NOTRE DAME DES LANDES PDF .pdf



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NOTRE-DAME des
LANDES.
From a building disagreement to one of the biggest ecological debate in France ..

NOTRE-DAME des LANDES


Airport project launched  in the 60’s.



Was planed to replace and outperform the
airport
NANTES-ATLANTIQUES
with
an
expected capacity of 5-9M passengers/year
in 2000 VS 4,5M in 2014 for the current
one.

How has the environmental issue become a key
issue in this political and legal debate?



HISTORY OF THE NDDL PROJECT AND CONFLICTS.



I. THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW ISSUE IN FRANCE.



II. THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW ISSUE IN THE EUROPEAN



III. AN UNLAWFUL SOLUTION FOR THE SO-CALLED UNLAWFUL PROJECT.

UNION.

HISTORY OF THE « OLDEST
STRUGGLE IN FRANCE ».


1965: An inter-ministerial delegation
(DATAR)
included
the
NANTES-SAINTNAZAIRE metropolis in the group of
places that has to be developed to
balance
the
Hyper-centralization
of
PARIS.



1970: The site of NDDL was retained by
the OREAM, a regional organism in charge
of the development of the rural areas.
This site was a flat, agricultural and
sparsely populated land composed of
wetlands (whose ecological importance
was then ignored).

HISTORY OF THE « OLDEST
STRUGGLE IN FRANCE »(2).


1974 : the ZAD (Deferred Arrangement Zone)
was created by the regional Council in
order to exerce a preemption right which
will allows it to acquire most of the
lands of the site. The same year the ADECA
was created by the farmers who occupied
and exploited these lands in order to
protect their situation.



THE TWO FOLLOWING DECADES : the project
sank into oblivion because of many factors
such as the petrol crisis, the new arrival
of the TGV in NANTES..

HISTORY OF THE « OLDEST
STRUGGLE IN FRANCE »(3).


2000 : Dominique Voynet, Minister in charge of the planning of the territory
made the NDDL project resurrect by introducing the Voynet law in favor of a
territorial rebalancing. She argued in the Assembly that « The aerial
service of the regional metropolises is much too dependent on the passage by
Paris ».



2003 : the project obtained his ministerial validation (arrêté ministériel).



2008 : the NDDL project was declared of Public Use by a decree from the 9th
of February.



2010 : the State signs with Vinci a contract for the construction and
concession of the future airport for fifty-five years. The work must begin
in 2014, for an opening in 2017. For a estimated amount of 538 millions of
euros (167 425 600 000,00 HUF).

VINCI’s implantations in
Britain.

HISTORY OF THE « OLDEST
STRUGGLE IN FRANCE »(end).


2000 : the ADECA is re-opened.



2004 : the CEDPA was created to bring some coordination in the apposant’s
actions.



2009 : the ZAD was renamed Zone To (à) Defend by the opposants and was
widely relayed by the medias. Some resistants and troublemakers began to
occupy the Zone. They were called Zadists.



2012 : Operation Cesar leaded by the police forces and the State failed
to remove the totality of the resistants from the zone. Caused some
collateral damages.



2016 : A local referendum was set by President Hollande. The question
"Are you in favor of the transfer project of the Nantes-Atlantique
airport in the municipality of Notre-Dame-des-Landes? «  obtained 55,17%
of positive answers.

THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW ISSUE IN
FRANCE.
« Europe ecologie les
verts » engaged in the
NDDL political struggle.

Engagements which
produced the Grenelle2
Law of 2009.

MAIN ARGUMENTS OF THE OPPOSANTS
LEADED BY THE PARTY EELV :



On the basis of the only documents submitted by the project proponents,
the NATIONAL COUNCIL for PROTECTION of the NATURE (CNPN), in 2013,
endorsed the extremely critical position of the 12 independent experts
appointed by the government at the request of the "water law"
commission of inquiry.



A contestation of the method of compensation for the destruction of
wetlands
proposed
by
the
state
and
the
region
concerned.
This method was at its experimental stage and was felt too reckless for
the experts previously mentioned.

MAIN ARGUMENTS OF THE OPPOSANTS
LEADED BY THE PARTY EELV :
1. Protecting the biodiversity : why these lands
protected areas when the project was launched ?


Progresses in the Sciences.



Evolutions in the Legislations.

were

not

declared

as

2. Questioning the utility of the project :


NANTES-ATLANTIQUES airport could be reorganized for less costs.



Extra-fees will occur in many fields which were not taken into account ( to
shunt lakes and natural habitats of the species, to dry the area, to pay
ecological compensations).

Biodiversity protection.

Percentage of «YES»
answers to the
Referendum of 2016.

THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW ISSUE IN
INFLUENCED BY THE EU LAW.
1992 : French « Loi de
l’eau » is created.

2000
:
European
Framework
Directive on water was adopted
by the European Parliament and
the Council of the European
Union.

2012
:
The
public
inquiry « Loi de l’eau »
gave a favorable opinion
to
the
project.
=> provided that a panel
of independent experts
provide
scientific
support

2006 : Modification of the
french « Loi de l’eau » in
order to be in accordance
with the European directive.

« LOI DE L’EAU » and
accordance to « Grenelle de
l’environnement »
Even if a favorable opinion was given by the commission, the Project was
still attacked because :


as previously mentioned the method of compensation for the destruction of
wetlands was criticized by the experts.



In 2012, the State adopted a new timely Doctrine : Avoid, Reduce,
Compensate. => With this new tool the State could declare that there was no
viable alternative to the site of the project because this one was already
declared DUP
(declared of public use) since 2008. But the inquiry to
determine if this project was a DUP or not took place in 2006 and in 2006
the « Loi de l’eau » was not yet in accordance with the European Directive.

AN UNLAWFUL SOLUTION FOR THE
SO-CALLED UNLAWFUL PROJECT.
In disagreement
with the legal
decisions
rendered,
the
zadists decided
to occupy the
area illegally
as long as the
project
is
envisaged

AN UNLAWFUL SOLUTION FOR THE
SO-CALLED UNLAWFUL PROJECT.
Who are the resistants ?
-

Activists from everywhere in France

-

Inhabitants around the zone

-

Farmers and exploitants who helps the activists to settle and survive in
order to keep there properties/exploitations intacts.

Will this struggle end one day ?
-

In the DUP act, it is declared that the construction shall begin in 2018 at
the latest ..

-

Maybe another huge operation is prepared to remove the resistants or maybe
the reckless occupations of this site will pay.

« Patience and the fullness of time do more than force or fury. »

Jean de Lafontaine

SOURCES








http://eure-et-loir.gouv.fr
http://www.notredamedeslandes2013.org
http://www.forum-zones-humides.org
https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr
http://www.lemonde.fr
http://eelv.fr
https://www.ouest-france.fr


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