t h e A r a b i a n l i t t o r a l .
The Appointment

of Resident

in the Persian

Gulf.

13. H a v i n g r e g a r d t o t h e n e w f a c t o r s i n t h e G u l f s i t u a t i o n , a n d t o t h e
increased, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t h e A r a b coast t h a t falls t o t h e R e s i d e n t i n t h e P e r s i a n
G u l f a s a result, w e t h o u g h t i t r i g h t to e x a m i n e t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h a t a p p o i n t ­
m e n t i n some d e t a i l W e a p p r e c i a t e t h a t i t is n o t for u s to r e c o m m e n d a n y c h a n g e i n
e x i s t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s , b u t w e feel t h a t , h a v i n g r e g a r d t o r e c e n t p o l i t i c a l develop­
m e n t s on t h e P e r s i a n side, a n d t h e c o n t e m p l a t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a n a i r r o u t e on
t h e A r a b i a n side of t h e Gulf, w e would n o t be justified in o m i t t i n g t o p o i n t o u t t h a t ,
i n c e r t a i n respects, these a r r a n g e m e n t s d o not a p p e a r a l t o g e t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e or
adequate to present conditions.
14. U n d e r e x i s t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s t h e R e s i d e n t i n t h e P e r s i a n G u l f also
p e r f o r m s t h e d u t i e s of C o n s u l - G e n e r a l f o r S o u t h P e r s i a . W e a r e a w a r e t h a t t h e
P e r s i a n G u l f C o m m i t t e e h a v e themselves g i v e n serious c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e q u e s t i o n
of s e p a r a t i n g these a p p o i n t m e n t s , a n d of r e m o v i n g t h e R e s i d e n c y from B u s h i r e (in
P e r s i a ) o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h i s w o u l d be v e r y a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e P e r s i a n G o v e r n m e n t ,
a n d m i g h t serve a s a u s e f u l b a r g a i n i n g c o u n t e r i n t h e c u r r e n t n e g o t i a t i o n s a t T e h r a n .
B u t t h e r e a r e p r a c t i c a l a s w e l l a s d i p l o m a t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t ,
in t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e R e s i d e n t i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf, a s such,
r e n d e r i t d e s i r a b l e t h a t h e should be able t o devote h i s t i m e a n d a t t e n t i o n p r i m a r i l y
t o t h e A r a b l i t t o r a l . W e suggest, t h i s b e i n g so, t h a t , if c i r c u m s t a n c e s p e r m i t , he
should be l o c a t e d " o n h i s b e a t , " i n s t e a d of on t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e of t h e Gulf. W e
u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e w h o l e question, i n c l u d i n g t h a t of a site, is u n d e r a c t i v e
consideration.
15. A n d t h e r e a r e o t h e r f e a t u r e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e a p p o i n t m e n t of
Resident to which we desire to d r a w attention. A s things now stand, the appoint­
m e n t lies exclusively i n t h e h a n d s of t h e G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a ( t h o u g h w e u n d e r s t a n d
t h a t , in p r a c t i c e , t h e M i n i s t e r a t T e h r a n is c o n s u l t e d before a n a p p o i n t m e n t is m a d e ) ,
a n d is filled from t h e c a d r e of t h e I n d i a n P o l i t i c a l Service. A l t h o u g h i t is o n e of
t h e t e n o r eleven " f i r s t - c l a s s " a p p o i n t m e n t s i n t h a t Service, i t is, w e u n d e r s t a n d ,
p r o b a b l y t h e least p o p u l a r . I t s e m o l u m e n t s a r e f o u n d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a
a n d t h e F o r e i g n Office i n e q u a l shares.
16. T h e recent a s s e r t i o n of P e r s i a n a u t h o r i t y in t h e Gulf, t h e g r e a t i m p e r i a l
i n i p o r t a n c e of t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e of t h e a i r r o u t e a l o n g t h e A r a b
l i t t o r a l , a n d t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e p o l i t i c a l issues to w h i c h i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t m a y give
rise, m a k e it d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e post of R e s i d e n t i n t h e G u l f should be e n t r u s t e d
only t o t h e very best m e n a v a i l a b l e . I t is for c o n s i d e r a t i o n in these c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,
w h e t h e r t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o u g h t n o t to be m a d e m o r e a t t r a c t i v e from t h e p o i n t of
view of p r e s t i g e a n d r e m u n e r a t i o n . T h e q u e s t i o n s w h e t h e r t h e field of selection
should be e x t e n d e d beyond t h e p r e s e n t r e s t r i c t e d l i m i t s , a n d w h e t h e r t h e i m p e r i a l
G o v e r n m e n t should h a v e a g r e a t e r say in t h e a p p o i n t m e n t , a l s o m e r i t c o n s i d e r a t i o n .

SUMMARY OF

17.

RECOMMENDATIONS

T o sum u p , o u r u n a n i m o u s conclusions a r e t h e s e :—

(a.) T w o S t a n d i n g C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e s of t h e C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l
Defence, t h e one m i n i s t e r i a l a n d t h e o t h e r official, should be set u p t o
deal w i t h s u c h M i d d l e E a s t q u e s t i o n s as concern t w o or m o r e
D e p a r t m e n t s ( p a r a g r a p h 3).
(b.) T h e composition of t h e m i n i s t e r i a l S u b - C o m m i t t e e should be :—
T h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for F o r e i g n A f f a i r s .
T h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for t h e Colonies.
T h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for W a r .
T h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for I n d i a .
T h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for A i r .
T h e F i r s t L o r d of t h e A d m i r a l t y ; w i t h a S e c r e t a r y f r o m
C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l D e f e n c e S e c r e t a r i a t ( p a r a g r a p h 4).

the

(c.) T h e composition of t h e official S u b - C o m m i t t e e should be :—
C h a i r m a n : T o be n o m i n a t e d by t h e Colonial Office.
M e m b e r s : R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e F o r e i g n Office, W a r Office, I n d i a
Office, A i r M i n i s t r y a n d A d m i r a l t y ; w i t h a S e c r e t a r y f r o m t h e
C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l D e f e n c e S e c r e t a r i a t ( p a r a g r a p h 5).
(d.) M e e t i n g s of t h e above C o m m i t t e e s s h o u l d be s u m m o n e d only a s a n d w h e n
r e q u i r e d by one or o t h e r of t h e i n t e r e s t e d D e p a r t m e n t s for t h e e x a m i n a ­
t i o n of a specific p r o b l e m (or p r o b l e m s ) .
Further, the ministerial
C o m m i t t e e need not, g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , be t r o u b l e d t o assemble, e x c e p t —
(i) to deal w i t h q u e s t i o n s u p o n w h i c h t h e official C o m m i t t e e f a i l t o r e a c h
a g r e e m e n t ; or
(ii) to r e c o n s i d e r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of t h e official C o m m i t t e e w h i c h a n y
M i n i s t e r concerned finds himself u n a b l e t o a p p r o v e ( p a r a g r a p h s
6 a n d 7).
(e.) L o c a l A u t h o r i t i e s should be given t h e g r e a t e s t possible l a t i t u d e o n a l l
questions, p a r t i c u l a r l y those r e l a t i n g to t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d m a i n ­
t e n a n c e of t h e a i r r o u t e ( p a r a g r a p h s 9 a n d 10).
(/.) I t would be of g r e a t a d v a n t a g e t o t h e A i r M i n i s t r y if a l l q u e s t i o n s con­
c e r n i n g t h e a i r r o u t e w e r e d e a l t w i t h by t h e same D e p a r t m e n t i n L o n d o n
( p a r a g r a p h 10).
(g.) T h e r e should be t h e closest c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e R e s i d e n t i n t h e P e r s i a n
Gulf a n d t h e A i r Officer c o m m a n d i n g i n I r a q . T h e f o r m e r s h o u l d —
(i) be e m p o w e r e d to a p p l y d i r e c t t o t h e l a t t e r for a i r a s s i s t a n c e ; a n d
(ii) m a k e as m u c h use a s possible of such f a c i l i t i e s for h i s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
by a i r a s t h e A i r Officer c o m m a n d i n g in I r a q can m a k e a v a i l a b l e
( p a r a g r a p h s 11 a n d 12).
(h.) T h e R e s i d e n t , P e r s i a n Gulf, should, i n view of the g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e of
t h e A r a b l i t t o r a l , h a v e h i s h e a d q u a r t e r s , if possible, on t h e A r a b , a n d
n o t t h e P e r s i a n , side of t h e Gulf ( p a r a g r a p h 14).

(i.) C o n s i d e r a t i o n m i g h t , w i t h a d v a n t a g e , be g i v e n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s
i n r e g a r d t o t h e a p p o i n t m e n t of t h e R e s i d e n t i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf
( p a r a g r a p h s 15 a n d 16) : —
(i.) S h o u l d t h e a p p o i n t m e n t be m a d e m o r e a t t r a c t i v e f r o m the p o i n t o f
v i e w of p r e s t i g e a n d r e m u n e r a t i o n ?
(ii.) S h o u l d t h e field of selection be e x t e n d e d beyond i t s p r e s e n t r e s t r i c t e d
limits ?
(iii.) S h o u l d t h e I m p e r i a l
appointment ?

Government

(Signed)

(Signed)

H . L . ISMAY

(Secretary).

have

a greater

say i n t h e

N. F. W A R R E N F I S H E R .
MONTEAGLE.
J. E. SHUCKBURGH,
L. D . W A K E L Y .
J . G. L A I T H W A I T E .
ROGER M. BELLAIRS,
R.N.
Captain,
K. D . M U R R A Y ,
Colonel, General
Staff.
C. L . N E W A L L ,
Air
Commodore.
J. A. WEBSTER.

PART

II.

The Possibility
of Transferring
to the Foreign Office the General
Our Relations
with the Whole of the Territories
in the Middle

Control
East.

of

1. T h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s s u m m a r i s e d i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g p a r a g r a p h of P a r t 1
above will u n d o u b t e d l y t e n d t o simplify a n d speed u p t h e e x i s t i n g m a c h i n e r y for
political c o n t r o l i n A r a b i a , b u t those of the S u b - C o m m i t t e e who h a v e signed t h i s
Second P a r t of t h e R e p o r t feel s t r o n g l y t h a t o u r difficulties c a n n o t be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y
resolved save by a r a d i c a l c h a n g e i n the m a c h i n e r y itself. I n these c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,
we t h i n k t h a t we a r e justified in i n v i t i n g a t t e n t i o n to w h a t a p p e a r s to u s to be a
possible solution of t h e trouble, a n d of a s s e m b l i n g t h e a r g u m e n t s for a n d a g a i n s t i t s
adoption.
2 . I t will be g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t t h e most effective m e t h o d of o b v i a t i n g over­
l a p p i n g of functions, conflicts of d e p a r t m e n t a l o p i n i o n , a n d consequent delays in
r e a c h i n g decisions w o u l d be, if p r a c t i c a b l e , to e n t r u s t t h e g e n e r a l control of our
r e l a t i o n s , w h e t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or political, w i t h t h e whole of t h e t e r r i t o r i e s i n the
M i d d l e E a s t i n w h i c h we a r e i n t e r e s t e d , i.e., the S u d a n , E g y p t , P a l e s t i n e , T r a n s ­
j o r d a n i a , I r a q , A r a b i a (excluding, p e r h a p s , A d e n a n d such m a t t e r s of d e t a i l e d
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as a r e p r i m a r i l y t h e concern of t h e I n d i a n G o v e r n m e n t ) a n d P e r s i a ,
to a single d e p a r t m e n t of S t a t e .
I t w o u l d , in p a r t i c u l a r , be a n i m m e a s u r a b l e
a d v a n t a g e to t h e A i r M i n i s t r y , w h i c h i s , w i t h very small forces, responsible for
defence over a l a r g e p a r t of t h e M i d d l e E a s t ; a n d to t h e R o y a l A i r Force, to w h o m
for t h i s r e a s o n free c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s p h e r e is of v i t a l s t r a t e g i c
i m p o r t a n c e , to h a v e to deal w i t h one a u t h o r i t y a n d one only, b o t h on t h e spot a n d i n
London.
3 . I n a s m u c h as t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i n d e p e n d e n t K i n g d o m
of P e r s i a m u s t clearly r e m a i n u n d e r t h e F o r e i g n Office, as also m u s t those w i t h
E g y p t , N e j d a n d t h e H e d j a z , a n d , p r e s u m a b l y , t h e affairs of t h e S u d a n , t h e choice
of t h e D e p a r t m e n t to look a f t e r t h e block of c o u n t r i e s w e h a v e m e n t i o n e d is l i m i t e d
to t h e F o r e i g n Office; a n d t h e problem r e d u c e s itself to t h i s . I s i t p r a c t i c a b l e , o r
desirable, for t h e F o r e i g n Office to t a k e over t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e o t h e r c o u n t r i e s
r e f e r r e d t o in t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h ?
4 . I n t h i s connection we w e r e i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e r e w a s a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i v e r g e n c e
of o p i n i o n i n t h e C a b i n e t of 1920 a s to w h e t h e r t h e t e r r i t o r i e s i n q u e s t i o n s h o u l d be
the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e Colonial S e c r e t a r y o r t h e F o r e i g n S e c r e t a r y , a n d t h a t t h e
decision i n f a v o u r of t h e f o r m e r w a s by a m a j o r i t y ; a n d we, t h e r e f o r e , t h o u g h t i t
r i g h t to r e - e x a m i n e t h e p r o p o s i t i o n in t h e l i g h t of t h e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e p a s t e i g h t
y e a r s . O u r i n q u i r i e s have s h o w n t h a t a d i v e r g e n c e of o p i n i o n still e x i s t s ; a n d it
may be h e l p f u l if we assemble t h e p r i n c i p a l a r g u m e n t s on e a c h s i d e .
5 . T h e a r g u m e n t s t h a t h a v e been p u t f o r w a r d by those w h o a r e i n o p p o s i t i o n
to t h e p r o p o s a l m a y be s u m m a r i s e d as follows —
(a.) A d m i n i s t r a t i o n is n o t t h e business of t h e F o r e i g n Office, a n d i t s a t t e m p t s to
c o n d u c t i t in t h e p a s t have g e n e r a l l y been a t t e n d e d by f a i l u r e .
An
o v e r w h e l m i n g case should be e s t a b l i s h e d before t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a n y
f u r t h e r t e r r i t o r y s h o u l d be e n t r u s t e d to it.
(&.) T h e outlook, t r a i n i n g , a n d t e m p e r a m e n t of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d d i p l o m a t s a r e
essentially different. T h e F o r e i g n Office does n o t p r o d u c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ,
a n d w h e n i t r e q u i r e s t h e m , h a s to b o r r o w from o t h e r b r a n c h e s of G o v e r n ­
m e n t service. O n m o r e t h a n one occasion i n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e qualifications
of G o v e r n o r s t h u s r e c r u i t e d have been q u e s t i o n a b l e .
Yet, i n these
M a n d a t e d T e r r i t o r i e s , t h o u g h d i p l o m a t i c a b i l i t i e s m a y be of i m p o r t a n c e ,
t h e q u a l i t y of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s t h e c r i t e r i o n by w h i c h w o r l d o p i n i o n
will j u d g e t h e success or f a i l u r e of t h e M a n d a t o r y P o w e r .
(ci) T h e S u d a n is u n d e r F o r e i g n Office c o n t r o l solely because t h e C o n d o m i n i u m
w i t h E g y p t m a k e s it impossible to place the t e r r i t o r y u n d e r t h e control of
any other Department.
T h a t i t s h o u l d h a v e been a d m i n i s t e r e d w i t h some
success is due to p e c u l i a r a n d e x c e p t i o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . F i r s t l y , t h e
S u d a n is p r a c t i c a l l y isolated i n t h e m i d d l e of t h e c o n t i n e n t a n d removed
from e x t e r n a l influences a n d d i s t r a c t i o n s , so t h a t all p r o b l e m s of govern­
m e n t a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y simplified. Secondly, it h a s been possible to e n d o w

t h e c o u n t r y w i t h a n efficient staff of n u m e r o u s carefully selected E n g l i s h ­
men, a n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h o u g h good, is very e x p e n s i v e .
Finally,
a n d r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h i s , t h e a m o u n t of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l exercised
from L o n d o n is infinitesimally s m a l l .
6.

T h e a r g u m e n t s on t h e o t h e r s i d e m a y be s u m m a r i s e d a s follows :—

(a.) I n the case of both I r a q a n d T r a n s j o r d a n , o u r p o s i t i o n i s t h a t of a d v i s e r s
to t h e local G o v e r n m e n t s : w e a r e n o t d i r e c t l y a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e
t e r r i t o r i e s . I n r e g a r d t o P a l e s t i n e , w e a r e , i t is t r u e , d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e
for t h e g o v e r n m e n t of t h e c o u n t r y . T h e b u r d e n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w a s
heavy a t first, as w a s n a t u r a l i n a c o u n t r y w h i c h h a d j u s t e m e r g e d from
c o n d i t i o n s of w a r , a n d i n w h i c h a n e n t i r e l y new a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a c h i n e
h a d t o be set u p . I t s t i l l r e m a i n s h e a v y ; b u t i t m i g h t h a v e been r e l a x e d
i n course of t i m e , a s t h e n e w r e g i m e became m o r e s t a b i l i s e d , h a d i t n o t
been for t h e u n h a p p y events of A u g u s t l a s t .
These events have
u n d o u b t e d l y caused a s e r i o u s set-back, t h e p e r m a n e n t effects of w h i c h c a n
h a r d l y be g a u g e d a t p r e s e n t .
(6.) T h e special business of t h e Colonial Office is u n d o u b t e d l y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
B u t , i n t h e first p l a c e , t h e f u n c t i o n s of H i s M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t i n t h e
two o u t of the t h r e e c o u n t r i e s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n a r e , a s s t a t e d above,
a d v i s o r y r a t h e r t h a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . Secondly, t h e C o l o n i a l Office, if
t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s to be effective, should be p e r m i t t e d to a d m i n i s t e r
by t h e i r o w n m e t h o d s , a n d a l o n g t r i e d a n d proved l i n e s . T h i s t h e y a r e
f r e q u e n t l y p r e c l u d e d from d o i n g by i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g
out of the m a n d a t o r y s t a t u s of t h e c o u n t r i e s i n q u e s t i o n . A s a r e s u l t ,
t h e a d v a n t a g e s of Colonial Office control a r e to some e x t e n t n e u t r a l i s e d .
(c.) U n d e r p r e s e n t a r r a n g e m e n t s a s i t u a t i o n h a s g r o w n u p i n w h i c h different
D e p a r t m e n t s of S t a t e a r e a p t t o find themselves r a n g e d on t h e side of
r i v a l A r a b c h i e f t a i n s : t h e Colonial Office on t h e s i d e of t h e Sharifian
f a m i l y , K i n g F e i s a l a n d A m i r A b d u l l a h ; the F o r e i g n Office a n d I n d i a
Office on t h a t of I b n S a u d .
U n i f i c a t i o n of c o n t r o l w o u l d e n a b l e the.
D e p a r t m e n t d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r o b l e m to t a k e a m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e view
of t h e whole m a t t e r , a n d w o u l d t e n d to p r o m o t e a m o r e c o n s i s t e n t policy.
(d.) I t is u n d e r s t o o d t h a t I r a q is likely to be a d m i t t e d t o t h e L e a g u e of N a t i o n s
in 1932, i n w h i c h case t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for o u r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h a t
c o u n t r y w i l l p r e s u m a b l y h a v e , ostensibly, i n a n y case, t o be t r a n s f e r r e d
from t h e C o l o n i a l Office t o t h e F o r e i g n Office.
(e.) "With r e g a r d to t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t F o r e i g n Office a t t e m p t s a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
have been unsuccessful i n t h e p a s t , w e a s s u m e t h a t r e f e r e n c e i s to such
places as U g a n d a a n d o t h e r P r o t e c t o r a t e s . I n r e g a r d t o t h i s , w e t h i n k i t
f a i r t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e F o r e i g n Office h a d to d i s c h a r g e t h e difficult role
of d e a l i n g w i t h these a r e a s i n t h e p i o n e e r s t a g e ; a n d t h a t t h e i r successors
have a t l e a s t h a d t h e a d v a n t a g e of b u i l d i n g u p o n t h e f o u n d a t i o n s w h i c h
they h a d l a i d . M o r e o v e r , t h e selection of personnel for a d m i n i s t e r i n g
a n y s u c h a r e a s o n t h e spot is n o t i n t h e l e a s t confined t o officers of t h e
F o r e i g n Office or D i p l o m a t i c S e r v i c e ; t h e field of choice a l i k e for
G o v e r n o r s a n d t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t e s s h o u l d n o t be artificially l i m i t e d ,
t h o u g h t h e n a t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n w o u l d be t o find m e n of t h e r i g h t
e x p e r i e n c e l a r g e l y from t h e Overseas, Colonial, I n d i a n , a n d S u d a n e s e
Services.
(Signed)
N. F. W A R R E N F I S H E R .
R O G E R M. B E L L A I R S ,
. Captain,
R.N.
K. D. M U R R A Y ,
Colonel, General
Staff.
C. L. N E W A L L ,
Air
Commodore.
J . A. W E B S T E R .
(Signed)
H . L. ISMAY
(Secretary).
2, Whitehall
Gardens, S.W.
December 12, 1929.
[20290]

1,

APPENDIX.

" D E F A C T O " P O S I T I O N AS R E G A R D S P O L I T I C A L A R R A N G E M E N T S I N THE
PERSIAN GULF.

A L L t h e posts in t h e Gulf, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of one or t w o m i n o r consular
a p p o i n t m e n t s on t h e P e r s i a n side, a r e filled from t h e P o l i t i c a l D e p a r t m e n t of the
G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a . T h e c h a r g e s in connection w i t h t h e m a r e , on t h e A r a b side,
borne wholly by I n d i a , save in t h e case of K o w e i t , w h e r e e x p e n d i t u r e is halved w i t h
t h e H o m e G o v e r n m e n t . O n t h e P e r s i a n side they a r e s h a r e d between I n d i a a n d the
Home Government.
2. T h e chief a u t h o r i t y i n t h e G u l f is t h e P o l i t i c a l R e s i d e n t a n d C o n s u l - G e n e r a l
a t B u s h i r e . S u b o r d i n a t e t o t h i s officer on t h e A r a b s i d e a r e t h e P o l i t i c a l A g e n t s a t
K o w e i t a n d B a h r e i n , t h e R e s i d e n c y A g e n t a t S h a r g a h (who looks a f t e r t h e T r u c i a l
coast) a n d t h e P o l i t i c a l A g e n t a t M u s c a t — a l l E u r o p e a n officers of t h e I n d i a n
P o l i t i c a l D e p a r t m e n t , e x c e p t t h e R e s i d e n c y A g e n t , w h o is a n A r a b . T h e s e officers
t a k e t h e i r o r d e r s t h r o u g h t h e P o l i t i c a l R e s i d e n t , a n d correspond w i t h h i g h e r
a u t h o r i t y t h r o u g h h i m . T h e civil j u d i c i a l p o w e r s w h i c h t h e y exercise u n d e r v a r i o u s
O r d e r s in Council a r e also exercised by t h e m subject t o final a p p e a l t o t h e P o l i t i c a l
Resident.
3. On t h e P e r s i a n side, t h e R e s i d e n t h a s n o l o n g e r a n y f u n c t i o n s of i m p o r t a n c e
a s Resident.
H i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on t h i s side a r e chiefly consular, a n d a r e d i s c h a r g e d
by h i m in h i s c a p a c i t y a s C o n s u l - G e n e r a l . I n t h a t c a p a c i t y he h a s s u b o r d i n a t e t o
h i m consular officers a t B u s h i r e , B a n d a r A b b a s , a n d a C o n s u l a r A g e n t a t L i n g a h ,
w h i l e he is himself responsible, n o t t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a or t o t h e Colonial
Office, b u t t o t h e F o r e i g n Office t h r o u g h t h e M i n i s t e r a t T e h r a n .
4. T h e R e s i d e n t is n o t concerned d i r e c t l y w i t h Iraq, n o r o r d i n a r i l y , a s m a t t e r s
now s t a n d , w i t h I b n S a u d ; b u t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n r e g a r d t o K o w e i t i n e v i t a b l y
involve some c o n t a c t w i t h t h e B r i t i s h A u t h o r i t i e s in I r a q .
5. T o u n d e r s t a n d t h e position
of the Resident
vis-a-vis
outside
British
authorities,
it is necessary t o p r e m i s e t h a t t h e M a s t e r t o n - S m i t h C o m m i t t e e of 1921
recommended t h a t t h e Colonial Office should become t h e responsible B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t y
o n a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o policy i n A r a b a r e a s ( i n c l u d i n g t h e A r a b i a n l i t t o r a l of
t h e P e r s i a n G u l f ) : b u t t h a t " for a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d p u r e l y local p u r p o s e s t h e
control of t h e G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a over t h e A r a b i a n l i t t o r a l of t h e P e r s i a n Gulf
s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d , " w h i l e " t h e p r i o r c o n c u r r e n c e of t h e Colonial Office should
be o b t a i n e d by t h e m t o a n y m e a s u r e s of p o l i t i c a l significance."
T h e c h a n n e l of
control in all cases w a s to be t h e P o l i t i c a l R e s i d e n t i n t h e P e r s i a n Gulf, w h o w a s ,
a s h i t h e r t o , t o be f o u n d from t h e service of t h e G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a . T h e r e p o r t
of t h e M a s t e r t o n - S m i t h C o m m i t t e e w a s a c c e p t e d by H i s M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t
s u b j e c t to t w o provisos, one of w h i c h w a s t h a t t h e a p p r o v a l of t h e G o v e r n m e n t of
I n d i a should be obtained.
T h a t a p p r o v a l w a s n e v e r in fact given, b u t t h e
C o m m i t t e e ' s p r o p o s a l s in r e g a r d t o the P e r s i a n G u l f w e r e a d o p t e d , provisionally,
a s a w o r k i n g basis.
6. T h e M a s t e r t o n - S m i t h C o m m i t t e e d i d n o t define " p o l i c y " or a t t e m p t to
d r a w * a precise line between q u e s t i o n s of policy a n d " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d l o c a l "
m a t t e r s ; b u t some i n d i c a t i o n of t h e u n d e r l y i n g i n t e n t i o n w a s given by t h e following
p a s s a g e in. t h e i r r e p o r t : " O n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i t is t h e i n t e n t i o n of t h e C a b i n e t
t h a t t h e M i d d l e E a s t e r n , or r a t h e r t h e A r a b , problem should be t r e a t e d a s one o r g a n i c
whole, we consider t h a t t h e g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e should be t h a t t h e n e w D e p a r t m e n t
s h o u l d be responsible for d i r e c t i n g policy a s r e g a r d s t h e whole A r a b i a n p e n i n s u l a ,
subject to c e r t a i n qualifications . . . . r e g a r d i n g t h e K i n g d o m of t h e H e d j a z . "
I t is i n p r a c t i c e i n t h e a r e a i n q u e s t i o n e x c e e d i n g l y difficult t o d r a w a l i n e between
p u r e l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d local m a t t e r s a n d q u e s t i o n s of p o l i c y ; or t o d e c i d e a t w h a t
p o i n t one r a t h e r t h a n t h e o t h e r aspect b e g i n s t o p r e v a i l . " P o l i c y " h a s i n p r a c t i c e
n o r m a l l y been i n t e r p r e t e d a s covering m a j o r q u e s t i o n s of policy affecting A r a b i a n
affairs in g e n e r a l , a n d t h e policy of H i s M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t a s affecting I b n S a u d .
Q u e s t i o n s f a l l i n g u n d e r e i t h e r of those h e a d s h a v e r e m a i n e d t h e concern of, a n d h a v e
been dealt w i t h p r i m a r i l y by, t h e Colonial Office (in c o n s u l t a t i o n , as t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s

m i g h t m a k e it d e s i r a b l e , w i t h t h e F o r e i g n Office a n d / o r I n d i a Office); o t h e r q u e s t i o n s
have c o n t i n u e d , a s i n t h e p a s t , to be d e a l t w i t h by t h e G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a a n d t h e
I n d i a Office, a g a i n in c o n s u l t a t i o n , w h e r e necessary, w i t h t h e F o r e i g n Office a n d / o r
Colonial Office.
T h e C o l o n i a l Office in 1924 i n s t r u c t e d t h e P o l i t i c a l R e s i d e n t t h a t t h e y were n o t
" d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h t h e local a f f a i r s of K o w e i t , w h e t h e r p o l i t i c a l or
a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , nor, i n d e e d , w i t h those of a n y o t h e r A r a b i a n S t a t e s b o r d e r i n g u p o n
t h e P e r s i a n G u l f , e x c e p t in so f a r as these m a y r e a c t u p o n A r a b i a n politics i n
g e n e r a l , or u p o n H i s M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h I b n S a u d i n p a r t i c u l a r .
Consequently, i n all m a t t e r s w h i c h r e l a t e solely to t h e i n t e r n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d
politics of these a r e a s , a n d w h i c h a r e u n l i k e l y t o h a v e e x t e r n a l r e p e r c u s s i o n s , y o u
should r e g a r d t h e G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a a s t h e responsible a u t h o r i t y to whom y o u
should r e p o r t a n d f r o m w h o m you s h o u l d seek i n s t r u c t i o n s . U p o n such m a t t e r s I
should, however, be g l a d if you w o u l d k e e p me i n f o r m e d , i n o r d e r t h a t , should a n y
question w h i c h i n i t s i n i t i a l s t a g e s w a s one of p u r e l y local i n t e r e s t l a t e r become one
of e x t e r n a l i m p o r t a n c e a n d likely t o h a v e r e a c t i o n s u p o n t e r r i t o r i e s or p o l i t i c a l
r e l a t i o n s w h i c h a r e p r i m a r i l y t h e "concern of t h i s D e p a r t m e n t , I m a y n o t , w h e n t h e
m a t t e r is u l t i m a t e l y r e f e r r e d t o m e for i n s t r u c t i o n s , be i g n o r a n t of i t s e a r l i e r
d e v e l o p m e n t s . Y o u should also k e e p t h e G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a s i m i l a r l y i n f o r m e d of
a n y a c t i o n w h i c h you m a y t a k e u p o n m y i n s t r u c t i o n s i n r e g a r d to m a t t e r s d i r e c t l y or
i n d i r e c t l y affecting t e r r i t o r i e s u n d e r the c o n t r o l of t h e Colonial Office. T o d r a w a
h a r d a n d f a s t d i s t i n c t i o n between m a t t e r s of local a n d m a t t e r s of e x t e r n a l i n t e r e s t
would be e x t r e m e l y difficult, if n o t impossible, a n d I m u s t leave i t t o y o u r d i s c r e t i o n ,
as a n d w h e n cases a r i s e , to decide to w h o m you s h o u l d a p p l y for i n s t r u c t i o n s .
Doubtless m a n y b o r d e r l i n e cases w i l l a r i s e , i n v o l v i n g b o t h local a n d e x t e r n a l
i n t e r e s t s , a n d i n such cases you should r e f e r t h e f a c t s both t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t of
I n d i a a n d t o t h i s D e p a r t m e n t , w h e n t h e n e c e s s a r y a c t i o n to be t a k e n will be concerted
a n d i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l be issued to you a c c o r d i n g l y . " A t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e Colonial
Office e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e g r a n t of oil concessions i n t h e S t a t e s of t h e A r a b i a n l i t t o r a l
should n o t be r e g a r d e d as a m a t t e r of p u r e l y local i n t e r e s t , a n d t h a t on t h i s subject
t h e R e s i d e n t should look to t h e C o l o n i a l Office for i n s t r u c t i o n s .
7. I n p r a c t i c e m a t t e r s h a v e p r o c e e d e d on t h i s b a s i s u p to t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . I n
Muscat
n o q u e s t i o n of m a j o r A r a b i a n policy h a s a r i s e n , a n d no q u e s t i o n of
i m p o r t a n c e affecting r e l a t i o n s w i t h I b n S a u d . I n consequence, t h e G o v e r n m e n t of
I n d i a a n d t h e I n d i a Office, i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w h e r e necessary w i t h t h e F o r e i g n Office
a n d / o r t h e Colonial Office, h a v e r e t a i n e d i n t h i s S t a t e full c o n t r o l of g e n e r a l policy
as of i n t e r n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e y a n d H i s M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t a r e r e p r e s e n t e d
i n t h e S t a t e by a P o l i t i c a l A g e n t found f r o m t h e I n d i a n P o l i t i c a l D e p a r t m e n t a n d
u n d e r t h e o r d e r s of t h e P o l i t i c a l R e s i d e n t in t h e Gulf. T h e e x p e n s e s of t h i s officer
a n d t h e M u s c a t s u b s i d i e s of R s . 1,86,400 p e r a n n u m h a v e t h r o u g h o u t been borne by
India.
On t h e Trucial Coast t h e same i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e case. N o q u e s t i o n of m a j o r
policy h a s a r i s e n . C e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s affecting I b n S a u d ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e local
S h e i k h s a n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of h i s p e n e t r a t i o n i n t h i s a r e a h a v e been c o n s i d e r e d
between t h e G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a a n d t h e I n d i a Office a n d t h e Colonial Office. T h e
p o l i t i c s of t h i s a r e a h a v e , however, r e m a i n e d e s s e n t i a l l y " l o c a l , " a n d t h u s t h e
concern of t h e G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a a n d t h e I n d i a Office, a s h a s i t s i n t e r n a l
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . (Such expenses as t h e r e a r e a r e b o r n e by I n d i a , a n d t h e G o v e r n ­
m e n t of I n d i a a n d H i s M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by a n A r a b R e s i d e n c y
A g e n t , r e p o r t i n g d i r e c t l y to t h e P o l i t i c a l R e s i d e n t i n t h e P e r s i a n G u l f . )
T h e same i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e of Bahrein.
T h e C o l o n i a l Office a n d t h e F o r e i g n
Office h a v e , however, been closely a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s issued by t h e
G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a on behalf of H i s M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t , e.g., as r e g a r d s t h e
d e p o s i t i o n of S h e i k h I s a i n 1923. T h e v a r i o u s r e p l i e s m a d e to t h e P e r s i a n c l a i m s to
B a h r e i n h a v e been p r e p a r e d in close c o n s u l t a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e F o r e i g n Office a n d
I n d i a Office, t h e c o n c u r r e n c e of t h e C o l o n i a l Office b e i n g o b t a i n e d before t h e i r
despatch.
I n Koweit
t h e p o s i t i o n is different.
T h e close connection of K o w e i t w i t h
q u e s t i o n s a r i s i n g i n r e g a r d to I r a q a n d N e j d a n d t h e absence of p u r e l y local issues
of i m p o r t a n c e h a s r e s u l t e d i n policy in t h a t S t a t e b e i n g i n effect essentially t h e
concern of t h e C o l o n i a l Office a n d b e i n g d e a l t w i t h p r i m a r i l y by t h a t D e p a r t m e n t
since 1921. B u t t h r o u g h o u t t h a t p e r i o d t h e F o r e i g n Office a n d t h e I n d i a Office a n d
t h e G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a , as c i r c u m s t a n c e s m i g h t r e q u i r e , h a v e been k e p t in close
t o u c h w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t s a n d consulted. I t will be a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t in t h i s a r e a

p a r t i c u l a r l y border-line cases t e n d to a r i s e of t h e n a t u r e r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e C o l o n i a l
Office d e s p a t c h of 1924 q u o t e d in p a r a g r a p h 6 above. I n t e r n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n
K o w e i t h a s in t h e o r y r e m a i n e d t h e b u s i n e s s of t h e G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a . B u t n o
i n t e r n a l question h a s a r i s e n since 1 9 2 1 - 2 2 w h i c h h a s called for i m p o r t a n t a c t i o n
e i t h e r by t h e H o m e or t h e I n d i a n G o v e r n m e n t . I n t h i s S t a t e , I n d i a , however, h a s
c o n t i n u e d to share t h e e x p e n s e s of t h e P o l i t i c a l A g e n c y , a n d t h e P o l i t i c a l A g e n t h a s
c o n t i n u e d t o be b o r n e o n t h e c a d r e of t h e I n d i a n Service.
8. F r o m the above it w i l l be seen t h a t w h i l e u n d e r t h e t e r m s of t h e M a s t e r t o n S m i t h r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t h e R e s i d e n t w a s t o be responsible t o t h e Colonial Office for
all " m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o policy " a r i s i n g i n connection w i t h t h e A r a b l i t t o r a l , h e h a s
i n p r a c t i c e r e m a i n e d r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a , e x c e p t i n t h e case of
K o w e i t a n d on q u e s t i o n s affecting I b n S a u d or t h e development of oil resources.
S a v e i n respect of those m a t t e r s , t h e P o l i t i c a l R e s i d e n t h a s t a k e n h i s o r d e r s on
m a t t e r s affecting t h e S t a t e s of t h e A r a b l i t t o r a l from t h e Government
of India, or
from His Majesty's
Government
t h r o u g h t h e India Office.
T h e orders i n question
h a v e been f r a m e d , w h e r e necessary, a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e Colonial Office a n d
F o r e i g n Office, w h o h a v e in all cases been k e p t i n close t o u c h w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t s . I n
t h e case of K o w e i t (save a s r e g a r d s i n t e r n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) a n d of all m a t t e r s
affecting r e l a t i o n s w i t h I b n S a u d d e a l t w i t h t h r o u g h t h e P e r s i a n Gulf, t h e P o l i t i c a l
R e s i d e n t h a s t a k e n h i s o r d e r s wholly from t h e Colonial Office. T h o s e o r d e r s h a v e a s
a r u l e been issued u n d e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e I n d i a Office a n d F o r e i g n Office a s t h e
case m i g h t be. A s r e g a r d s c o n s u l a r m a t t e r s on t h e s o u t h P e r s i a n s h o r e , t h e P o l i t i c a l
R e s i d e n t h a s t a k e n h i s o r d e r s f r o m t h e Foreign
Office.
9. Some reference m a y p e r h a p s be t h o u g h t d e s i r a b l e t o t h e r e l a t i o n of t h e
P o l i t i c a l R e s i d e n t t o t h e S e n i o r N a v a l Officer of t h e P e r s i a n G u l f S q u a d r o n of t h e
N a v y . T h i s S q u a d r o n consists of t h r e e o r f o u r sloops. I t s c o a l i n g a n d refitting
e x p e n s e s a r e borne by I n d i a . I t is u n d e r t h e N a v a l C o m m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f , E a s t
I n d i e s , b u t t h e sloops, w h i c h a r e c o n t i n u a l l v c r u i s i n g i n o r a b o u t t h e P e r s i a n Gulf,
a r e for p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s a t t h e d i s p o s a l of t h e P o l i t i c a l R e s i d e n t (in
agreement
with the Senior Naval Officer), a n d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for i n v o k i n g t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e
or a s k i n g t h e S e n i o r N a v a l Officer to d e s p a t c h o n e of t h e m t o a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e i n
connection w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n r e s t s w i t h t h e P o l i t i c a l R e s i d e n t , w h o is
c l e a r l y i n t h e best p o s i t i o n to c o - o r d i n a t e a c t i o n i n t h e Gulf, since he is in t o u c h a t
once w i t h t h e P e r s i a n a n d t h e A r a b sides, a n d since c o m m u n i c a t i o n s f r o m t h e v a r i o u s
D e p a r t m e n t s of H i s M a j e s t y "s G o v e r n m e n t w h o a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e Gulf, a n d
f r o m t h e G o v e r n m e n t of I n d i a , pass t h r o u g h h i m t o t h e s u b o r d i n a t e offices u n d e r h i s
control on t h e A r a b or on t h e P e r s i a n sides.

o

his

document

is

the

property

of

His

Britannic

Majesty's

Government.

ST.
.253(30).
C A B I N E T .
ARMISTICE DAY.
Memorandum b y t h e

Before

separating

my c o l l e a g u e s
undertake
the

the duty

observance

on a Tuesday.
with general
that

would

of

celebration

of

year's
and

whether

Day,

I

should

they wish
the

arrangements

to

the

offer,
same

July,

1930.

glad

if

me a g a i n

to

this

subject
that

lines.

this

for

year

appeared

J.R.C.

17th

he

arrangements

which w i l l

I reconmend,

may w i s h
follow

Secretary.

Recess

co-ordinating

Armistice

approval

should

the

indicate

Last

my c o l l e a g u e s

for

Home

to

to

fall
meet

any

year's

views

AGRICULTURAL
^yoyaridinii cy t h e

If

the

agriculture

not

propose

previous

production of

to

my c o n v i c t i o n

saved

prosperous
re-cover

notos

and r e a d y

Secretary

could have

been a highly

POLICY,

the

State

for

the

British

agriculture

would

ground

it

but

I have

I

covereo.

ix.

do

reaffirm

industry

desirable

have

time,

would merely

agricultural

for. such h i g h l y

Scotland..

memoranda u p o n

Industry by t h i s

and p a p e r s ,
that

of

Is

changes

ripe

and

reforms

as
(a)

the

development

I-have

of

a promise

d o n o r , ' i/ir, - T . B .
the

purpose

ment

of

large

easy reach
propose
for

(b)

of

of'funds
iiiacaulay

tracts

of

of Edinburgh

also

making

experimental
Flanders

Small

holdings,

co-operation

farms/

from a
of

private

Canada

investigating

great

to

experimental

the

barren

for

improve­

land

and Glasgow.

immediate

within
I

arrangements

farm r e c l a m a t i o n

on

the

Moss; ­
with-every

encouragement

in

the

marketing

of

the

scrub

of

the

produce j
(c)

The e l i m i n a t i o n

(d)

The

establishment

of

bull;'

additional

owned and managed b y farmei-s

abattoirs

societies.

(e)

Encouragement
particularly
ab o r t i on,

of

research

in

work

contagious

t u b e r c u l o 3 is a n d b r ac ke n

elimination;;
(f)

Arrangements
tural

Credits

made

operative

existing
under
the
(g)

the

Import

a

great

all

power

a first

of

expanding

until

as

with
a

in

chance

of

it.
orderly

benefits

none but

opportunity

subject.

Under-Secretary
forty-five

give

those

food

Bill

of

our

by

part

emphasise

Marketing

of

with

Bill

is

necessity.

appear

to

be.much

engaged

in an

an o p p o r t u n i t y

once

of

presently
to

and of

give

­

need
industry
an

threatened

the

eliminating

producers,

State

delegates

to

does

sounding

Recently
of

indispensable

who a r e
at

proposed

industry
the

chaotic

a scramble

which

middlemen;

Our M a r k e t i n g

on t h e

not

deal

reforms

I would

that

marketing

among o u r home

an

urgent

We o u g h t

scramble

possible

and t h e

but

to

proved.

of; p e o p l e

all

to

for

organised

is

are

indeed

of

up

function

where

oats

these

numbers

livelihood

ruin

in

policy,

would

the

set

be

Kingdom.

and most

we c a n f i r s t

economic

the

my d i s p o s a l

and v i t a l
There

by enabling
Corporation
A3t

Agriculture

at

may

commodities

agricultural

the

Act

English/to

I n my o p i n i o n
of

Agricul­

Ecards p a r t i c u l a r l y

dumping

Minister

the

Scotland

Loan

United

with

the

whereby

for

for
the

that

and

Scottish

example,

Scotland
Executive

I have

agricultural

the

had

taken

opinion

Parliamentary

a meeting

Council

every

of

the

with
National

Farmers'
the

Union

meeting

bodied
There

in
were
(a)

in

the

our

Scotland.

general

Bill

no

approved

dissenters

to

oompulciion

on t h e

protection

for

-underselling,

(b)

possible
and

the

and

in

it

the
(c)

as

milk

the

for
I.

for

regard

which

with

experience,

in

in

wc

en­

and p o t a t o

but

set

encourages

Idea

farming

the

produeor

other

not
trades

agricul­

various

of

parts

contract

and

the

which he has
to

raise

security

of

of

of

the

moveable

would

by

discu.3S

Producers
t a t ions

to

the

between

or

upon

Pool

the

products;

and

Secretary

of

representative

interests

prices,

Boards

Board

the

committees

consumers'

as

contracted;

loans

appointment

State
of

pools

(This
It

products

power

the

the

itself

Act,

enf o r c i b i l i o y

with

(o)

grade

world);

the

(d)

of

accords

Scotland,

tural

from

low

organisatIon

the

light sned

In

majority

industry

co-operative

only

of

(im,

organisations

fundamental.

stand

since

principles

producing

etc,,

and make

Secretary

of
ei

acclamation".

minority

recognition

operating

the

we h a v e

etc, )

appropriate

as

conclusion

"by

the

the

co-operative

up by

the

principles

were

qualities^,

At

who
with

the

represen­
of

State

­

who,

under

has

power
not

Clause

the

Bill,

to revoke

an o r d e r

satisfied

that

he

is

be

continued.

interests

7 of

The

are

thus

it

if
should

consumers'
adequately

pro­

tec ted.
I
also

should

approved by the

Union,
tural

by the

chief

Committee

with the

embodied
in the
in

in

might

be

xnent t o

of

of

into

Agriculture

the
the

of

the

although upon t h i s
more

1 have

Bill,

point

1 firmly

in

our f a v o u r
in

a very

believe,
rural

that

July

Office,
17th,

1330,

the

Go-operation.

been

discussing

and I

(c)
is

am h a p p y
(a)

and

(d)

is
are

incorporated
the

drafting

any

effort

transform
districts,

difficult

the

be
encourage­

everywhere;

at

the

upon our
orderly
political

and would

political

Bill

would g i v e

effect

WlvL ADAMS ON'.

Scottish

Chairman of

perhaps

opinion

rallying

appreciate

in the

(e)

introduction

agricultural

an i m p o r t a n t

would,

Agricul­

definite.

Its

it

Servants'

upon them.
(b),

and

forthwith.

greatly

Farm

and F i s h e r i e s

s t r o n g l y urge

who w o u l d

the

Agricultural

Clause

are

Co-operative

I would most

would have

Scottish

an agreement

application

enlightened

opponents

of

main p o i n t s

strvicturc

a little

introduced

it

the

7,

the

now r e a c h e d

Scottish

Clause

Enquiry

are

Minister

s a y we h a v e

Secretary

main p r i n c i p l e s

and by Major S p r o t ,

of

These

theso

officials

Organisations

recont

to

add t h a t

indeed
own

Party,

marketing;
situation

place-our

position.

20

7

( TJais D o c u m e n t \ i s t h e . P r o p e r t y o f E i s
Ma .1 e s t y ' s G- ov e r n n - e n t . )

S E O R E
-Q.P.,TS55

T

-

(50)

Britannic

COPY No
.

0

A B I

N E T .

P A L E S T I N E­
r

THE GARRISON AND R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y

FOR

CONTROL OF THE F O R G E S .

N o t e by

I

the

am i n s t r u c t e d

circulate

an

extract

of

the Committee

subject

of

the

o^

-

a

(b)

asks

the

in regard

accommodation
"(a)

Palestine

the
the

of

the

to

Prime Minister
Minutes

Imperial
Garrison,

Sub-Committee

Prime Minister
conclusions

by

from

Meeting

Report

Secretary.

the

to

the

Defence

together

on t h a t

Cabinet

of

to
849th
on

with

subject.

the

The

approve the

strength,

the

following

transport

and

garrison:­

That t h e g a r r i s o n
include, for the
force equivalent
that the present
and armoured c a r s
Jordan should be

should continue to
present, an infantry
t o two b a t t a l i o n s ,
and
s t r e n g t h of
aircraft
i n P a l e s t i n e and T r a n s maintained.

T h a t t h e s t r e n g t h o^ t h e g a r r i s o n s h o u l d
b e r e v i e w e d a n n u a l l y by t h e C o m m i t t e e o f
I m p e r i a l D e f e n c e , and t h ? t , i n t h i s
con­
n e c t i o n , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of s u b s t i t u t i n g
the
a " o r o e o f B r i t i s h g e n d a r m e r i e for
i n f a n t r y b a t t a l i o n s might be
further
considered *
p

(c)

That t h e Departments concerned should
consider the recommendation for
station­
ing an R,AoS,C . u n i t , w i t h s u i t a b l e
transport, in Palestine to avoid the
p r e s e n t expensive system o
hiring,
and s h o u l d r e p o r t t o t h e C a b i n e t w h e t h e r ,
-rr

on f i n a n c i a l g r o u n d s ,
is
desirable.
(d)

recommendation

Defence

was

"(e)

as

concerned,

me t o
for

in

War h a s

(

o

f

this

as

the

Var

Office,

it

with

a result

the
u

Command,
Imperial

f

Command

again
is

at

has

since

the

Secretaries

invites

been

the

given below.

that

altered

for

than

of

Committee

Minister'

however,
not

-ohe q u e s t i o n
ous

question

the

resolutions

state,

the

of

subject

and

the

bility

the

That t h e Prime M i n i s t e r , t o g e t h e r with
t h e S e c r e t a r i e s o^ S t a t e for t h e
C o l o n i e s , War a n d Aim, s h o u l d
consider
f u r t h e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e Command i n
P a l e s t i n e and r e p o r t t h e r e s u l t of t h e i r
discussion to the Cabinet".

on t h e

approve

to

follows:­

The Prime
cation

suggestion

T h a t i f t h e recorair.endat.ion i n (a)
a b o v e i s a p p r o v e d by t h e C a b i n e t ,
the
q u e s t i o n of p r o v i d i n g s u i t a b l e , aeeom­
n o d - t i o n for the g a r r i s o n should be
t a k e n u p by t h e D e p a r t m e n t s
concerned."
In regard

the

the

the

his

in Palestine

and r e s e r v e s
when t h e
present

the

occasion

for

He

that

communi­

of

State

Cabinet

of

the

State

responsi­

should

be

right- to
is

to

instructs

Secretary

view

in

raise

more

introducing,

a

vested

propiti­
change

nature.
Subject

recommendation

to
to

the
the

above,
Cabinet

the
is

Prime
as

Minister's

follows:-

T h e H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r , whq i s a l s o
Commander-in-Chief,
is rssponsible both
f o r d e f e n c e a g a i n s t e x t e r n a l a t t a c k and
f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o^ law and o r d e r .
For defence a g a i n s t e x t e r n a l
attack
h i s pi-incipnl adviser is t h e Air
Officer
C o m m a n d i n g , who h a s a t h i s d i s p o s a l
all
t h e armed f c r o s s of t h e Crown i n P a l e s t i n e .
For t h e m a i n t enano e o
law and
h e i s d e p e n d e n t f o r a d v i c e on t h e
a u t h o r i t i e s , whose principal
force
the police.
If the police forces
i n a d e q u a t e they can be r e i r m o - e e d
t h e armed f o r c e s of t h e Crown.
f

order
civil
is
prove
by

W h i l e t h e A i r O f f i c e r Consnanding
r e m a i n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e employment
o f t h e f o r c e s u n d e r h i s Command,
whether for e x t e r n a l defence or for
s u p p o r t t o t h e c i v i l power i n t h e
m a i n t e n a n c e of law and o r d e r , i t
is
desirable that the Senior Military
Officer should be given formally the
r i g h t 0'- d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h e H i g h
C o m m i s s i o n e r on q u e s t i o n s o f i n t e r n a l
s e c u r i t y , on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g
that
a l l a r r a n g e m e n t s made as t h e r e s u l t
of s u c h a c c e s s s h o u l d b e s u b j e c t
to
t h e c o n c u r r e n c e of t h e A i r
Officer
Commanding,
0

F o r i n s p e c t i o n a n d a dm i n i s t r a t i v e
purposes, the m i l i t a r y units w i l l be
u n d e r t h e o r d e r s of t h e G e n e r a l O f f i c e r
Commanding B r i t i s h T r o o p s I n E g y p t , as
is the case with the B r i t i s h battalions
in t h e Sudan,
(Signed)

Whitehall
July

Gardens;

29,

19 3 0 .

S, ''V1,
:

M.P.A.HANKEY.

TH1.B DOCUMKKT IB TH3B E B O P E R T Y OF H I S B K T M M M C MJUSESTY'B GOVESM-MBBIT,

Printed

for the Committee

of Imperial

Defence.

July

1930.

SECRET.

Copy N o .

COMMITTEE

Extract

from

the Minutes

$fc'

^

OF

IMPERIAL

of the 249i/i Meeting,

^
(2.)—PALESTINE

DEFENCE.

held on the Uth

^

4fr

July,

1930.

*

GARRISON.

( C . I . D . P a p e r s Nos. 3 4 8 - C a n d 3 5 0 - C . ) *
( P r e v i o u s r e f e r e n c e : C . I . D . M i n u t e s of t h e 2 4 8 t h M e e t i n g , M i n u t e 8.)
T H E C O M M I T T E E h a d u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e R e p o r t of a S u b - C o m m i t t e e
( C . I . D . P a p e r N o . 3 4 8 - C ) , c o n t a i n i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s as t o t h e s t r e n g t h , corn­
p o s i t i o n , & c , of t h e f u t u r e g a r r i s o n i n P a l e s t i n e a n d t h e c o n t r o l of t h e D e f e n c e F o r c e
i n t h a t c o u n t r y ; a n d a l e t t e r from t h e C o l o n i a l Office ( C . I . D . P a p e r No. 3 5 0 - C ) , *
c o v e r i n g a n e x t r a c t f r o m a r e p o r t on t h e P a l e s t i n e P o l i c e F o r c e .
T H E P R I M E M I N I S T E R d r e w attention to the fact t h a t t h e R e p o r t ( C . I . D .
P a p e r N o . 3 4 8 - C ) w a s d i v i d e d i n t o t w o d i s t i n c t p a r t s . P a r a g r a p h s 1 t o 13 d e a l t
w i t h t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e g a r r i s o n , a n d p a r a g r a p h s 14 t o t h e e n d w i t h t h e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for c o n t r o l . H e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e C o m m i t t e e should s t a r t b y d e a l i n g
w i t h t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i n p a r a g r a p h 13 (a), (b), (c) a n d (d), a n d t h a t S i r J o h n
C h a n c e l l o r , t h e H i g h Commissioner, s h o u l d first give h i s v i e w s .
S I R J O H N C H A N C E L L O R s a i d h e s a w n o r e a s o n t o c h a n g e t h e view e x p r e s s e d
i n h i s d e s p a t c h of l a s t J a n u a r y , t h a t i t w a s n o t possible to h a v e less t h a n t w o I n f a n t r y
B a t t a l i o n s i n P a l e s t i n e . T h e p o s i t i o n a s b e t w e e n the J e w s a n d A r a b s h a d n o t since
i m p r o v e d . I n f a c t , i t w a s r a t h e r w o r s e , as t h e " f e l l a h i n " w e r e now convinced
t h a t t h e y h a d lost l a n d a n d e m p l o y m e n t o w i n g t o the a c t i v i t i e s of t h e J e w s .
This
v i e w w a s confirmed by S i r J o h n H o p e - S i m p s o n .
A b o u t t w o m o n t h s before l e a v i n g P a l e s t i n e h e h a d a r r a n g e d for t h e p r e p a r a t i o n
of a n e w L o c a l D e f e n c e scheme. T h i s w a s b a s e d o n t h e p r e s e n c e i n P a l e s t i n e of t w o
b a t t a l i o n s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a i r c r a f t , a r m o u r e d c a r s , a n d u n i t s of t h e T r a n s - J o r d a n
F r o n t i e r F o r c e . T h e L o c a l D e f e n c e C o m m i t t e e i n P a l e s t i n e w e r e convinced t h a t i t
w o u l d be u n s a f e t o r e d u c e t h e B r i t i s h t r o o p s by one m a n . T h e y h a d c o n s i d e r e d a
r e d u c t i o n of t h e g a r r i s o n , w h i c h w o u l d leave Jaffa w i t h o u t a n y t r o o p s , b u t h a d
u n a n i m o u s l y come to t h e conclusion t h a t i t w o u l d be u n s a f e , i n view of t h e c o n s t a n t
p o s s i b i l i t y of t r o u b l e between t h e J e w s a n d A r a b s of T e l - A v i r a n d Jaffa, t o keep t h e
t r o o p s even h a l f - a n - h o u r d i s t a n t f r o m those t o w n s .
T h e r e w a s a n o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , n a m e l y , t h e a n x i e t y
of t h e F r e n c h i n S y r i a . A l t h o u g h t h e a t t i t u d e of t h e F r e n c h H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r
h a d been v e r y h e l p f u l d u r i n g t h e d i s t u r b a n c e s l a s t year, he w a s i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e
F r e n c h G o v e r n m e n t w o u l d p r o t e s t if t h e p r e s e n t g a r r i s o n w e r e reduced. T h e y h a d
a l r e a d y e x p r e s s e d concern w h e n t h e r e d u c t i o n f r o m t h r e e t o t w o b a t t a l i o n s took p l a c e
l a s t October, b u t h e h a d r e a s s u r e d t h e m by t e l l i n g t h e m t h a t h e h a d a n i m m e d i a t e call
on t w o f u r t h e r b a t t a l i o n s f r o m E g y p t or M a l t a .
-

L O R D P A S S F I E L D observed t h a t t h e C o m m i t t e e s h o u l d not a s s u m e t h a t t h e r e
w o u l d be a l w a y s t w o full I n f a n t r y B a t t a l i o n s i n P a l e s t i n e .
The two u n i t s about
to be sent t h e r e w e r e between 300 a n d 400 u n d e r s t r e n g t h , a n d h e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t
t h e W a r Office w o u l d n o t be able t o b r i n g t h e m u p to fuil s t r e n g t h for some m o n t h s .
* N o t circulated to Cabinet.

[21389-3]

B

2
S I E G E O R G E M I L N E s a i d t h a t t h i s w a s o n e of t h o s e difficult a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
q u e s t i o n s w h i c h a r e l i a b l e to c r o p u p i n t h e A r m y , b u t he h o p e d to be able to m a k e
a r r a n g e m e n t s e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e t w o b a t t a l i o n s would r e m a i n u n d e r s t r e n g t h for t h e
s h o r t e s t possible t i m e .
L O R D P A S S F I E L D d r e w a t t e n t i o n to the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n i n p a r a g r a p h 13 (6)
of t h e R e p o r t t h a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of s u b s t i t u t i n g a force of B r i t i s h g e n d a r m e r i e for
t h e i n f a n t r y b a t t a l i o n s m i g h t be f u r t h e r considered. T h e Colonial Office w o u l d
n a t u r a l l y agree t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h i s suggestion i n d u e course, b u t h e w a r n e d
t h e C o m m i t t e e t h a t t h e r e could be n o possibility of a n y g e n d a r m e r i e r e p l a c i n g t h e
i n f a n t r y b a t t a l i o n s for some y e a r s . S I R J O H N C H A N C E L L O R r e m a r k e d t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n s of t r o o p s w e r e
e n t i r e l y different from those of police. T h e role of t h e l a t t e r w a s t o p r e v e n t
d i s t u r b a n c e s so f a r a s t h e y could, w h i l e t h e t r o o p s w e r e r e q u i r e d to s u p p r e s s
disturbances after they h a d arisen.
T H E P R I M E M I N I S T E R asked if t h e W a r Office r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s h a d a n y
r e m a r k s o n the s u g g e s t i o n i n p a r a g r a p h 13 (c) of the R e p o r t t h a t a n R . A . S . C . u n i t
should be p r o v i d e d .
S I R G E O R G E M I L N E s a i d t h a t t h e only difficulty was, t h e financial one, as t h e
t r a n s p o r t would cost money.
S I R J O H N C H A N C E L L O R p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a t p r e s e n t l o r r i e s h a d t o be h i r e a
by t h e m i l i t a r y a t c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e n s e .
S I R G E O R G E M I L N E a g r e e d t h a t i t w o u l d p r o b a b l y be c h e a p e r t o p r o v i d e
m i l i t a r y t r a n s p o r t t h a n to c o n t i n u e h i r i n g , b u t he w o u l d h a v e to go i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n
of w h a t t r a n s p o r t vehicles w o u l d a c t u a l l y be r e q u i r e d , a n d a s t o w h a t D e p a r t m e n t
w a s to b e a r t h e cost.
M R . S H A W e m p h a s i s e d t h a t t h e W a r Office w i s h e d t o a v o i d a n e x t r a c h a r g e
being m a d e on t h e A r m y e s t i m a t e s for t h i s t r a n s p o r t , a n d h e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e
Colonial Office w e r e e x a m i n i n g t h e q u e s t i o n of P a l e s t i n e b e a r i n g t h e e x t r a e x p e n s e
i n c u r r e d t h r o u g h m i l i t a r y u n i t s b e i n g located in P a l e s t i n e i n s t e a d of a t t h e i r n o r m a l
station.
L O R D P A S S F I E L D s a i d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n h a d n o t y e t been settled, b u t i t w a s
g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t so l o n g as P a l e s t i n e w a s i n a p o s i t i o n to d o so, i t should p a y
the e x t r a cost. H e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e cost of h i r e d t r a n s p o r t
was b e i n g i n c u r r e d by t h e m i l i t a r y , a n d t h e s u g g e s t i o n w a s t h a t a n R . A . S . C . u n i t
would be less expensive.
T H E P R I M E M I N I S T E R suggested t h a t t h e Committee should accept
r e c o m m e n d a t i o n 13 (c) on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t it w o u l d involve n o e x t r a cost t o
t h e E x c h e q u e r , a n d t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t s concerned s h o u l d go i n t o t h e question, a n d
r e p o r t t o the C a b i n e t if t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s showed t h i s w a s necessary.
H e t h e n t u r n e d t o t h e second p a r t of t h e R e p o r t d e a l i n g w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n of
control, p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e r e s p e c t i v e views of t h e W a r Office a n d A i r M i n i s t r y
w e r e g i v e n in p a r a g r a p h s 16 a n d 17, a n d t h a t t h e a r g u m e n t s a p p e a r e d t o be o n t h e
whole f a i r l y evenly b a l a n c e d .
L O R D T H O M S O N s a i d t h a t h i s view w a s t h a t i n P a l e s t i n e t h e r e w e r e t w o
d i s t i n c t f u n c t i o n s t o be c o n s i d e r e d . One w a s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y
i n P a l e s t i n e , a n d t h e o t h e r w a s t h e question of t h e e x t e r n a l defence of b o t h T r a n s J o r d a n and Palestine. I t was admitted that at the present time two battalions were
r e q u i r e d in P a l e s t i n e for i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y i n o r d e r t o r e i n f o r c e t h e i n a d e q u a t e
police. I t w a s , however, difficult t o describe t h e f u n c t i o n s of these b a t t a l i o n s as
m i l i t a r y , a n d h e noticed i n t h e D e f e n c e Scheme t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of
t h e i n f a n t r y d u r i n g t h e p r e c a u t i o n a r y stage, t h e r e w o u l d n e v e r be m o r e t h a n t w o
c o m p a n i e s in one place. T h e only r e a l m i l i t a r y d a n g e r t o P a l e s t i n e l a y in possible
i n c u r s i o n s by A r a b s f r o m w i t h o u t , a n d i n f i l t r a t i o n across t h e T r a n s - J o r d a n F r o n t i e r
i n t o P a l e s t i n e . I n h i s o p i n i o n t h e m o s t effective m e t h o d of d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s d a n g e r
w a s t h e p r e s e n t one, n a m e l y , by m e a n s of a i r c r a f t , s u p p o r t e d by a r m o u r e d c a r s a n d
local levies u n d e r t h e A i r Officer C o m m a n d i n g .
M R . S H A W s a i d t h a t w h i l e he d i d n o t feel qualified t o d e a l w i t h p u r e l y
t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , as a l a y m a n , h e could n o t a p p r e c i a t e t h e r i g i d d i s t i n c t i o n

b e t w e e n t h e d u t i e s of t h e R o y a l A i r F o r c e a n d t h e A r m y l a i d down by t h e S e c r e t a r y
of S t a t e for A i r . H e could n o t see t h a t i t w a s m o r e a m i l i t a r y f u n c t i o n to k e e p o u t
r a i d e r s w h o m i g h t u p s e t t h e whole s y s t e m of l a w a n d o r d e r t h a n to s u p p r e s s
d i s t u r b a n c e s a i m e d a t t h e s a m e p u r p o s e b u t i n i t i a t e d from w i t h i n . T h e fact w a s t h a t
i n P a l e s t i n e t r o u b l e h a d in t h e p a s t developed, as m i g h t well h a p p e n i n t h e f u t u r e , i n
such a w a y as to m a k e i t e s s e n t i a l t o h a v e a r m e d m i l i t a r y forces i n t h e c o u n t r y ,
because i t w a s o u t s i d e the competence of t h e R o y a l A i r F o r c e t o keep o r d e r w i t h t h e i r
own m e a n s . T h i s w a s proved l a s t y e a r a n d , as a r e s u l t , t h e r e w a s now in P a l e s t i n e a
m i l i t a r y force f a r s u p e r i o r i n n u m b e r s t o t h e u n i t s of t h e R o y a l A i r F o r c e a n d w i t h
f a r g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a s r e g a r d s l a w a n d o r d e r . I t seemed t o h i m t h a t t h e
s u g g e s t i o n of t h e H i g h Commissioner t h a t t h e s e c u r i t y of P a l e s t i n e m u s t rest on t h e
m i l i t a r y a r m w a s t h o r o u g h l y sound.
T H E P R I M E M I N I S T E R s a i d t h a t h e g a t h e r e d from S i r J o h n C h a n c e l l o r s
r e p o r t s t h a t t h e c o m m a n d i n P a l e s t i n e s h o u l d be vested in a m i l i t a r y officer.
S I R J O H N C H A N C E L L O R r e p l i e d i n t h e affirmative, a d d i n g t h a t , p e r s o n a l l y ,
h e w o u l d describe t h e s i t u a t i o n a s r e g a r d s i n t e r n a l d i s o r d e r in r a t h e r different w o r d s
f r o m those u s e d by t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for A i r .
T h e r e were two distinct
defence p r o b l e m s t o be c o n s i d e r e d — t h a t of P a l e s t i n e a n d t h a t of T r a n s - J o r d a n . T h e
l a t t e r w a s a n open d e s e r t c o u n t r y w h e r e t h e R o y a l A i r F o r c e h a d done e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y
good w o r k i n d e a l i n g w i t h r a i d e r s .
O w i n g t o t h e n a t u r e of t h e c o u n t r y , i t w a s
possible for t h e a i r c r a f t t o d e t e c t r a i d e r s , a n d by m e a n s of w i r e l e s s to get a r m o u r e d
c a r s on t h e i r t r a c k s a n d c o n t r o l t h e i r m o v e m e n t s . F i n a l l y , i n o r d e r t o r o u n d u p t h e
r a i d e r s a n d s o r t o u t the looted camels, & c , from o t h e r s a n d r e g a i n possession o f
t h e m , t h e T r a n s - J o r d a n F r o n t i e r F o r c e w a s employed.
I n P a l e s t i n e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e s i t u a t i o n w a s e n t i r e l y different.
The
c o u n t r y w a s enclosed, w i t h a good d e a l of b u s h , i n t h e J o r d a n V a l l e y a n d r u g g e d h i l l
c o u n t r y , a n d t h e A r a b s w e r e clever i n c o n c e a l i n g themselves f r o m a i r o b s e r v a t i o n .
A i r r e c o n n a i s s a n c e w a s by n o m e a n s a d e q u a t e by itself i n a c o u n t r y of t h i s n a t u r e ,
a n d i t w a s e s s e n t i a l t o have m i l i t a r y t r o o p s on t h e g r o u n d to r o u n d u p m a r a u d e r s ,
t o p r o t e c t i s o l a t e d J e w i s h colonies, to k e e p o r d e r i n t h e l a r g e t o w n s , a n d g e n e r a l l y
t o clear u p t h e c o u n t r y . T h e A i r F o r c e could n o t do a n y of these t h i n g s , a n d h e could
only recall one i n s t a n c e d u r i n g t h e d i s t u r b a n c e s l a s t y e a r i n w h i c h a i r c r a f t , u n a i d e d ,
t u r n e d b a c k a n A r a b a d v a n c e on H a i f a f r o m t h e open c o u n t r y t o t h e n o r t h . I t w a s
impossible t o rely on a i r c r a f t b e i n g i n t h e r i g h t p l a c e a t t h e r i g h t t i m e for s u c h
fleeting a c t i o n s .
L O R D P A S S F I E L D p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h i s l a t t e r difficulty a p p l i e d also i n t h e
case of t h e m i l i t a r y forces. H e d i d n o t w i s h to i n t e r v e n e i n t h e d i s p u t e b e t w e e n
t h e A r m y a n d t h e R o y a l A i r F o r c e , b u t h e w a s concerned i n r e g a r d to t h e s u g g e s t i o n
t h a t t h e r e m i g h t be one c o m m a n d i n P a l e s t i n e a n d a n o t h e r i n T r a n s - J o r d a n , a s t h i s
m i g h t p r o d u c e c o m p l i c a t i o n s , o w i n g to t h e f a c t t h a t t h e T r a n s - J o r d a n F r o n t i e r
F o r c e w a s p a r t l y p a i d for by T r a n s - J o r d a n a n d p a r t l y by P a l e s t i n e , a n d w a s
i n t e n d e d to be a v a i l a b l e for b o t h c o u n t r i e s . I t a p p e a r e d p r e f e r a b l e for one m i l i t a r y
officer e i t h e r to t a k e c o m m a n d of t h e forces i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s or n o t to a s s u m e t h e
c o m m a n d a t all.
S I R R I C H A R D H O P K I N S , i n r e p l y to t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r , s a i d h e d i d n o t
t h i n k the C h a n c e l l o r of the E x c h e q u e r h a d been able to s t u d y t h i s question.
T H E P R I M E M I N I S T E R r e m a r k e d t h a t t h e p o i n t before the C o m m i t t e e w a s
a difficult one, a n d h e w a s s o r r y t h a t t h e S u b - C o m m i t t e e h a d n o t been able to m a k e
a n a g r e e d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , t h o u g h h e a p p r e c i a t e d t h e h e s i t a n c y of t h e C h a i r m a n
t o exercise a c a s t i n g vote. I n view of t h e d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h h a d now t a k e n p l a c e , h e
felt t h a t t h e r e w a s no a l t e r n a t i v e to r e s e r v i n g -the m a t t e r for decision by t h e C a b i n e t .
H e r e f e r r e d to a p a s s a g e i n t h e R e p o r t of t h e I n d i a n S t a t u t o r y Commission (Vol. I )
i n r e g a r d t o t h e role of t h e B r i t i s h A r m y i n I n d i a , w h i c h h a d some b e a r i n g on t h e
u s e of t h e a r m y i n s u p p o r t of t h e civil p o w e r , a n d m i g h t be r e a d in connection w i t h
t h e use of m i l i t a r y forces i n P a l e s t i n e .
T h e r e w a s one s u g g e s t i o n w h i c h t h e
C o m m i t t e e m i g h t like to consider, n a m e l y , t h a t t h e Officer c o m m a n d i n g t h e m i l i t a r y
force w h i l e r e m a i n i n g u n d e r t h e o r d e r s of t h e A i r Officer c o m m a n d i n g s h o u l d be
g i v e n t h e r i g h t of d i r e c t access, on p u r e l y m i l i t a r y m a t t e r s , to t h e H i g h C o m ­
m i s s i o n e r , w h o is also ex officio
Commander-in-Chief.
T h i s w o u l d a p p l y , in a n inverse f o r m , t h e system n o w i n o p e r a t i o n i n I n d i a ,
w h i c h , he w a s i n f o r m e d , w o r k e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . U n d e r t h i s system, t h e A i r Officer
c o m m a n d i n g , a l t h o u g h u n d e r t h e o r d e r s of t h e m i l i t a r y C o m m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f , h a s t h e
r i g h t of d i r e c t access t o the Viceroy.
[21389^3]
B 2

S I R J O H N C H A N C E L L O R observed t h a t a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e h e f r e q u e n t l y
s a w a n d consulted t h e officer c o m m a n d i n g t h e t r o o p s , w i t h t h e k n o w l e d g e a n d consent
of t h e A i r Officer c o m m a n d i n g .
M R . S H A W s a i d h e h o p e d t h a t t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for A i r w o u l d w i t h d r a w
from his present position.
H e a s k e d if a n y o n e could possibly d o u b t t h a t , in t h e
event of t h e s i t u a t i o n i n P a l e s t i n e t a k i n g a n u n f a v o u r a b l e t u r n , r e i n f o r c e m e n t s
Avould h a v e t o be m i l i t a r y , j u s t a s t h e y w e r e l a s t A u g u s t . H e could n o t u n d e r s t a n d
w h y i t should be m a i n t a i n e d t h a t i t w a s less of a m i l i t a r y f u n c t i o n to s t o p
i n d i v i d u a l s s m a s h i n g t h e e n t i t y of t h e S t a t e from i n s i d e t h a n to p r e v e n t t h e m
d o i n g so if they c a m e f r o m o u t s i d e . S u r e l y i t w a s a d v i s a b l e for t h e c o m m a n d e r t o
be a m i l i t a r y officer, so t h a t h e could deal s y s t e m a t i c a l l y w i t h t h e p r e p o n d e r a t i n g
m i l i t a r y t r o o p s i n t h e c o u n t r y a n d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l m i l i t a r y
r e i n f o r c e m e n t s i n t h e e v e n t of a n emergency.
Wnile greatly regretting that this
c o n t r o v e r s y h a d a r i s e n , h e felt t h a t t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for A i r s h o u l d r e a l i s e
t h e a c t u a l facts of t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d a g r e e t h a t t h e y w a r r a n t e d c o m m a n d by a
m i l i t a r y officer.
L O R D T H O M S O N s a i d h e w i s h e d h e w a s i n a p o s i t i o n to accede t o t h e r e q u e s t
of t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for W a r , b u t h e felt h e should p o i n t o u t t h a t it w a s t h e
l a t t e r w h o w a s t r y i n g to a l t e r a s t a t e of affairs a g r e e d t o i n 1922 u n d e r w h i c h t h e
C o l o n i a l Office w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e for P a l e s t i n e a n d T r a n s - J o r d a n , w i t h t h e A i r
M i n i s t r y a s t h e i r m i l i t a r y a g e n t . H e s u b m i t t e d t h a t if t h e r e a l m i l i t a r y problem
a n d t h e problem of g r e a t e s t d a n g e r t o P a l e s t i n e h a d t o be d e a l t w i t h , t h i s w o u l d
have to be done b y a i r forces.
T h e s i t u a t i o n ' i n s i d e P a l e s t i n e d i d n o t affect t h e
q u e s t i o n of c o m m a n d , w h i c h w o u l d n o t h a v e now a r i s e n if t h e r e h a d been a n a d e q u a t e
P o l i c e F o r c e . T h e t w o b a t t a l i o n s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d e x a c t l y a s if t h e y w e r e police.
T h e r e a l d a n g e r l a y in t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of i n v a s i o n by t h e A r a b s , a n d t h e d a n g e r s p o t
w o u l d be t h e J o r d a n V a l l e y , w h e r e t h e r e w e r e n o m i l i t a r y forces a n d w h e r e B r i t i s h
t r o o p s could not be s t a t i o n e d .
S I R J O H N C H A N C E L L O R r e m a r k e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e t w o C o m p a n i e s of t h e
T r a n s - J o r d a n Frontier Force in the J o r d a n Valley a n d t h a t they were military
t r o o p s , in s p i t e of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y w e r e u n d e r t h e A i r Officer c o m m a n d i n g .
L O R D T H O M S O N , continuing, pointed out t h a t the A i r M i n i s t r y h a d a
definite A i r Scheme d r a w n u p for t h e whole of t h e M i d d l e E a s t . I f some of t h e i r
forces w e r e now t o be t a k e n a w a y a n d locked u p u n d e r m i l i t a r y c o m m a n d for police
w o r k , t h e A i r M i n i s t r y w o u l d h a v e to r e c o n s i d e r t h e whole q u e s t i o n of t h e d i s t r i b u ­
t i o n of A i r Forces i n t h e M i d d l e E a s t . W h a t w a s r e a l l y r e q u i r e d to m e e t t h e p r e s e n t
s i t u a t i o n i n P a l e s t i n e w a s a n a d e q u a t e force of g e n d a r m e r i e .
S I R J O H N C H A N C E L L O R observed t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n s of police a n d t r o o p s
w e r e e n t i r e l y different a n d t h a t t h e g e n d a r m e r i e w o u l d h a v e t o be t r a i n e d a s m i l i t a r y
t r o o p s , a n d not as police, t o u n d e r t a k e the f u n c t i o n s r e q u i r e d of t h e m i n t h e event of
an outbreak.
L O R D T H O M S O N drew attention to the fact that the two i n f a n t r y battalions
w e r e s c a t t e r e d , a c c o r d i n g t o M r . D o w b i g g i n ' s R e p o r t , over a v e r y l a r g e a r e a in t h e
s a m e w a y as police forces, a n d t h a t if t h e y w e r e i n t e n d e d for e m p l o y m e n t as m i l i t a r y
t r o o p s t h i s w o u l d n o t b e t h e case.
S I R J O H N C H A N C E L L O R a g r e e d t h a t t h a t d i s t r i b u t i o n w a s shown in
M r . D o w b i g g i n ' s r e p o r t , b u t s a i d t h a t the d i s p e r s i o n w a s t e m p o r a r y a n d w a s only
n e c e s s a r y u n t i l t h e B r i t i s h p a r t of t h e P a l e s t i n e Police F o r c e h a d been b r o u g h t u p to
the proper establishment.
W h e n t h a t h a d been done, t h e t r o o p s w o u l d be
concentrated.

CONCLUSIONS.

A f t e r some f u r t h e r discussion t h e
r e c o m m e n d :—

C O M M I T T E E OF I M P E R I A L D E F E N C E

agreed to

(a) T h a t t h e g a r r i s o n s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o include, for t h e p r e s e n t , a n i n f a n t r y
force e q u i v a l e n t to t w o b a t t a l i o n s , a n d t h a t t h e p r e s e n t s t r e n g t h of
a i r c r a f t a n d a r m o u r e d c a r s i n P a l e s t i n e a n d T r a n s - J o r d a n should be
maintained.

(b) T h a t t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e g a r r i s o n s h o u l d be r e v i e w e d a n n u a l l y b y t h e
C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l Defence, a n d t h a t , i n t h i s connection, t h e
p o s s i b i l i t y of s u b s t i t u t i n g a force of B r i t i s h g e n d a r m e r i e for t h e i n f a n t r y
b a t t a l i o n s m i g h t be f u r t h e r considered.
(c) T h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t s c o n c e r n e d should c o n s i d e r t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n for
s t a t i o n i n g a n R . A . S . C . u n i t , w i t h s u i t a b l e t r a n s p o r t , in P a l e s t i n e t o
a v o i d t h e p r e s e n t e x p e n s i v e s y s t e m of h i r i n g , a n d s h o u l d r e p o r t t o t h e
C a b i n e t w h e t h e r , on financial g r o u n d s , t h e s u g g e s t i o n is d e s i r a b l e .
(d) T h a t if t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n i n \a) above i s a p p r o v e d b y t h e C a b i n e t , the.
q u e s t i o n of p r o v i d i n g s u i t a b l e a c c o m m o d a t i o n for t h e g a r r i s o n s h o u l d be
t a k e n u p b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t s concerned.
(e) T h a t t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e S e c r e t a r i e s of S t a t e for t h e
Colonies, W a r a n d A i r , s h o u l d c o n s i d e r f u r t h e r t h e q u e s t i o n of. t h e
C o m m a n d i n P a l e s t i n e a n d r e p o r t t h e r e s u l t of t h e i r discussion t o t h e
Cabinet.

*
2, Whitehall
July

*
Gardens,
14, 1930.

*

*

S.W.1,

o

*

*

THIS DOCUMENT IS THE P R O P E R T Y O F HIS BRITANNIC M A J E S T V S

Printed

for the Committee

of Imperial

Defence.

June

GOVERNMENT,

1930.

Copy N o.

SECRET. -

87

348-C.
(Also Papers Nos. CCS.
amdP.G.S.
5.)

241

COMMITTEE OF I M P E R I A L DEFENCE.

PALESTINE
(Previous

C.I.D.

GARRISON.
Paper

No.

345-C.)

Report of a Sub-Committee.
Composition
1.

and

Terms

of

Reference.

B Y d i r e c t i o n of t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r t h e S u b - C o m m i t t e e , c o n s i s t i n g
T h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for t h e Colonies (in the

of—

Chair),

T h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r W a r ,
T h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for A i r ,
T h e Secretary to the Treasury,
T h e C h i e f of t h e I m p e r i a l G e n e r a l Staff,
T h e C h i e f of t h e A i r Staff,
w a s set u p t o c o n s i d e r a n d r e p o r t to t h e C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l D e f e n c e on t h e
following q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for t h e Colonies i n a l e t t e r ,
d a t e d t h e 1 2 t h M a y , 1930 ( A p p e n d i x ) , t o t h e S e c r e t a r y , C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l
Defence : —
(1) T h e s t r e n g t h , c o m p o s i t i o n , & c , of t h e f u t u r e g a r r i s o n i n P a l e s t i n e ;
(2) T h e s u g g e s t e d t r a n s f e r of c o n t r o l from t h e A i r M i n i s t r y t o t h e W a r Office;
and
(3) T h e c o n t r o l of o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e e v e n t of r e i n f o r c e m e n t s b e i n g s e n t t o
Palestine.

The

Strength,

Composition,

&c,

of the future

Garrison

in

Palestine

2.
I n 1926 t h e l a s t r e m a i n i n g r e g u l a r a r m y u n i t , a r e g i m e n t of c a v a l r y , w a s
w i t h d r a w n f r o m P a l e s t i n e , a n d t h e r e a f t e r t h e forces a v a i l a b l e for t h e m a i n t e n a n c e
of i n t e r n a l o r d e r a n d for e x t e r n a l defence consisted solely of t h e P a l e s t i n e P o l i c e
( i n c l u d i n g a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of B r i t i s h p e r s o n n e l ) , t h e T r a n s - J o r d a n F r o n t i e r F o r c e
a n d A i r a n d A r m o u r e d C a r U n i t s of t h e R o y a l A i r F o r c e .
I"2127/] [21404]
."
B

2
3 . O n t h e o u t b r e a k of d i s t u r b a n c e s in A u g u s t 1929 n a v a l a n d m i l i t a r y
r e i n f o r c e m e n t s w e r e r u s h e d to P a l e s t i n e f r o m M a l t a a n d E g y p t t o restore o r d e r , a n d
a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e r e r e m a i n i n P a l e s t i n e , i n a d d i t i o n to one B . A . F . S q u a d r o n
a n d t w o A r m o u r e d C a r Sections (from T r a n s - J o r d a n ) , t w o B a t t a l i o n s of r e g u l a r
British Infantry.
4. T h e q u e s t i o n of t h e p e r m a n e n t g a r r i s o n w a s r e f e r r e d to by t h e
C o m m i s s i o n on t h e P a l e s t i n e d i s t u r b a n c e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s :-—

recent

" T h e events of A u g u s t l a s t clearly e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t f o r t h e d u t i e s of
checking the widespread disturbances a n d restoring order in Palestine i n f a n t r y
a r e m o r e effective t h a n a r e e i t h e r a e r o p l a n e s or a r m o u r e d c a r s . On t h e w i d e r
q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r a e r o p l a n e s a n d a r m o u r e d c a r s a r e t h e m o s t s u i t a b l e f o r m of
g a r r i s o n for P a l e s t i n e t h e r e w a s d i r e c t conflict b e t w e e n t h e evidence of t h e
e x p e r t s who a p p e a r e d before u s , a n d we c a n only s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s q u e s t i o n
should be c o n s i d e r e d by t h e p r o p e r a d v i s e r s of H i s M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t , whose
a t t e n t i o n should, w e consider, be d r a w n to t h e views expressed t o us by
Vice-Marshal Dowding and Brigadier Dobbie.
W e r e c o m m e n d t h a t u n t i l t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e f o r m of t h e f u t u r e g a r r i s o n
h a s been decided a n d t h e r e a f t e r u n t i l r a c i a l f e e l i n g i n P a l e s t i n e h a s shown
m o r e m a r k e d i m p r o v e m e n t , no r e d u c t i o n should be m a d e i n t h e p r e s e n t g a r r i s o n
of t w o B a t t a l i o n s of I n f a n t r y . "
5. I n a d e s p a t c h d a t e d t h e 1 7 t h J a n u a r y , 1930, t h e H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r for
P a l e s t i n e also e x p r e s s e d t h e v i e w " t h a t t h e p e r m a n e n t g a r r i s o n i n P a l e s t i n e should
i n c l u d e t w o B a t t a l i o n s of B r i t i s h I n f a n t r y w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y a n c i l l a r y s e r v i c e s . "
6. T h e s t r e n g t h of t h e m i l i t a r y forces r e q u i r e d i n P a l e s t i n e m u s t necessarily
d e p e n d to a l a r g e e x t e n t on t h e efficiency of t h e local police forces, a n d M r . D o w ­
b i g g i n , I n s p e c t o r - G e n e r a l of Police, Ceylon, w h o is a t p r e s e n t i n P a l e s t i n e for t h e
p u r p o s e of a d v i s i n g on t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n of t h e P a l e s t i n e P o l i c e , h a s n o t yet s u b m i t t e d
h i s final r e p o r t . A p r e l i m i n a r y s t a t e m e n t of h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d to
d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e B r i t i s h police a n d t h e p r o t e c t i o n of J e w i s h Colonies h a s , however,
been received, a n d these r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , w h i c h h a v e been a p p r o v e d by t h e S e c r e t a r y
of S t a t e for t h e Colonies, a r e b a s e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g a s s u m p t i o n s m a d e by M r .
Dowbiggin—
(i) t h a t m i l i t a r y forces a n d B r i t i s h police w i l l be r e q u i r e d in P a l e s t i n e for a t
least t w e n t y y e a r s ;
(ii) t h a t t h e g a r r i s o n w i l l i n c l u d e t w o i n f a n t r y b a t t a l i o n s a n d t w o c o m p a n i e s of
t h e T r a n s - J o r d a n F r o n t i e r F o r c e , a s well a s t h e R o y a l A i r F o r c e a n d
armoured cars.
7. M r . D o w b i g g i n h a s e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t i t w i l l t a k e a t l e a s t t w e n t y
y e a r s u n d e r t h e most f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s to a t t a i n a r e a s o n a b l e s t a t e of efficiency
a m o n g t h e P a l e s t i n i a n police, a n d a l t h o u g h he is i n full a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e well
r e c o g n i s e d p r i n c i p l e t h a t i t is p r i m a r i l y t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e police a n d n o t of t h e
m i l i t a r y to p r e v e n t a n d to d e a l w i t h d i s t u r b a n c e s , h e is convinced t h a t m i l i t a r y forces
s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e to a s s i s t t h e civil p o w e r should t h e necessity a r i s e .
8. T h e S u b - C o m m i t t e e h a v e been u n a b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e " c o n f l i c t of
e v i d e n c e " a s to t h e m o s t s u i t a b l e f o r m of g a r r i s o n to w h i c h t h e S h a w C o m m i s s i o n
r e f e r r e d on p a g e 145 of t h e i r R e p o r t .
Both A i r Vice-Marshal Dowding and
B r i g a d i e r Dobbie a p p e a r to consider t h a t an i n f a n t r y force of t w o b a t t a l i o n s is
n e c e s s a r y for t h e p r e s e n t , t h o u g h t h e f o r m e r t h i n k s t h a t t h i s force could be r e d u c e d
to one b a t t a l i o n w h e n t h e r e o r g a n i s a t i o n of t h e P o l i c e F o r c e h a s been completed.
W h i l e a g r e e i n g t h a t a force e q u i v a l e n t to t w o b a t t a l i o n s of I n f a n t r y will be n e c e s s a r y
for some t i m e to come, t h e S u b - C o m m i t t e e w o u l d h e s i t a t e to e n d o r s e t h e o p i n i o n t h a t
i t w o u l d be r e q u i r e d " f o r a t l e a s t t w e n t y y e a r s . "
9. T h e A i r M i n i s t r y a r e , however, in some d o u b t a s to w h e t h e r , on g r o u n d s of
e x p e d i e n c y ' a n d economy, t h i s force s h o u l d t a k e t h e f o r m of B r i t i s h I n f a n t r y
B a t t a l i o n s . T h e y p o i n t o u t t h a t i t h a s for m a n y y e a r s been t h e policy of H i s
M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t to d i s c o u r a g e t h e p r o v i s i o n of I m p e r i a l F o r c e s f o r m a i n ­
t a i n i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y of Local G o v e r n m e n t s . T h e r e a s o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h i s policy

h a v e been f r e q u e n t l y e n u n c i a t e d by t h e Oversea D e f e n c e C o m m i t t e e w h e n making­
r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e local forces i n t h e Colonies i n t h e following w o r d s :
" T h e m a i n t e n a n c e of I m p e r i a l r e g u l a r g a r r i s o n s , e x c e p t a t s t r a t e g i c a l p o i n t s ,
i n t i m e of peace i n t h e B r i t i s h Colonies a n d P r o t e c t o r a t e s w o u l d be a costly system,
w o u l d r e s u l t in h i g h l y t r a i n e d t r o o p s b e i n g used for p u r p o s e s for w h i c h a g r e a t
p a r t of t h e i r m i l i t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n i s n o t s u i t e d , a n d w o u l d h a v e m a n y obvious d i s ­
a d v a n t a g e s a s r e g a r d s t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n , t r a i n i n g , e x p e n d i t u r e a n d m o b i l i s a t i o n of
the A r m y as a whole."
T h e y f u r t h e r p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e i n f a n t r y force a l l o t t e d to P a l e s t i n e
will be t i e d down to t h e i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y of t h a t c o u n t r y , a n d n o t a v a i l a b l e for
r e i n f o r c i n g o t h e r localities, a n d t h e y consider t h a t - t h i s f a c t o r should be b o r n e i n
mind i n a r r i v i n g a t a decision a s to h o w t h i s a d d i t i o n a l c o m m i t m e n t is to be p r o v i d e d

for.

10. F o r these r e a s o n s t h e A i r M i n i s t r y suggest t h a t (as soon a s m a y be p r a c ­
ticable) c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d b e given t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of r a i s i n g a n i r r e g u l a r force
of British
G e n d a r m e r i e , t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n Of which could be d e s i g n e d s p e c i a l l y t o
e n a b l e i t to c a r r y o u t i t s f u n c t i o n s i n t h e most economical m a n n e r . T h i s force, t h o u g h
a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e P a l e s t i n e G o v e r n m e n t s i m i l a r l y t o t h e T r a n s - J o r d a n F r o n t i e r
F o r c e , w o u l d be a definitely m i l i t a r y one a n d w o u l d b e p l a c e d u n d e r t h e o r d e r s of
t h e officer c o m m a n d i n g t h e g a r r i s o n , t o w h a t e v e r service h e m a y belong.
W h i l e r a i s i n g no o b j e c t i o n t o t h e s u g g e s t e d discussion of t h i s q u e s t i o n a t some
f u t u r e d a t e , t h e Colonial Office a s k t h a t t h e y s h o u l d b e g i v e n a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u t
f o r w a r d t h e i r v i e w s b e f o r e a n y decision t o r e p l a c e t h e B r i t i s h I n f a n t r y i s m a d e .
1 1 . T h e p r e s e n t i n f a n t r y force (or t h e g e n d a r m e r i e , if formed) r e q u i r e s
m e c h a n i c a l t r a n s p o r t . T h e S u b - C o m m i t t e e consider t h a t , so long a s t h e r e g u l a r
i n f a n t r y b a t t a l i o n s a r e r e t a i n e d , t h i s t r a n s p o r t s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d by a n R . A . S . C .
unit w i t h motor lorries, which would u n d e r t a k e both t h e maintenance a n d movement
of t h e t r o o p s , t h u s d i s p e n s i n g w i t h t h e e x p e n s i v e s y s t e m of h i r i n g s w h i c h e x i s t s
a t present.
12. T h e q u e s t i o n of p r o v i d i n g s u i t a b l e a c c o m m o d a t i o n f o r t h e g a r r i s o n s h o u l d
also, i n t h e o p i n i o n of t h e C o m m i t t e e , receive i m m e d i a t e a t t e n t i o n . T h e b a t t a l i o n s
a r e a t p r e s e n t l i v i n g partXv i n billets a n d p a r t l y i n h u t m e n t s , a n d , if t h e i r r e t e n t i o n
i n P a l e s t i n e for a n indefinite n e r i o d i s decided u p o n , i t i s c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l t h a t
h u t t e d c a m p s w i t h a p r o p o r t i o n of m a r r i e d Quarters, r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , & o ,
s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d for t h e w n o i e g a r r i s o n .
13.

T o sum u p , t h e S u b - C o m m i t t e e recommend—

(a) T h a t t h e g a r r i s o n s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o i n c l u d e for t h e p r e s e n t a n i n f a n t r y
forqe e q u i v a l e n t t o t w o b a t t a l i o n s , a n d t h a t t h e p r e s e n t s t r e n g t h o f
a i r c r a f t a n d a r m o u r e d c a r s i n P a l e s t i n e a n d T r a n s - J o r d a n s h o u l d be
maintained.
(6) T h a t t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e g a r r i s o n s h o u l d b e reviewed a n n u a l l y by t h e
C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l Defence, a n d t h a t i n t h i s connection t h e
possibility of s u b s t i t u t i n g a force of B r i t i s h G e n d a r m e r i e for t h e
i n f a n t r y b a t t a l i o n s m i g h t be f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r e d .
(c) T h a t t h e force b e p r o v i d e d w i t h m e c h a n i c a l t r a n s p o r t , a n d t h a t , so long­
as the infantry battalions are retained, this t r a n s p o r t should take t h e
f o r m of a R . A . S . C . u n i t .
(d) T h a t t h e q u e s t i o n of a c c o m m o d a t i o n should be t a k e n u p by t h e D e p a r t ­
m e n t s c o n c e r n e d a s soon a s a decision h a s been r e a c h e d a s to t h e n a t u r e
of t h e g a r r i s o n .
The Suggested

Transfer

of Control

from

the Air Ministry

to the War

Office.

14. I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n , t h e S u b - C o m m i t t e e a r e faced w i t h a d i r e c t
conflict of o p i n i o n b e t w e e n t h e W a r Office a n d t h e A i r M i n i s t r y , a n d t h e y h a v e
r e l u c t a n t l y come t o t h e conclusion t h a t t h e y c a n d o n o m o r e t h a n place before t h e
C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l D e f e n c e t h e views of t h e t h r e e p a r t i e s concerned, n a m e l y ,
t h e H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r , t h e W a r Office a n d t h e A i r M i n i s t r y , a n d leave i t to h i g h e r
a u t h o r i t y t o come t o a decision.

15. T h e H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r , w h o i s p r i m a r i l y responsible t o H i s M a j e s t y ' s
G o v e r n m e n t for p u b l i c s e c u r i t y i n P a l e s t i n e , h a s a d v o c a t e d t h e t r a n s f e r of c o m m a n d
from t h e A i r M i n i s t r y t o t h e W a r Office i n t h e following w o r d s : —
" D u r i n g t h e r e c e n t d i s t u r b a n c e s , by f a r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t of t h e w o r k of
r e s t o r i n g o r d e r fell u p o n t h e M i l i t a r y F o r c e s , a n d i t is logical t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e defence of t h e c o u n t r y s h o u l d r e s t w i t h the D e p a r t m e n t
m a i n l y concerned.
I f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e defence of P a l e s t i n e is t r a n s f e r r e d to t h e W a r
Office, I r e c o m m e n d t h a t , for defence p u r p o s e s , P a l e s t i n e should be m a d e p a r t
of t h e E g y p t i a n M i l i t a r y C o m m a n d .
T h a t a r r a n g e m e n t w o u l d be n o t only economical a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y
c o n v e n i e n t , b u t i t w o u l d a l s o be s t r a t e g i c a l l y a d v a n t a g e o u s , for i t w o u l d
g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e t h e r e i n f o r c e m e n t of t h e t r o o p s i n P a l e s t i n e i n t i m e of n e e d "
( E n c l o s u r e No. 4 to A p p e n d i x , p a r a g r a p h 100).

The views

of the War Office are as

follows:—

16.—(i) U n d e r e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h e m i l i t a r y C o m m a n d of all r e g u l a r forces
i n P a l e s t i n e a n d T r a n s - J o r d a n is vested i n a n officer of t h e R o y a l A i r F o r c e . T h i s
w a s t h e system of c o m m a n d i n o p e r a t i o n before A u g u s t , 1929, w h e n t h e only l a n d
forces a v a i l a b l e for b a c k i n g t h e police a m o u n t e d t o 12 a r m o u r e d c a r s a n d a b o u t
700 m e n of t h e T r a n s - J o r d a n F r o n t i e r F o r c e . T h e d e s p a t c h of a r m y r e i n f o r c e m e n t s ,
a m o u n t i n g t o some 2,000 i n f a n t r y a n d 12 a r m o u r e d c a r s i n A u g u s t last y e a r t o d e a l
w i t h t h e c o m m u n a l s i t u a t i o n w h i c h a r o s e r e s u l t e d i n t h e t e m p o r a r y t r a n s f e r e n c e of
t h e e x e c u t i v e c o m m a n d to a m i l i t a r y officer w h o w a s senior i n r a n k to t h e L o c a l A i r
F o r c e C o m m a n d e r . T h e o p e r a t i o n s w e r e definitely m i l i t a r y as o p p o s e d t o a i r a n d
i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e a g r e e m e n t come to by t h e C h i e f s of Staff a t t h e i r 2 6 t h M e e t i n g
on t h e 1 1 t h D e c e m b e r , 1925, t h e c o m m a n d of t h e o p e r a t i o n , being e s s e n t i a l l y m i l i t a r y
i n c h a r a c t e r s h o u l d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h a t a g r e e m e n t , h a v e been t r a n s f e r r e d t o a
m i l i t a r y officer u n d e r t h e W a r Office. I n o r d e r , however, to r e g a i n e x e c u t i v e
c o m m a n d i n P a l e s t i n e , a n officer of t h e R o y a l A i r F o r c e , a n Air V i c e - M a r s h a l , w a s
a p p o i n t e d by t h e A i r M i n i s t r y t o s u p e r s e d e t h e B r i g a d i e r w h o h a d so successfully
c o n d u c t e d t h e o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e r e s t o r a t i o n of l a w a n d o r d e r .
An
officer of t h e R o y a l A i r F o r c e s t i l l r e m a i n s i n c o m m a n d a l t h o u g h t h e m i l i t a r y forces
i n t h e c o u n t r y a r e n u m e r i c a l l y f a r s u p e r i o r t o t h e a i r u n i t s even t h o u g h levies a n d
a r m o u r e d c a r u n i t s (both of w h i c h , t h e W a r Office p o i n t o u t , a r e ' ' m i l i t a r y ' ' r a t h e r
t h a n " a i r " i n c h a r a c t e r ) a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e t e r m " a i r u n i t s . " T h e c o n t e n t i o n of
t h e A i r M i n i s t r y t h a t t h e d e f e n c e of P a l e s t i n e is a n " a i r " r a t h e r t h a n a " m i l i t a r y "
p r o b l e m is h a r d l y reconcilable w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t a g a r r i s o n h a s been a g r e e d u p o n
a s b e i n g necessary w h i c h i n c l u d e s local m i l i t a r y forces a n d a r m o u r e d c a r s a n d i n
which regular infantry preponderates.
(ii) T h e view of t h e A i r M i n i s t r y t h a t defence of t h e l a n d f r o n t i e r t a k e s
p r e c e d e n c e over o t h e r p r o b l e m s in c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e c u r i t y of P a l e s t i n e is n o t
c o n c u r r e d i n . A d m i t t e d l y , p e r i o d i c a l r a i d s by A r a b s across the f r o n t i e r will
c o n t i n u e a n d these c a n best be d e a l t w i t h by h i g h l y mobile forces c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h
a i r u n i t s . B u t i n v a s i o n on a l a r g e scale is u n l i k e l y t o occur u n l e s s it coincides w i t h
g r a v e d i s t u r b a n c e s i n t h e c o u n t r y itself, w h e n t h e c o m m a n d m u s t be unified.
(iii) W h i l e a e r o p l a n e s a n d a r m o u r e d c a r s c a n d e a l effectively w i t h r a i d s by
B e d o u i n s i n t h e o p e n a n d s p a r s e l y - p o p u l a t e d r e g i o n s of E a s t e r n T r a n s - J o r d a n , t h e y
c a n n o t a d e q u a t e l y p r o v i d e for t h e defence of P a l e s t i n e . T h e y a r e u n a b l e t o
u n d e r t a k e m a n y of t h e m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y for t h e defence a n d m a i n t e n a n c e
of o r d e r i n a c o u n t r y w h i c h c o n t a i n s l a r g e t o w n s a n d p o p u l o u s d i s t r i c t s , often
enclosed a n d w^ooded, a n d of w h i c h a l a r g e a r e a consists of m o u n t a i n s a n d b r o k e n
country.
T h e y a r e u n a b l e to b r e a k u p r i o t o u s assemblies i n t o w n s w i t h n a r r o w a n d
t o r t u o u s s t r e e t s i n h a b i t e d by a m i x e d p o p u l a t i o n , or t o p r o t e c t a g r i c u l t u r a l colonies
from a t t a c k by d a y a n d n i g h t . T h e y a r e u n a b l e t o s u r r o u n d a n d s e a r c h v i l l a g e s or
t o r o u n d u p r o v i n g b a n d s of m a r a u d e r s . T o c a r r y o u t all these o p e r a t i o n s effectively
t h e r e i s no s u b s t i t u t e for i n f a n t r y , p r e f e r a b l y m a d e mobile by b e i n g p r o v i d e d w i t h
adequate motor transport.

(iv) T h e W a r Office a g r e e w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e defence of P a l e s t i n e
a g a i n s t e x t e r n a l a g g r e s s i o n is i n t e r l o c k e d w i t h t h e i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y of the c o u n t r y ,
a n d it w o u l d obviously be of a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r if h e h a d only one
m i l i t a r y a d v i s e r to t u r n t o for b o t h q u e s t i o n s . T h a t does n o t , however, seem to t h e m
t o be a n a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t c o n c e n t r a t i n g t h e c o m m a n d of all t h e forces i n T r a n s J o r d a n a n d P a l e s t i n e u n d e r a n a r m y c o m m a n d e r . T h e v i e w of t h e A i r M i n i s t r y
seems to be t h a t , w h i l e a n officer of t h e R . A . F . is c a p a b l e of e x e r c i s i n g m i l i t a r y
c o m m a n d over c o m b i n e d a i r a n d l a n d forces, t h e exercise of c o m m a n d by a n a r m y
officer over s i m i l a r combined forces could only be t o c o u r t confusion, or even d i s a s t e r .
N o a r g u m e n t s a r e a d v a n c e d to s u p p o r t t h i s c o n t e n t i o n , a n d i n t h i s connection, i t
should be n o t e d t h a t n o m i l i t a r y force w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o t a k e t h e field in a m o d e r n
w a r w i t h o u t i n c l u d i n g a i r u n i t s u n d e r t h e m i l i t a r y c o m m a n d e r ; all senior officers of
t h e a r m y a r e a c c o r d i n g l y t r a i n e d i n t h e h a n d l i n g of A i r F o r c e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h
M i l i t a r y Forces.
(v) I t a p p e a r s t o be a d m i t t e d t h a t i n t h e event of further
military reinforce­
m e n t s b e i n g d e s p a t c h e d t o P a l e s t i n e , o p e r a t i o n s w o u l d be v e s t e d i n a M i l i t a r y officer,
a s w a s done l a s t A u g u s t in t h e i n i t i a l a n d m o r e c r i t i c a l s t a g e s of t h e d i s t u r b a n c e s .
I t is, however, u n s o u n d a n d illogical t o rely o n o n e s y s t e m i n peace or w h e n t h i n g s
g o well, a n d t o r e v e r t t o a n o t h e r i n w a r , o r w h e n t r o u b l e s b r e a k o u t . W h a t e v e i ­
e x t e r n a l d a n g e r s m a y t h r e a t e n P a l e s t i n e or T r a n s - J o r d a n , t h e r e could be l i t t l e d o u b t
t h a t t h e r e c u r r e n c e of c o m m u n a l t r o u b l e i n t h e f u t u r e , w h i c h is r e g a r d e d as a
p o s s i b i l i t y by t h e H i g h Commissioner, w i l l be a m a t t e r w h i c h , if it g e t s beyond t h e
c o n t r o l of trie police, w i l l call definitely for i n t e r v e n t i o n by Army a n d n o t by A i r
u n i t s . T h e only s o u n d course w o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be t o allow c o m m a n d to be e x e r c i s e d
i n peace by a M i l i t a r y officer, w h o w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e for t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e
d e f e n c e scheme w h i c h w i l l be p u t i n t o o p e r a t i o n if a n d w h e n i n t e r n a l t r o u b l e s b r e a k
o u t a g a i n . T h e p r o p i n q u i t y of E g y p t a n d i t s m i l i t a r y g a r r i s o n p o i n t s t o t h e
s u p r e m e c o m m a n d of P a l e s t i n e b e i n g p l a c e d u n d e r t h e G e n e r a l Officer C o m m a n d i n g
B r i t i s h t r o o p s i n E g y p t . A l t h o u g h h e r e t o f o r e , P a l e s t i n e h a s n o t been h i s r e s p o n s i ­
b i l i t y , y e t t h e call for r e i n f o r c e m e n t s w h i c h a r o s e l a s t y e a r n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e
i m m e d i a t e d e s p a t c h of t h e n e a r e s t t r o o p s , n a m e l y , t h o s e f r o m Egypt, a n d a n y f u r t h e r
call for i m m e d i a t e r e i n f o r c e m e n t s m a y h a v e to be met from t h e same q u a r t e r .
At
t h e p r e s e n t m o m e n t , t h e e x i s t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e G.O.C., E g y p t , d o n o t
e x t e n d beyond t h e b o r d e r s of t h a t c o u n t r y , a n d a call f r o m P a l e s t i n e for reinforce­
m e n t s m a y q u i t e conceivably coincide w i t h a d e m a n d for d e a l i n g w i t h a s i t u a t i o n
within E g y p t , w h i c h h a s a r i s e n f r o m t h e v e r y s a m e causes w h i c h h a v e p r o d u c e d
d i s o r d e r i n P a l e s t i n e . H e m a y , t h e r e f o r e , w e l l be faced w i t h a conflict between h i s
local r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d a call on h i s t r o o p s for o p e r a t i o n s i n a c o u n t r y for t h e
m i l i t a r y c o n t r o l of w h i c h he is i n no w a y r e s p o n s i b l e . F u r t h e r , t h e difficult s i t u a t i o n
w i t h w h i c h h e m a y be faced is n o t r e n d e r e d a n y e a s i e r by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for m i l i t a r y s e c u r i t y i n P a l e s t i n e a n d i n E g y p t r e s t s , a t p r e s e n t , w i t h
t w o different Service M i n i s t r i e s i n L o n d o n .
I t is t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e G . O . C . B r i t i s h t r o o p s
i n E g y p t s h o u l d be e x t e n d e d , so as t o i n c l u d e c o m m a n d of all t h e M i l i t a r y forces i n
P a l e s t i n e . I n t i m e s of emergency, t h e H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r will t h e n be i n a p o s i t i o n
t o deal d i r e c t w i t h a M i l i t a r y Officer who h a s been able to s t u d y local p r o b l e m s a n d
w h o will be i n a p o s i t i o n to j u d g e of t h e m i l i t a r y r e i n f o r c e m e n t s w h i c h s h o u l d be
s e n t to cope w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n .
(vi) F i n a l l y , t h e W a r Office consider t h a t t h e m a i n defence problem of P a l e s t i n e
a n d t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e g a r r i s o n , Avhich is a g r e e d to be necessary, b o t h p o i n t t o
t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y of v e s t i n g t h e c o m m a n d of the forces i n a M i l i t a r y Officer.
S u c h a n Officer s h o u l d be responsible to t h e H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r for b o t h i n t e r n a l
s e c u r i t y a n d e x t e r n a l defence of t h e c o u n t r y .
If t h e forces i n T r a n s - J o r d a n r e m a i n a s e p a r a t e C o m m a n d u n d e r a E . A . F .
Officer, t h e r e is no r e a s o n to e x p e c t difficulties i n r e g a r d to m u t u a l s u p p o r t a n d
c o - o p e r a t i o n . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , if a s i n g l e M i l i t a r y c o m m a n d for T r a n s - J o r d a n
a n d P a l e s t i n e is d e c i d e d u p o n , t h e M i l i t a r y c o m m a n d e r should, w i t h t h e a d v i c e of
t h e Senior R . A . F . Officer in r e g a r d to a i r m a t t e r s , be able to d e a l w i t h all p r o b l e m s
of i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l security as efficiently a s t h e p r e s e n t A i r Officer C o m m a n d i n g .

The views of the Air Ministry

may be summarised

as

follows:—

17.—(i) T h o u g h t h e t e r m s of r e f e r e n c e of t h e S u b - C o m m i t t e e a r e concerned only
w i t h P a l e s t i n e , the p r o b l e m of t h e m i l i t a r y s e c u r i t y of t h a t c o u n t r y is i n d i s s o l u b l y
connected w i t h t h a t of T r a n s - J o r d a n , since i t is t h e l a t t e r c o u n t r y w h i c h forms a
buffer a g a i n s t e x t e r n a l a g g r e s s i o n , a n d i n w h i c h forces for defence a g a i n s t s u c h
a g g r e s s i o n m u s t p r i n c i p a l l y be located. F u r t h e r m o r e , i t is from T r a n s - J o r d a n t h a t
i n r o a d s on a considerable scale m a y be e x p e c t e d t o come in s u p p o r t of r e n e w e d A r a b
a g g r e s s i o n a g a i n s t e i t h e r J e w i s h c o m m u n i t i e s or a g a i n s t t h e G o v e r n m e n t itself.
T h e forces w h i c h h a v e h i t h e r t o been p r o v i d e d for, a n d w h i c h h a v e successfully
achieved, these p u r p o s e s a r e A i r F o r c e s s u p p o r t e d by a r m o u r e d c a r s a n d local levies,
a n d t h e r e can be n o d o u b t t h a t t h e system e m p l o y e d is t h e most economical a n d
efficient i n p r a c t i c e .
S h o u l d t h e forces i n P a l e s t i n e be s e p a r a t e d f r o m those i n
T r a n s - J o r d a n a n d p l a c e d u n d e r t h e W a r Office, m u c h o v e r l a p p i n g of defence
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s Avould r e s u l t , t h e p o w e r of r a p i d m u t u a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t w o u l d be lost,
a d u p l i c a t i o n of h e a d q u a r t e r staffs a n d a n c i l l a r y services w o u l d be needed, a n d t h e
H i g h Commissioner himself w o u l d h a v e t w o m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h w h i c h to d e a l
i n r e s p e c t of t w o c o u n t r i e s whose e x t e r n a l defence problems a r e i d e n t i c a l .
(ii) I t is observed t h a t t h e W a r Office h a v e stressed t h e s o m e w h a t obvious
l i m i t a t i o n s of a i r c r a f t in t h e s u p p o r t of civil p o w e r i n l a r g e t o w n s a n d p o p u l o u s
d i s t r i c t s . T h a t l a n d forces a r e p r e f e r a b l e for t h i s p u r p o s e i s , a n d a l w a y s h a s been,
c l e a r l y recognised by t h e A i r Staff. B u t i t m u s t equally be r e a l i s e d t h a t t h e
j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e i r presence is t h a t they s h o u l d be i m m e d i a t e l y a v a i l a b l e t o
r e i n f o r c e t h e police i n t h e e v e n t of serious d i s t u r b a n c e s . T h e i r f u n c t i o n s a r e t h u s ,
a s t h e e v e n t s of last y e a r proved, of a police r a t h e r t h a n of a s t r i c t l y m i l i t a r y n a t u r e ,
a n d a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e n u m e r i c a l l y s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e a i r a n d associated u n i t s , t h i s
f a c t s h o u l d n o t be r e g a r d e d a s one c o n n o t i n g t h e a s s u m p t i o n of c o n t r o l by t h e W a r
Office. T h e p r i n c i p a l m i l i t a r y p r o b l e m i n t h i s a s i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s i s t h a t of
e x t e r n a l defence, and, a s such, s h o u l d r e m a i n a n A i r M i n i s t r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , b u t i t
m a y be r e l e v a n t to r e m a r k t h a t t h e r e is n o i n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e i n f a n t r y forces
o p e r a t i n g in s u p p o r t of t h e police s h o u l d be p l a c e d u n d e r t h e d i r e c t c o m m a n d of a
R o y a l A i r F o r c e officer. T h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m u n d e r w h i c h t h e r e is a n Officer C o m ­
m a n d i n g M i l i t a r y F o r c e s ( u n d e r t h e g e n e r a l c o n t r o l of t h e A i r Officer C o m m a n d i n g )
w o u l d be c o n t i n u e d , a n d t h e D e f e n c e S c h e m e w o u l d , of course, be p r e p a r e d i n
c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s officer a n d (so f a r as r e i n f o r c e m e n t s a r e concerned) w i t h t h e
military authorities in E g y p t .
(iii) I t h a s been s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e A i r F o r c e s r e s p o n s i b l e for defence a g a i n s t
e x t e r n a l a g g r e s s i o n s h o u l d be s u b o r d i n a t e d t o t h e m i l i t a r y officer c o m m a n d i n g t h e
t r o o p s r e s p o n s i b l e for s u p p o r t i n g t h e civil p o w e r i n case of i n t e r n a l d i s o r d e r .
T h e r e a r e serious objections t o a n y such p r o p o s a l . T h e s t r e n g t h s of t h e A i r F o r c e s
i n t h e v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s in t h e M i d d l e E a s t h a v e been c a l c u l a t e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n
t h a t t h e y will be c a p a b l e of r a p i d m u t u a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t in emergency, a n d n o t one of
t h e m c a n be r e g a r d e d a l o n e a s sufficient f o r all possible c o n t i n g e n c i e s i n t h e c o u n t r y
i n w h i c h i t is located. S h o u l d t h e A i r F o r c e s i n P a l e s t i n e a n d T r a n s - J o r d a n be
s u b o r d i n a t e d to a m i l i t a r y c o m m a n d e r r e s p o n s i b l e to t h e W a r Office, t h i s p o w e r of
r a p i d m u t u a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t w i l l be lost so f a r a s t h o s e c o u n t r i e s a r e concerned a n d
t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e A i r F o r c e s n o w a l l o t t e d t o M i d d l e E a s t e r n c o u n t r i e s w i l l r e q u i r e
r e c a l c u l a t i o n i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a sufficient m a r g i n of safety for each.
(iv) T h e r e is a f u r t h e r o b j e c t i o n to such a p r o p o s a l . T h e success w h i c h h a s
h i t h e r t o a t t e n d e d a i r o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e u n d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s of t h e M i d d l e E a s t is
l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to t h e r a p i d i t y of decision a n d s u b s e q u e n t a c t i o n o b t a i n e d by
close a n d c o n s t a n t c o n s u l t a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e Officer A d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e G o v e r n m e n t
a n d t h e C o m m a n d e r of t h e A i r F o r c e s concerned. B y i n t e r p o s i n g a n a d d i t i o n a l l i n k
i n t h e c h a i n of c o m m a n d , t h i s e s s e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e , w h i c h h a s c o n s t a n t l y been s t r e s s e d
by t h e A i r Staff, would be sacrificed, a n d t h e y w o u l d b e u n a b l e to a c c e p t t h a t d e g r e e
of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e e x t e r n a l defence of T r a n s - J o r d a n a n d P a l e s t i n e by m e a n s of
a i r p o w e r which they a r e confidently p r e p a r e d t o d o u n d e r the. e x i s t i n g o r g a n i s a t i o n .
(v) 1 he W a r Office h a v e e x p r e s s e d t h e v i e w t h a t a n A r m y officer is j u s t a s
c a p a b l e a s a n A i r F o r c e officer of e x e r c i s i n g c o m m a n d over combined a i r a n d l a n d
forces, a n d t h e y p o i n t o u t t h a t all senior A r m y officers a r e t r a i n e d i n t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n

of a i r w i t h m i l i t a r y forces. A p a r t from t h e a r g u m e n t s c o n t a i n e d i n s u b - p a r a g r a p h s
(iii) a n d (iv) above, t h e A i r M i n i s t r y c o n s i d e r t h a t t h i s view, so f a r as i t concerns t h e
p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s of P a l e s t i n e a n d T r a n s - J o r d a n , is b a s e d on a m i s c o n c e p t i o n .
T h e policy u n d e r l y i n g t h e e m p l o y m e n t of m i l i t a r y u n i t s i n s u p p o r t of t h e civil p o w e r
i s p e r f e c t l y u n d e r s t o o d a n d is i n n o w a y c o n t r o v e r s i a l , since i t a p p r o x i m a t e s to t h a t
g o v e r n i n g police action. M o r e o v e r , t h e r e w o u l d be no q u e s t i o n of i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h
t h e m e t h o d s a d o p t e d by t h e Officer C o m m a n d i n g t h e i n f a n t r y force i n P a l e s t i n e ; in
p o i n t of f a c t , t h e t w o A r e a C o m m a n d e r s i n P a l e s t i n e a r e p l a c e d in d i r e c t c o n t a c t
w i t h t h e P o l i t i c a l Officers c o n t r o l l i n g those a r e a s . T h e p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n i n g t h e
e m p l o y m e n t of a i r power, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , a r e n e i t h e r well u n d e r s t o o d nor u n c o n t r o ­
versial.
I n T r a n s - J o r d a n , t h e a i r o p e r a t i o n s a r e n o t of t h e n a t u r e of A r m y
c o - o p e r a t i o n in w h i c h senior A r m y officers a r e t r a i n e d , since t h e y involve t h e employ­
m e n t of a i r p o w e r a s a p r i m a r y offensive a r m ; s u c h o p e r a t i o n s r e q u i r e c o n s t a n t a n d
close c o n t r o l by t h e A i r Officer C o m m a n d i n g , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e H i g h Com­
m i s s i o n e r , w h o h a s himself p l a c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s t r i c t i o n s u p o n t h e i r scope u n d e r
v a r y i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h e r e h a v e , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , been several occasions u p o n w h i c h
t h e A i r Staff h a v e felt compelled to c o m m e n t on t h e i n c o r r e c t p r i n c i p l e s u p o n w h i c h
a i r p o w e r h a s been a p p l i e d i n o t h e r s p h e r e s u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n of m i l i t a r y officers.
T h o u g h i t is p e r h a p s n a t u r a l t h a t such cases s h o u l d occur i n t h e p r e s e n t s t a g e of a i r
development, t h e r e is no d o u b t t h a t for m a n y y e a r s to come, t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of a i r
p o w e r w i t h efficiency a n d economy can only be effected u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e of t h o s e
w h o s e b u s i n e s s i t is to m a k e a close a n d c o n s t a n t s t u d y of t h e p r i n c i p l e s involved.
(vi) T h e W a r Office h a v e r e f e r r e d to t h e s i t u a t i o n t h a t w o u l d a r i s e i n t h e event
of f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e m e n t s b e i n g d e s p a t c h e d to P a l e s t i n e , u n d e r w h i c h i t m i g h t be
d e e m e d n e c e s s a r y to vest t h e c o n t r o l of o p e r a t i o n s in a M i l i t a r y Officer as w a s d o n e
l a s t A u g u s t . T h e y m a i n t a i n t h a t i t is u n s o u n d a n d illogical to rely on one s y s t e m
w h e n t h i n g s go well a n d to a d o p t a n o t h e r w h e n t r o u b l e s b r e a k out. T h e A i r Staff
m u s t p o i n t o u t t h a t a n exactly s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n m i g h t a r i s e if c o n t r o l w e r e t r a n s ­
f e r r e d to t h e W a r Office; e x t e r n a l a g g r e s s i o n m i g h t well develop to a n e x t e n t
d e m a n d i n g t h e r e i n f o r c e m e n t of t h e a i r u n i t s in T r a n s - J o r d a n a n d P a l e s t i n e , a n d
t h e b a l a n c e of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y m i g h t t h e r e b y be so c h a n g e d a s to j u s t i f y t h e a s s u m p t i o n
o f o p e r a t i o n a l control by t h e A i r M i n i s t r y . T h e decision as to t h e d e p a r t m e n t w h i c h
s h o u l d be i n control u n d e r n o r m a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s c a n n o t , i n t h e view of the A i r Staff,
be d i c t a t e d by h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n t i n g e n c i e s .
I t is n o more likely t h a t f u r t h e r
r e i n f o r c e m e n t s w i l l be r e q u i r e d in P a l e s t i n e t h a n i n I r a q , a n d a l i t e r a l a c c e p t a n c e of
t h e W a r Office c o n t e n t i o n w o u l d i m p l y t h a t m i l i t a r y c o n t r o l i n I r a q s h o u l d also be
t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e W a r Office m e r e l y because t h e D e f e n c e Scheme i n force i n t h a t
c o u n t r y involves t h e d e s p a t c h of a r m y r e i n f o r c e m e n t s . I t w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t
t h e r e s p e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e Services a r e b o u n d to v a r y from t i m e to t i m e
u n d e r s t r e s s of c i r c u m s t a n c e s .
(vii) F i n a l l y , no survey of t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s of W a r Office a n d A i r M i n i s t r y
control w o u l d be complete- w i t h o u t a r e f e r e n c e to d e p a r t m e n t a l r e a c t i o n s a t h o m e .
U n d e r t h e e x i s t i n g r e g i m e t h e C o l o n i a l Office h a v e , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , a s i n g l e
service d e p a r t m e n t , n a m e l y , t h e A i r M i n i s t r y , a c t i n g a s t h e i r a g e n t s in r e s p e c t of
t h e M i d d l e E a s t e r n c o u n t r i e s for w h i c h t h e y a r e responsible, i.e., I r a q , P a l e s t i n e ,
T r a n s J o r d a n a n d A d e n . T h e a d v a n t a g e s of t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t a r e obvious, a n d
f u r n i s h t h e p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n u n d e r l y i n g t h e i n v i t a t i o n to t h e A i r M i n i s t r y bj^ t h e
C o l o n i a l Office i n 1922 to act as t h e i r a g e n t s i n P a l e s t i n e a n d T r a n s - J o r d a n .
Not
t h e l e a s t of t h e d r a w b a c k s of a t r a n s f e r e n c e of t h i s agency to t h e W a r Office w o u l d
l i e i n t h e fact t h a t t h e Service D e p a r t m e n t responsible for d e a l i n g w i t h the c o n s t a n t
i n c i d e n t s on t h e f r o n t i e r s of N e j d a n d H e j a z w o u l d , i n t h e case of t h e E a s t e r n
f r o n t i e r , be t h e A i r M i n i s t r y , a n d , i n t h a t of t h e W e s t e r n f r o n t i e r , t h e W a r Office.

The Control

of Operations

in the event

of Reinforcements

being

sent

to

Palestine.

18. T h i s q u e s t i o n is necessarily closely i n t e r l o c k e d w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s one. I n
t h e e v e n t of c o m m a n d b e i n g t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e A i r M i n i s t r y to t h e W a r Office,
i t w o u l d n o t a r i s e , since r e i n f o r c e m e n t s w o u l d i n all p r o b a b i l i t y be p r e p o n d e r a t i n g l y
military.

I f i t i s d e c i d e d t h a t a n officer of t h e R . A . F . should r e m a i n i n c o m m a n d in
n o r m a l t i m e s of peace, t h e C o m m i t t e e a r e of o p i n i o n t h a t effect should be given to
t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n of t h e C h i e f s of Staff a t t h e i r m e e t i n g of t h e 11th December,
1925.
T h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n w a s t h a t , " a s a m a t t e r of p r i n c i p l e , w h e n t h e
o p e r a t i o n s of a B r i t i s h force become d e p e n d e n t p r i m a r i l y on t h e l a n d forces, t h e
c o m m a n d should r e s t w i t h a M i l i t a r y officer, t h e s a m e p r i n c i p l e a p p l y i n g ,
mutatis
mutandis,
t o t h e forces of t h e o t h e r S e r v i c e s . "
(Signed)

PASSFIELD.

On behalf of t h e S u b - C o m m i t t e e .

2, Whitehall
Gardens,
S. W. 1,
June 27, 1930.

( C . I . D . P a p e r No. 3 4 5 - C - a l s o P . G . S . 2.)
APPENDIX.

Letter

from

the Colonial

Office to the Secretary,
Committee
with
Enclosures.

of Imperial

Defence,

(77023/30.)
Sir,
Downing
Street, Mcuy 12, 1930.
I A M d i r e c t e d b y L o r d Passfield to t r a n s m i t t o you, t o be l a i d before t h e
C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l D e f e n c e , t h e following e x t r a c t ( E n c l o s u r e N o . 1) from t h e
d r a f t M i n u t e s of t h e F i r s t M e e t i n g of t h e P a l e s t i n e C a b i n e t C o m m i t t e e r e l a t i n g t o
g a r r i s o n q u e s t i o n s in P a l e s t i n e . A copy is also enclosed (Enclosure N o . 2) of the n o t e
by t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e on t h e subject, w h i c h is r e f e r r e d to i n t h e d r a f t M i n u t e s .
2. I t will be observed t h a t t h e C o m m i t t e e a g r e e d to L o r d P a s s f i e l d ' s p r o p o s a l
t o r e f e r to t h e C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l Defence, f o r t h e f a v o u r of t h e i r advice, t h e
f o l l o w i n g three q u e s t i o n s : —
(1) T h e s t r e n g t h , c o m p o s i t i o n , & c , of t h e f u t u r e g a r r i s o n i n P a l e s t i n e ;
(2) T h e s u g g e s t e d t r a n s f e r of control from t h e A i r M i n i s t r y to t h e W a r Office;
and
(3) T h e control of o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e event of r e i n f o r c e m e n t s b e i n g sent t o
Palestine.
3. I n t h i s connection r e f e r e n c e is i n v i t e d t o t h e e x t r a c t f r o m t h e R e p o r t o f
t h e C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P a l e s t i n e D i s t u r b a n c e s , q u o t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e
S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e ' s n o t e ( E n c l o s u r e N o . 2) r e f e r r e d to above. T h e C o m m i s s i o n
s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e m o s t s u i t a b l e form of g a r r i s o n for P a l e s t i n e
s h o u l d be considered by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a d v i s e r s of H i s M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t ,
w h o s e a t t e n t i o n should be d r a w n t o the views e x p r e s s e d to t h e m
by
A i r Vice-Marshal Dowding a n d Brigadier Dobbie. Those views have already been
c o m m u n i c a t e d to t h e C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l Defence i n t h e copy of t h e t r a n s c r i p t
of n o t e s of evidence g i v e n b y t h e t w o officers c o n c e r n e d before t h e C o m m i s s i o n
( E n c l o s u r e N o . 3).
A t t e n t i o n i s also i n v i t e d t o t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g e x t r a c t
( E n c l o s u r e No. 4) from a d e s p a t c h from t h e H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r for P a l e s t i n e ,
d a t e d t h e 17th J a n u a r y , 1930, i n w h i c h S i r J . C h a n c e l l o r discusses g a r r i s o n
q u e s t i o n s . A copy of t h e M e m o r a n d u m r e f e r r e d t o in p a r a g r a p h 92 of t h e d e s p a t c h
is also enclosed ( E n c l o s u r e N o . 5). I t w i l l be seen t h a t S i r J . C h a n c e l l o r c o n s i d e r s —
(a) t h a t the p e r m a n e n t g a r r i s o n of P a l e s t i n e should i n c l u d e t w o b a t t a l i o n s of
B r i t i s h I n f a n t r y , w i t h t h e necessary a n c i l l a r y s e r v i c e s ;
(b) t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for p u b l i c s e c u r i t y i n P a l e s t i n e s h o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d
from t h e A i r M i n i s t r y t o t h e W a r Office;
(c) t h a t for defence p u r p o s e s P a l e s t i n e s h o u l d be m a d e p a r t of t h e E g y p t i a n
military command.
!

1

4. T h e p o s i t i o n w i t h r e g a r d to t h e r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n of t h e police i s t h a t t h e
S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e is s t i l l a w a i t i n g t h e final r e p o r t by M r . H . L . D o w b i g g i n . A s ,
h o w e v e r , is p o i n t e d o u t i n t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e ' s n o t e to t h e P a l e s t i n e C a b i n e t
C o m m i t t e e (Enclosure N o . 2), t h e r e a p p e a r s to be n o necessity t o defer c o n s i d e r a t i o n
of g a r r i s o n questions p e n d i n g t h e r e c e i p t of t h a t r e p o r t , since M r . D o w b i g g i n ' s
v i e w s on police q u e s t i o n s , i n so f a r as t h e y affect t h e g a r r i s o n , h a v e a l r e a d y been
received i n h i s p r e l i m i n a r y s t a t e m e n t of r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d to t h e
d i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h police a n d t h e p r o t e c t i o n of J e w i s h Colonies. T h e s e views­
a r e g i v e n i n t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e ' s note r e f e r r e d to above ( E n c l o s u r e N o . 2).
5. L o r d Passfield w o u l d be g l a d if t h e C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l D e f e n c e w o u l d
be good e n o u g h t o consider q u e s t i o n s (1) a n d (2) r e f e r r e d to i n p a r a g r a p h 2 of t h i s
l e t t e r i n t h e l i g h t of t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s set o u t above, a n d f u r n i s h t h e i r a d v i c e
t h e r e o n . A d e s p a t c h h a s r e c e n t l y been received from t h e H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r
P a l e s t i n e f o r w a r d i n g a copy of a l e t t e r sent t o t h e A i r M i n i s t r y by t h e A i r Officer
C o m m a n d i n g , P a l e s t i n e a n d T r a n s - J o r d a n , o u t l i n i n g the p r o p o s e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of

t h e M i l i t a r y a n d A i r F o r c e s t o p r o v i d e for t h e i n t e r n a l security of P a l e s t i n e .
C o p i e s of t h a t d e s p a t c h a n d enclosure (Enclosure N o . 6) a r e f o r w a r d e d h e r e w i t h , a s
t h e i n f o r m a t i o n given t h e r e i n m a y be of a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l
Defence in t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e above t w o q u e s t i o n s .
6. I n t h e event of t h e C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l D e f e n c e a d v i s i n g a g a i n s t t h e
s u g g e s t e d t r a n s f e r of control f r o m t h e A i r M i n i s t r y to t h e W a r Office, L o r d Passfield
w o u l d be g l a d of t h e i r a d v i c e o n t h e t h i r d q u e s t i o n r e f e r r e d to i n p a r a g r a p h 2 of
t h i s l e t t e r , n a m e l y , t h e control of o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e e v e n t of r e i n f o r c e m e n t s b e i n g
sent t o P a l e s t i n e . T h i s q u e s t i o n w a s r a i s e d in p a r a g r a p h 2 of a l e t t e r a d d r e s s e d b y
t h e W a r Office t o t h e C o l o n i a l Office, d a t e d t h e 2 0 t h F e b r u a r y , 1930, a copy of w h i c h
f o r m s E n c l o s u r e No. 7 t o t h i s l e t t e r . T h e q u e s t i o n w o u l d n o t , of course, a r i s e i n
t h e e v e n t of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for p u b l i c s e c u r i t y i n P a l e s t i n e b e i n g t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m
t h e A i r M i n i s t r y t o t h e W a r Office.
I a m , &c.
O . G. R. W I L L I A M S .

ENCLOSURE

Extract

from

the Draft

Minutes

of the First

Committee,
tr

NO.

-Jv­

1.

Meeting

of the Palestine

Cabinet

May 1, 1930.
vv

-TV

TAe Garrison in
Palestine.
T h e C o m m i t t e e h a d before t h e m a N o t e by t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e for t h e Colonies
d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s t r e n g t h , c o m p o s i t i o n , & c , of t h e f u t u r e g a r r i s o n of P a l e s t i n e , a n d
t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for p u b l i c s e c u r i t y i n t h a t c o u n t r y .
L O R D P A S S F I E L D s a i d t h a t h e p r o p o s e d , w i t h t h e c o n c u r r e n c e of t h e
C o m m i t t e e , t o r e f e r these q u e s t i o n s t o t h e C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l D e f e n c e .
R e f e r r i n g t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for p u b l i c s e c u r i t y s h o u l d be t r a n s ­
f e r r e d f r o m t h e A i r M i n i s t r y to t h e W a r Office, h e a s k e d L o r d T h o m s o n for h i s v i e w s .
L O R D T H O M S O N said t h a t the point was whether external and internal
defence w e r e t o be s e p a r a t e d i n t o t w o d e p a r t m e n t s i n v o l v i n g t w o h e a d q u a r t e r s i n
P a l e s t i n e . A s h e u n d e r s t o o d ife, t h e chief A r a b d a n g e r w a s t h e influx of A r a b s over
t h e T r a n s - J o r d a n b o r d e r i n t o P a l e s t i n e for t h e p u r p o s e of m u r d e r i n g J e w s . T h e
o n l y effective w a y t o s t o p t h i s i n g r e s s w a s by m e a n s of a n a i r force i n T r a n s - J o r d a n .
T h e o t h e r p r o b l e m t o be f a c e d w a s a q u e s t i o n of k e e p i n g o r d e r i n t h e towns i n
P a l e s t i n e . A d m i t t e d l y , t h e A i r E o r c e could n o t d e a l w i t h t h i s , a n d t h e a n s w e r
a p p e a r e d t o be a n efficient police force. H e s u g g e s t e d i t w a s b a d b o t h f r o m t h e
m i l i t a r y a n d p o l i t i c a l p o i n t of v i e w t o k e e p s o l d i e r s i n P a l e s t i n e for m a i n t a i n i n g
i n t e r n a l o r d e r . I f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for p u b l i c s e c u r i t y i n P a l e s t i n e w a s t r a n s f e r r e d to
t h e W a r Office, e i t h e r t w o h e a d q u a r t e r s w o u l d h a v e to be m a i n t a i n e d , o r t h e W a r
Office w o u l d h a v e t o t a k e over t h e defence of t h e T r a n s - J o r d a n f r o n t i e r , w h i c h , h e
considered, w a s a p u r e l y a i r p r o p o s i t i o n . T o d e f e n d t h i s f r o n t i e r w i t h t r o o p s w o u l d
be a v e r y l a r g e m i l i t a r y c o m m i t m e n t , a n d , u p to d a t e , all a t t e m p t s a t i n v a s i o n h a d
been effectively a n d c h e a p l y d e a l t w i t h by t h e A i r F o r c e .
M r . S H A W s a i d h e d i d n o t see why, if c i r c u m s t a n c e s h a d c h a n g e d , t h e l i m i t e d
a i r force i n T r a n s - J o r d a n s h o u l d n o t be p u t u n d e r t h e m i l i t a r y c o m m a n d i n
P a l e s t i n e , j u s t as t h e A i r Officer C o m m a n d i n g w a s n o w c o m m a n d i n g t h e t w o
battalions in Palestine.
L O R D T H O M S O N r e p l i e d t h a t , o w i n g t o t h e i r l a c k of s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g a n d
e x p e r i e n c e , m i l i t a r y officers could n o t be e x p e c t e d to d i r e c t t h e o p e r a t i o n s of a i r u n i t s
a s effectively as R o y a l A i r F o r c e Officers.
M r . H E N D E R S O N asked w h y t h e defence of T r a n s - J o r d a n s h o u l d n o t c o n t i n u e
on t h e s a m e lines as a t p r e s e n t .
L O R D P A S S F I E L D observed t h a t , i n h i s P a p e r , t h e r e w a s n o p r o p o s a l t h a t
b o t h T r a n s - J o r d a n a n d P a l e s t i n e s h o u l d be b r o u g h t u n d e r t h e s a m e m i l i t a r y
c o m m a n d . H e r e a d a n e x t r a c t f r o m t h e l e t t e r t o t h e T r e a s u r y ( P . C . (30) 3) r e g a r d i n g
t h e cost of t h e T r a n s - J o r d a n f r o n t i e r force. P a l e s t i n e w a s n o t in a p o s i t i o n t o m e e t
u n a i d e d t h e b u r d e n of m a i n t a i n i n g t h e police force, a n d of m a k i n g a c o n t r i b u t i o n o n
tihe p r e s e n t bases t o w a r d s t h e cost of t h e T r a n s - J o r d a n f r o n t i e r force (five-sixths)
a n d t h e B r i t i s h forces s t a t i o n e d i n P a l e s t i n e a n d T r a n s - J o r d a n (excess cost). T h e
H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r h a d , t h e r e f o r e , asked t h a t P a l e s t i n e s h o u l d n o w b e a r n o t m o r e
t h a n two-fifths of t h e cost of t h e T r a n s - J o r d a n f r o n t i e r force.
L O R D T H O M S O N observed t h a t t h e W a r Office w a n t e d t o p l a c e t h e t w o
b a t t a l i o n s n o w i n P a l e s t i n e , w h i c h i t seemed m i g h t h a v e to r e m a i n t h e r e indefinitely,
u n d e r t h e E g y p t i a n c o m m a n d . T o h i s m i n d t h e big q u e s t i o n w a s w h e t h e r w e w e r e
g o i n g to c o n t i n u e u s i n g i n f a n t r y b a t t a l i o n s for t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of i n t e r n a l o r d e r i n
Mandated Territories.
M r S H A W s a i d he w a s q u i t e a w a r e of t h e p o l i t i c a l objections to t h e use of
t r o o p s for t h i s p u r p o s e , b u t so long a s t h e r e w a s no a l t e r n a t i v e t h e y w o u l d h a v e t o
r e m a i n t h e r e . N o t h i n g would p l e a s e t h e W a r Office m o r e t h a n t o w i t h d r a w t h e t w o

battalions, a n d he knew t h a t the C.I.G.S. w a s strongly in favourof internal security
b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n by police forces. So long, however, as t h e t r o o p s were i n P a l e s t i n e ,
t h e n a t u r a l c e n t r e of c o n t r o l a p p e a r e d t o be t h e m i l i t a r y h e a d q u a r t e r s i n E g y p t .
H e w a s n o t p r e p a r e d to e n t e r i n t o t e c h n i c a l reasons, which, h e s u g g e s t e d , s h o u l d be
d e a l t w i t h by t h e C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l Defence.
L O R D P A S S F I E L D , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e use of police for i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y , s a i d
t h a t M r . D o w b i g g i n h a d r e c o m m e n d e d a n i n c r e a s e of t h e w h i t e police i n P a l e s t i n e t o
a b o u t 750, i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e m o r e s e c u r i t y for t h e n u m e r o u s s c a t t e r e d J e w i s h
colonies. E v e n w i t h t h i s i n c r e a s e he could n o t g a r r i s o n more t h a n a p r o p o r t i o n of
t h e colonies, a n d for t h i s r e a s o n i t h a d been d e c i d e d t o r e t a i n sealed a r m o u r i e s u n d e r
t h e c o n t r o l of t h e v i l l a g e h e a d m e n . T h e r e w a s n o i n t e n t i o n of d i s p e r s i n g t h e t w o
infantry battalions unduly.
M R . S H A W r e m a r k e d t h a t t h e m a i n objections t o sealed a r m o u r i e s w a s t h a t
they provided irresponsible people with deadly weapons.
CONCLUSIONS.

(i) I t w a s a g r e e d t h a t L o r d Passfield should r e f e r to t h e C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l
D e f e n c e t h e q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n P a p e r N o . P . C . (30) 5 * r e g a r d i n g t h e g a r r i s o n i n
P a l e s t i n e a n d t h e t r a n s f e r of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for p u b l i c security, t o g e t h e r w i t h all
n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e police d i s p o s i t i o n s .
(ii) L o r d Passfield u n d e r t o o k to m a k e e n q u i r i e s as to w h a t m o r a l p r e s s u r e could
be b r o u g h t t o b e a r on t h e J e w i s h p o p u l a t i o n t o a v o i d p r o v o c a t i v e i n c i d e n t s such a s
h a d been r e f e r r e d to.
^

-X
1

^

$fe

ENCLOSURE

No.

2.

[ P a p e r No. P . C . (30) 5.]
Note

by the Secretary

of State

for the

Colonies.

I W O U L D i n v i t e a t t e n t i o n to t h e f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t from t h e R e p o r t of t h e
C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P a l e s t i n e d i s t u r b a n c e s of A u g u s t 1929 ( p a g e 145) :—
" T h e e v e n t s of A u g u s t l a s t clearly established t h a t for t h e d u t i e s of
c h e c k i n g w i d e s p r e a d d i s t u r b a n c e s a n d restoring" o r d e r in P a l e s t i n e i n f a n t r y a r e
m o r e effective t h a n a r e e i t h e r a e r o p l a n e s o r a r m o u r e d c a r s . O n t h e w i d e r
q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r a e r o p l a n e s a n d a r m o u r e d c a r s a r e the m o s t s u i t a b l e f o r m of
g a r r i s o n for P a l e s t i n e t h e r e w a s d i r e c t conflict between t h e evidence of t h e
e x p e r t s w h o a p p e a r e d before u s , a n d w e c a n only suggest t h a t t h i s q u e s t i o n
s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a d v i s e r s of H i s M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t ,
w h o s e a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d , w e consider, be d r a w n to t h e views e x p r e s s e d to u s by
A i r V i c e - M a r s h a l D o w d i n g a n d B r i g a d i e r Dobbie.
W e r e c o m m e n d t h a t , u n t i l t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e form of t h e f u t u r e g a r r i s o n
h a s been decided, a n d t h e r e a f t e r u n t i l r a c i a l feeling in P a l e s t i n e h a s s h o w n some
m a r k e d i m p r o v e m e n t , n o r e d u c t i o n should be m a d e in t h e p r e s e n t g a r r i s o n of
t w o b a t t a l i o n s of i n f a n t r y . "
A p a r t from t h e above q u e s t i o n , t h e r e h a v e also been r a i s e d t h e q u e s t i o n s
(a) w h e t h e r t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e defence of P a l e s t i n e should n o t be t r a n s f e r r e d
from t h e A i r M i n i s t r y to t h e W a r Office, a n d (b) w h e t h e r , w i t h o u t a l t e r i n g t h e
p r e s e n t g e n e r a l a r r a n g e m e n t s , t h e c o n t r o l of o p e r a t i o n s in t h e e v e n t of r e i n f o r c e ­
m e n t s b e i n g sent to P a l e s t i n e , s h o u l d n o t be vested i n t h e h a n d s of a m i l i t a r y
C o m m a n d e r . T h e first q u e s t i o n w a s r a i s e d by t h e H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r for P a l e s t i n e
i n a Confidential d e s p a t c h , d a t e d t h e 1 7 t h J a n u a r y , 1930, w h i c h I c i r c u l a t e d tc
m e m b e r s of t h e C a b i n e t u n d e r cover of a m e m o r a n d u m , d a t e d t h e 2 7 t h M a r c h , 1930
* Printed as Enclosure No. 2 to this document.

( C . P . 108 (30) ). I n t h a t d e s p a t c h S i r J o h n C h a n c e l l o r e x p r e s s e d t h e f o l l o w i n g v i e w s
w i t h r e g a r d to t h e g a r r i s o n : —
1. T h a t t h e p e r m a n e n t g a r r i s o n in P a l e s t i n e should include t w o b a t t a l i o n s of
B r i t i s h i n f a n t r y w i t h t h e necessary a n c i l l a r y services.
2. T h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for p u b l i c s e c u r i t y i n P a l e s t i n e s h o u l d b e t r a n s f e r r e d
f r o m t h e A i r M i n i s t r y to t h e W a r Office.
3. T h a t f o r defence p u r p o s e s P a l e s t i n e should be m a d e p a r t of t h e E g y p t i a n
m i l i t a r y command.
Q u e s t i o n (b) w a s r a i s e d i n p a r a g r a p h 5 of a l e t t e r a d d r e s s e d by t h e W a r Office
t o t h e A i r M i n i s t r y , 0 1 7 6 / 3 1 7 (M.O. 2), d a t e d t h e 2 0 t h F e b r u a r y , 1930 ( E n c l o s u r e
N o . 7).
A s my colleagues on t h e S u b - C o m m i t t e e a r e n o d o u b t a w a r e , M r . H . L . D o w b i g g i n ,
I n s p e c t o r - G e n e r a l of P o l i c e , Ceylon, is a t p r e s e n t i n P a l e s t i n e f o r t h e p u r p o s e of
a d v i s i n g on t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n of t h e P a l e s t i n e police. I h a v e n o t yet received h i s final
r e p o r t . H e h a s , however, s u b m i t t e d a p r e l i m i n a r y s t a t e m e n t of his r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s
w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h police a n d t h e p r o t e c t i o n of J e w i s h
colonies. T h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , w h i c h I h a v e a p p r o v e d , a r e based on t h e
a s s u m p t i o n s (1) t h a t m i l i t a r y a n d B r i t i s h police will be r e q u i r e d i n P a l e s t i n e for a t
l e a s t 20 y e a r s ; (2) t h a t t h e g a r r i s o n w i l l i n c l u d e 2 I n f a n t r y b a t t a l i o n s , a n d
2 c o m p a n i e s of t h e T r a n s - J o r d a n F r o n t i e r F o r c e , a s well as t h e R o y a l A i r F o r c e a n d
A r m o u r e d C a r s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t , i n M r . D o w b i g g i n ' s o p i n i o n , it w i l l t a k e a t l e a s t
20 y e a r s , u n d e r t h e m o s t f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s , t o a t t a i n a r e a s o n a b l e s t a t e of
efficiency a m o n g t h e P a l e s t i n i a n p o l i c e ; t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n s of t h e police s h o u l d b e to
p r e v e n t d i s t u r b a n c e s - w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e ; a n d t h a t t h e m i l i t a r y should be called i n
t o a s s i s t t h e civil p o w e r only w h e n t h e necessity a r i s e s . I n view of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n
g i v e n i n M r . D o w b i g g i n ' s p r e l i m i n a r y s t a t e m e n t , i t seems u n n e c e s s a r y t o d e f e r
c o n s i d e r a t i o n of q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to t h e g a r r i s o n p e n d i n g t h e r e c e i p t of h i s r e p o r t
on t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n of t h e police. I a m of t h e o p i n i o n t h a t these q u e s t i o n s c a n m o s t
s u i t a b l y be e x a m i n e d by t h e C o m m i t t e e of I m p e r i a l Defence. S u b j e c t , t h e r e f o r e ,
t o t h e c o n c u r r e n c e of m y colleagues, I p r o p o s e t o r e f e r t o t h a t body t h e f o l l o w i n g
questions :—
(1) T h e s t r e n g t h , c o m p o s i t i o n , & c , of t h e f u t u r e g a r r i s o n .
(2) T h e s u g g e s t e d t r a n s f e r of control f r o m t h e A i r M i n i s t r y t o t h e W a r Office.
(3) T h e control of o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e event of r e i n f o r c e m e n t s b e i n g sent t o
Palestine.
(Initialled)
Colonial

Office,

May

1, 1930.

ENCLOSURE No.

Transcript

P.

3.

of Notes and Evidence
by Brigadier
Bobbie and Air
Vice-Marshal
Dowding
given in c a m e r a before the Commission
of
Inquiry
I.
SUMMARY.

( P r e p a r e d by B r i g a d i e r Dobbie.)
1. T H E defence force for P a l e s t i n e s h o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d s e p a r a t e l y f r o m t h a t
for T r a n s - J o r d a n i a .
2. E x p e r i e n c e h a s shown t h a t P a l e s t i n e h a s a n e x t e r n a l as well a s a n i n t e r n a l
problem.
3. T h e defence of P a l e s t i n e s h o u l d be e n t r u s t e d t o t h e A r m y r a t h e r t h a n to t h e
Royal A i r Force.

4. R o y a l A i r F o r c e u n i t s by themselves a r e n o t s u i t e d t o t h e d u t i e s r e q u i r e d in
P a l e s t i n e . T h e y m a y be m o r e s u i t e d to T r a n s - J o r d a n i a .
(a) A e r o p l a n e s , n a t u r a l l y , c a n n o t be a l l o w e d to develop t h e i r full offensive
p o w e r , i.e., bombs a n d m a c h i n e - g u n fire.
(b) A e r o p l a n e a c t i o n c a n n o t b u t be i n d i s c r i m i n a t e . Difficult to d i s t i n g u i s h
f r i e n d from foe.
(c) A e r o p l a n e s c a n n o t o p e r a t e effectively a t n i g h t — w h e n t r o u b l e is m o s t likely
t o occur.
(d) A r m o u r e d c a r s a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o r o a d s . M a n y p a r t s of t h e c o u n t r y c a n n o t
be influenced by t h e m . T h e i r influence e x t e n d s s i m p l y t o t h e i r i m m e d i a t e
neighbourhood.
(e) U n e c o n o m i c a l t o u s e t h e m for s t a t i c d u t i e s .
(/) T h e p e o p l e of t h e c o u n t r y h a v e r e a l i s e d these l i m i t a t i o n s , a n d m o r a l effect
of a e r o p l a n e s a n d a r m o u r e d cars is consequently g r e a t l y d i m i n i s h e d .
5. T w o B r i t i s h b a t t a l i o n s (one a t J e r u s a l e m a n d one a t H a i f a ) , a n d some
a r m o u r e d c a r s should be n o r m a l g a r r i s o n . N . B . — P o s s i b l e one b a t t a l i o n m i g h t be
r e p l a c e d by a c a v a l r y r e g i m e n t — b u t t h i s w o u l d n o t be q u i t e so good.
6.

Bolice:—(a)

B u l k of police should be r e c r u i t e d f r o m o u t s i d e P a l e s t i n e .
(b) N u m b e r of B r i t i s h police s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c r e a s e d t o
say 600.
II.

Evidence
of Brigadier
Palestine
Commission

Dobbie given before the Chairman
of Inquiry
i n c a m e r a on Wednesday,

and Members
of the
November 6, 1929.

C H A I R M A N : W e h a v e got t o m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s on t h e m a t t e r of s a f e ­
g u a r d i n g t h e c o u n t r y f r o m d i s t u r b a n c e s of t h i s n a t u r e in t h e f u t u r e ? — A . Yes.
Q. So w e w a n t e d to a s k y o u f r o m your e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e c o u n t r y w h i c h y o u
t h i n k w o u l d be t h e correct w a y i n w h i c h t o p r o t e c t t h e people of P a l e s t i n e f r o m
f u r t h e r o u t b r e a k s of t h i s n a t u r e . — A . Y o u k n o w I a m n o t i n c o m m a n d h e r e now so
i t is a l i t t l e difficult for m e to give advice.
C H A I R M A N : Y o u h a v e seen w h a t t r o u b l e a r i s e s a n d i t w o u l d be very v a l u a b l e
t o u s t o h a v e y o u r o p i n i o n on t h e subject.
S I R H E N R Y B E T T E R T O N : T h e difficulty t h e G e n e r a l is in
A. M y
p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n a s B r i g a d i e r D o b b i e I s h o u l d be g l a d t o give you, b u t A i r V i c e M a r s h a l D o w d i n g is m y chief a n d it is for h i m to t e n d e r official advice.
C H A I R M A N : W e c a n a s k h i s o p i n i o n a s well, but t h e r e is n o r e a s o n w h y y o u
s h o u l d n o t g i v e y o u r s . — A . I s h o u l d be g l a d t o give you m y views. I h a v e a l r e a d y
given them to him a n d he h a s forwarded them t o the A i r Ministry.
—A.

Q. I t h i n k w e h a d b e t t e r see h i m too, b u t I t h i n k we should l i k e to h e a r y o u r s .
Y o u w a n t i t i n very g e n e r a l t e r m s I t a k e i t .

Q. W e w i l l see w h a t you tell u s a n d t h e n w e c a n p u t a n y q u e s t i o n s w e w i s h t o
p u t . — A . T h e r e w e r e t w o t h i n g s t h a t s t r u c k m e . T h e defence force of t h i s c o u n t r y
w a s l u m p e d i n w i t h t h a t of T r a n s - J o r d a n before t h e troubles began. I t w a s T r a n s J o r d a n a n d P a l e s t i n e t o g e t h e r a n d so m a n y a e r o p l a n e s a n d a r m o u r e d c a r s w e r e
a l l o t t e d t o t h e m t o g e t h e r . I t h i n k t h e problems of t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s a r e so very
different f r o m e a c h o t h e r t h a t I t h i n k the defence forces for t h e t w o o u g h t t o be
c a l c u l a t e d s e p a r a t e l y . T h a t is t h e first p o i n t . A s r e g a r d s P a l e s t i n e I h a v e n o
d o u b t i n m y m i n d t h a t t h e p r o p e r k i n d of force t o have h e r e is a n a r m y force a n d
n o t a n a i r force. T h e a i r u n i t s t h a t t h e y h a v e h e r e , t h e a e r o p l a n e s a n d t h e a r m o u r e d
c a r s w h i c h a r e t h e only t w o k i n d s of t h i n g s t h a t t h e y c a n h a v e , n e i t h e r of t h e m , e i t h e r
s e p a r a t e l y or t o g e t h e r , c a n fill t h e bill. A e r o p l a n e s a r e r e a l l y a bluff. T h e only
t h i n g t h e y c a n do is to d r o p bombs o r to shoot w i t h t h e i r m a c h i n e - g u n s a n d t h e i r
a c t i o n is e x t r e m e l y i n d i s c r i m i n a t e a n d t h e p e o p l e of t h i s c o u n t r y , I a m p r e t t y sure,
h a v e n o w t a k e n t h e i r m e a s u r e , h a v e n o w r e a l i s e d t h a t t h e y a r e a bluff. I c a n n o t
i m a g i n e t h a t w e w o u l d n e v e r be w i l l i n g t o use t h e i r full p o w e r s because i t is
u n t h i n k a b l e . T h e y a r e i n d i s c r i m i n a t e . A r m o u r e d cars c a n only g e t w h e r e t h e r e
a r e good r o a d s o r r e a s o n a b l y good r o a d s a n d t h e c r e w i n t h e a r m o u r e d car is so small
i t c a n n o t get o u t a n d do s o m e t h i n g a t some d i s t a n c e off. T h e a r m o u r e d c a r c a n j u s t

e x e r t influence i n i t s own i m m e d i a t e v i c i n i t y . T h e r e a r e l o t s of p l a c e s w h i c h t h e y
c a n n o t g o t o i n t h e c o u n t r y a n d if you w a n t e d t o m a k e its influence felt r e a s o n a b l y
w i d e l y you w o u l d h a v e t o h a v e a t r e m e n d o u s lot of t h e m w h i c h w o u l d be v e r y e x p e n ­
sive a n d even so t h e y w o u l d n o t be able to fill t h e i r p u r p o s e .
Q. A n d a s to r i o t s i n t o w n s ? — A . I n t o w n s like t h e old C i t y of J e r u s a l e m they
a r e useless.
Q. A n d a e r o p l a n e s a n d a r m o u r e d c a r s ? — A . A e r o p l a n e s a n d a r m o u r e d cars,
t h e y a r e not, g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , s u i t a b l e . T h e y a r e h i g h l y mobile t h i n g s ; they
c a n n o t n a t u r a l l y s t a y in o n e p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e . I t is a g r e a t w a s t e of effort to keep a n
a r m o u r e d c a r s t a t i o n a r y i n o n e p l a c e . I t s v a l u e is i n b e i n g able t o g e t f r o m one p l a c e
t o a n o t h e r quickly, b u t t h e r e a r e cases w h e r e y o u n e e d to h a v e p e o p l e s t a y i n g in a
p l a c e a n d a r m o u r e d c a r s a r e n o t t h e r i g h t s o r t of t i l i n g for that"
M R . S N E L L : W h e n y o u a r e t h i n k i n g of a n a r m o u r e d c a r a r e you t h i n k i n g of
i n f a n t r y ? — A . I m e a n a n a r m o u r e d c a r w i t h one m a c h i n e g u n i n a t u r r e t .
Q. I m e a n t i n y o u r advocacy of a n . a r m y r a t h e r t h a n a n a i r force y o u a r e
t h i n k i n g of a n i n f a n t r y force ? — A . I t h i n k t h e r e should be a n i n f a n t r y force here,
a n a r m y force. T h e a i r force, for some reason, h a v e a r m o u r e d c a r s a s p a r t a n d
p a r c e l of t h e i r force, but, of course, t h e a r m y h a v e a r m o u r e d c a r s as well. I f t h e
a i r force is r e s p o n s i b l e for t h e defence of t h e c o u n t r y all t h e t h i n g s t h e y h a v e g o t
t o p u t a r e e i t h e r a e r o p l a n e s o r a r m o u r e d c a r s a n d n e i t h e r of t h e m , I a m convinced,
w i l l m e e t t h e case. W e h a v e p r o v e d it, a n d f o u n d i t is so.
C H A I R M A N : T h e r e w o u l d h a v e to be b e s i d e t h a t a r e l i a b l e police force ?—
T h e defence force will be t h e reserve to t h e police.
Q. Y o u t h i n k i t i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary to h a v e a reserve force of i n f a n t r y ? —
A. I t h i n k so, yes, I t h i n k so. I f I w e r e responsible, if I w e r e t h e H i g h Com­
m i s s i o n e r , I w o u l d n o t be h a p p y w i t h o u t such a force.
A.

Q. H o w m a n y d o y o u t h i n k t h e r e s h o u l d b e ? — A . N o r m a l l y , I t h i n k t w o
b a t t a l i o n s . I t h i n k t h a t w e m i g h t h a v e a t t a c h e d t o t h e i n f a n t r y a small n u m b e r of
a r m o u r e d c a r s to o p e r a t e on t h e f r o n t i e r s , b u t t h e y could be a r m y a r m o u r e d c a r s or
a i r force a r m o u r e d c a r s , w h i c h e v e r h a p p e n e d to be convenient, b u t t h e i n f a n t r y , i n
m y o p i n i o n , m u s t be t h e m a i n p a r t .
Q. Y o u w o u l d n o t p r o p o s e d o i n g a w a y w i t h t h e T r a n s - J o r d a n F r o n t i e r F o r c e ?
—A.
N o ; t h e y do n o t belong r e a l l y t o t h i s c o u n t r y . T h e y r e a l l y belong t o t h e o t h e r
s i d e , b u t I t h i n k you w a n t B r i t i s h u n i t s h e r e . T h a t is a n o t h e r t h i n g . I t h i n k you
w a n t B r i t i s h u n i t s . T h e T r a n s - J o r d a n f r o n t i e r force consists of n a t i v e p e r s o n n e l .
I t h a s B r i t i s h officers, b u t in t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h p r e v a i l i n t h i s c o u n t r y , w h e r e
t h e r e is t h e J e w a n d t h e A r a b , n e i t h e r of t h e m t r u s t i n g each o t h e r , t h e only p e r s o n
t h e y w i l l t r u s t is a n E n g l i s h m a n , a n d I t h i n k t h e force, w h a t e v e r i t is, should be
British.
Q. B o t h h e r e a n d in T r a n s - J o r d a n ? — A . I m e a n P a l e s t i n e . I a m only t a l k i n g
of P a l e s t i n e . I t h i n k the a i r force could c o n t i n u e t o o p e r a t e i n T r a n s - J o r d a n . T h e
c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e r e a r e m o r e s u i t a b l e for t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . I t is m o r e o p e n c o u n t r y .
T h e r e a r e n o t t h e big t o w n s a n d t h e r e is n o t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of r i o t i n g a s t h e r e is i n
Palestine.
Q. H a v e you a n y views a b o u t t h e n u m b e r of B r i t i s h police t h e r e o u g h t to be
h e r e ? — A . T h e y o u g h t to be v e r y m u c h l a r g e r t h a n t h e y h a v e been. T h e r e is n o
q u e s t i o n a b o u t t h a t . I t i s r a t h e r difficult for m e t o s a y t h e n u m b e r , b u t I s h o u l d
t h i n k , a s a v e r y w i l d shot, it s h o u l d be i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of s i x or seven h u n d r e d ,
s o m e t h i n g of t h a t k i n d .
Q. T h o s e w o u l d h a v e to be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t o w n s . T h e r e a r e n o p l a c e s for t h e m
t o live i n s m a l l d e t a c h m e n t s i n t h e villages ? — A . I h a v e n o t r e a l l y t h o u g h t o u t t h e
police d i s p o s i t i o n s i n a n y d e t a i l , b u t I w o u l d also s u g g e s t t h i s a b o u t t h e police, t h a t
t h e n o n - B r i t i s h police should n o t be r e c r u i t e d locally a n d if possible n o t be e i t h e r
Moslem or J e w . I t i s r a t h e r difficult t o find a n y o n e to fill t h e bill, c e r t a i n l y n o t
locally.
Q. E v e n in t h e t o w n s ? — A . Y o u could h a v e a c e r t a i n n u m b e r for j u s t s i m p l e
t h i n g s l i k e traffic control, t h e o r d i n a r y l i t t l e t h i n g s , b u t if you w a n t to d e p e n d OTI
t h e m i n a p i n c h , t h e local people I t h i n k will n o t be reliable.


Aperçu du document 11.pdf - page 1/503
 
11.pdf - page 3/503
11.pdf - page 4/503
11.pdf - page 5/503
11.pdf - page 6/503
 




Télécharger le fichier (PDF)


11.pdf (PDF, 117.6 Mo)

Télécharger
Formats alternatifs: ZIP



Documents similaires


iccba 2017 khan qc 100617 english
2018 07france ukraine security cooperationpb eng 1
bilderberg meetings report 1955
antigravity file in military computer
wilson raybould
cmmt   comment lettersandrine siewe09222020

Sur le même sujet..




🚀  Page générée en 0.248s