Vietnam February 2018 .pdf
Nom original: Vietnam__February_2018.pdf
Ce document au format PDF 1.4 a été généré par Adobe Acrobat 11.0.20 / Adobe Acrobat 11.0.20 Image Conversion Plugin, et a été envoyé sur fichier-pdf.fr le 06/01/2018 à 16:56, depuis l'adresse IP 88.165.x.x.
La présente page de téléchargement du fichier a été vue 776 fois.
Taille du document: 22.4 Mo (68 pages).
Confidentialité: fichier public
Aperçu du document
Tech Boom Innovations That Changed Air Warfare
Laugh-In a breakout
role for Goldie Hawn
The War’s Brutal Turning Point
+ <> [\I\QWV¼[ \ZIOQK [QOVWЄ
+ Attack-counterattack at U.S. base
+ .QMZKM [\ZMM\ ÅOP\QVO QV 0]M
The Argento Byzantine Necklace is
an impeccable work of art with a price
unmatched by any in its class.
a Vinci’s Mona Lisa, David by Michelangelo, Madame Butterfly by Puccini.
Italy has produced some of the world’s greatest masterpieces. And, it’s no secret
it is the epicenter of the best metalworking on earth. Which is why we sought out one of the
best artisans to ever melt precious metals to create yet another great Italian masterpiece. For
over two decades, our designer has pursued his passion for making jewelry of great beauty inspired
by the Tuscan countryside. The Argento Necklace is his latest masterpiece. And, you can own it
for under $80!
Each necklace is meticulously made by hand from pure sterling silver and celebrates the traditional
woven Byzantine design–– an intricate array of woven links that forms a flexible and elegant drape.
Passing the test of time and surpassing the definition of beauty, the Argento Byzantine
Necklace is perfect for the lady who appreciates fine art. And, priced for those who
appreciate a fine value.
The difference between priceless & overpriced. High-end
design should not carry a high price just because it
comes from a big name retailer, where you’ll find
a similar necklace going for four times as
much. We prefer to keep our costs low so
we can bring you the very best in Italian
What our Italian jewelry expert
design at a cutting edge price.
Daniele Zavani is saying about the
Masterpiece, not mass produced.
It takes months to create just one of
Raffinato™ Argento Necklace:
these necklaces which means we
have a select number available.
No questions asked, 30-day
money back guarantee. We want
you glowing with satisfaction. You
have nothing to lose, except the
opportunity to own a masterpiece.
The classic Byzantine
chain pattern has stood
the test of time for over
Raffinato™ Argento Byzantine Necklace
$79 + S&P
• Made in Arezzo, Italy • .925 sterling silver • 18" necklace; lobster clasp
Raffinato™ Argento Byzantine Bracelet
Stunningly wellpriced at
$39 + S&P
Call today. There’s never been a better time to let your elegance shine.
Offer Code: RFC20701. You must use the offer code to get our special price.
14101 Southcross Drive W., Dept. RFC207-01, Burnsville, Minnesota 55337 www.raffinatoitaly.com
A collection of impeccable design & craftsmanship from Italy.
“The quality of their watches is equal
to many that can go for ten
times the price or more.”
— Jeff from
on the discerning
Stone Cold Fox
So good-looking...heads will turn. So unbelievably-priced...jaws will drop.
very once in a while a timepiece comes along that’s so incredibly
good looking, masterfully equipped and jaw-droppingly priced,
that it stops us stone cold. A watch that can take you seamlessly from
the 18th hole to the board room. A watch that blurs the line
betweens sports watch and dress watch. We’re talking the Blue Stone
Chronograph, and it sits at the top of the discerning gentleman’s
Striking in appearance and fully equipped with features, this is a
watch of substance. The Blue Stone merges the durability of steel
with the precision of crystal movement that’s accurate to 0.2 seconds
a day. Both an analog and digital watch, the Blue Stone keeps time
with pinpoint accuracy in two time zones.
The watch’s handsome steel blue dial seamlessly blends an analog
watch face with a stylish digital display. It’s a stopwatch, calendar,
and alarm. Plus, the Blue Stone resists water up to 30 meters, making
it up for water adventures.
A watch with these features would easily cost you thousands if you
shopped big names. But overcharging to justify an inflated brand
name makes us blue in the face. Which is why we make superior
looking and performing timepieces priced to please. Decades of
experience in engineering enables Stauer to put quality on your
wrist and keep your money in your pocket.
Your satisfaction is 100% guaranteed. Experience the Blue Stone
Chronograph for 30 days. If you’re not convinced you got excellence
for less, send it back for a refund of the item price.
Time is running out. Originally priced at $395, the Blue Stone
Chronograph was already generating buzz among watch
connoisseurs, but with the price slashed to $69, we can’t guarantee
this limited-edition timepiece will last. So, call today!
TAKE 83% OFF INSTANTLY!
When you use your OFFER CODE
Stauer Blue Stone Chronograph nonoffer code price
Offer Code Price
$69 + S&P Save $326
You must use the offer code to get our special price.
Your Offer Code: BSW19601
Please use this code when you order to receive your discount.
14101 Southcross Drive W.,
® Dept. BSW19601
Burnsville, Minnesota 55337
Rating of A+
† Special price only for customers using the offer code versus the price on
Stauer.com without your offer code.
• Precision movement • Digital and analog timekeeping • LED subdials • Stainless steel crown, caseback & bracelet
• Dual time zone feature • Stopwatch • Alarm feature • Calendar: month, day, & date • Water resistant to 3 ATM • Fits wrists 7" to 9"
Stauer…Afford the Extraordinary.™
On the cover
The 1968 attacks shocked
the troops, the president
and the public hoping for a
clear victory in VIetnam.
PHOTO ILLUSTRATION: BRIAN WALKER;
HELMET, BUTTON: ISTOCK; LBJ: FRANCIS
MILLER/THE LIFE PICTURE COLLECTION/
GETTY IMAGES; INSET: MICHAEL OCHS
The Communists’ Tet Offensive
in January 1968 changed the way
many Americans viewed the war in
Vietnam. By James H. Willbanks
Today In the News
Voices David S. Ferriero
Arsenal - * :[HYÄNO[LY
THE NVA’S PLAN FOR
A GREAT ESCAPE
North Vietnamese soldiers attempted
to free Viet Cong prisoners to boost
their numbers in Tet battles.
By Erik Villard
Homefront January-February 1968
Battlefront @LHYZ (NV PU [OL >HY
Hall of Valor Leo Thorsness
U.S. Marines raced
to help a besieged
By Mark Bowden
THE LAST STAND
OF DETACHMENT 5
KILLER TECH: AVIATION
Military broadcasters fought hard to hold their
ground in a Tet attack. By Rick Fredericksen
The United States brought an array of
innovative weapons to its war in the skies.
MICHAEL A. REINSTEIN CHAIRMAN & PUBLISHER
DAVID STEINHAFEL PUBLISHER
DOUG NEIMAN ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER
ALEX NEILL EDITOR IN CHIEF
FEBRUARY 2018 VOL. 30, NO. 5
CHUCK SPRINGSTON EDITOR
DEBORAH STADTLER SENIOR EDITOR
JERRY MORELOCK SENIOR EDITOR
JON GUTTMAN RESEARCH DIRECTOR
DAVID T. ZABECKI EDITOR EMERITUS
HARRY SUMMERS JR. FOUNDING EDITOR
STEPHEN KAMIFUJI CREATIVE DIRECTOR
BRIAN WALKER GROUP ART DIRECTOR
PAUL FISHER ART DIRECTOR
GUY ACETO PHOTO EDITOR
JOE GALLOWAY, ROBERT H. LARSON, BARRY McCAFFREY,
JAMES R. RECKNER, CARL O. SCHUSTER, EARL H. TILFORD JR.,
SPENCER C. TUCKER, ERIK VILLARD, JAMES H. WILLBANKS
This issue commemorates the
50th anniversary of the 1968 Tet
7ЄMV[Q^M _PMV +WUU]VQ[\ NWZKM[
I\\IKSML UWZM \PIV [Q\M[
J]\ _MZM X][PML JIKS Ja = ; IVL
;W]\P >QM\VIUM[M \ZWWX[ To read
XI[\ IZ\QKTM[ IJW]\ \PI\ M^MV\ visit
0Q[\WZa6M\ KWU IVL [MIZKP" ¹<M\ º
<PZW]OP ÅZ[\PIVL IKKW]V\[ IVL
[\]VVQVO XPW\W[ W]Z _MJ[Q\M X]\[
aW] QV \PM ÅMTL _Q\P \PM \ZWWX[ _PW
fought in one of America’s most
;QOV ]X NWZ W]Z FREE UWV\PTa M̆VM_[TM\\MZ
I\" PQ[\WZaVM\ KWU VM_[TM\\MZ[
MORTON GREENBERG SVP Advertising Sales email@example.com
COURTNEY FORTUNE Advertising Services firstname.lastname@example.org
TERRY JENKINS Regional Sales Manager email@example.com
RICK GOWER Regional Sales Manager firstname.lastname@example.org
RICHARD VINCENT Regional Sales Manager email@example.com
DIRECT RESPONSE ADVERTISING
RUSSELL JOHNS ASSOCIATES 800-649-9800 VIET@russelljohns.com
SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION 800-435-0715 or SHOP.HISTORYNET.com
Yearly subscriptions in U.S.: $26.95.
List Rental Inquiries: Belkys Reyes, Lake Group Media, Inc. 914-925-2406;
Vietnam (ISSN 1046-2902) is published bimonthly by HistoryNet, LLC,
1919 Gallows Road, Suite 400, Vienna, VA, 22182-4038, 703-771-9400
Periodical postage paid at Vienna, VA, and additional mailing ofﬁces.
Postmaster, send address changes to Vietnam, P.O. Box 422224, Palm Coast, FL 32142-2224
Canada Publications Mail Agreement No. 41342519 Canadian GST No. 821371408RT0001
© 2018 HistoryNet, LLC
The contents of this magazine may not be reproduced
in whole or in part without the written consent of HistoryNet LLC.
Vietnam UIOIbQVM Q[ I^IQTIJTM
WV BQVQW 3QVLTM IVL 6WWS
PROUDLY MADE IN THE USA
ROB WILKINS DIRECTOR OF PARTNERSHIP MARKETING
ROXANNA SASSANIAN FINANCE
TOM GRIFFITHS CORPORATE DEVELOPMENT
GRAYDON SHEINBERG CORPORATE DEVELOPMENT
Eagle emerges on the hour
to the tune of
“The Army Goes
body with golden
stars and James Dietz
artwork flanked by two
Dramatic zinc alloy
eagle topper with US
and Army flags
By federal law, licensing
fees paid to the U.S. Army
for the use of its trademarks
provide support for the Army
Trademark Licensing Program,
and net licensing revenue is
devoted to U.S. Army Morale,
Welfare and Recreation
programs. U.S. Army name,
trademarks and logos are
protected under federal law
and used under license by The
Official Army emblem
on both the clock face
and swinging pendulum
with accurate quartz
Bradford Exchange Exclusive
Design — Order Now!
Acquire your limited-edition United
States Army “This We’ll Defend”
Cuckoo Clock for four installments of
only $49.99, for a total of $199.99*.
Your purchase is backed by our
unconditional, 365-day money-back
guarantee. Send no money now. Mail
the Reservation Application today to
Shown much smaller than actual size of 22 inches high,
including hanging pendulum and weights. Requires 1 “AA”
battery and 3 “AAA” batteries, not included.
©2017 James Dietz ©2017 BGE
SEND NO MONEY NOW
9 3 4 5 Milwa u ke e Ave n u e · Nile s, IL 6 0 7 1 4 -1 3 93
Please reserve theAt
Clock for me as described in this announcement.
emerges to the
Limit: one per order.
“The Marine’s Hymn”
Mrs. Mr. Ms.
Name (Please Print Clearly)
*For information on sales tax you may owe to your state, go
*Plus a total of $24.99 shipping and service; 01-27132-001-E39591
see bradfordexchange.com. Limited-edition
presentation restricted to 295 crafting days. Please allow 4-8 weeks after initial
payment for shipment. Subject to product availability and order acceptance.
I am the Marine veteran
with sunglasses in the
picture on Page 8 of the
December 2017 issue
(“Home Base Clinic Teams
Up With Red Sox to Aid
Vietnam Vets”). That
ceremony in Fenway Park
[honoring Vietnam veterans
IVL \PMQZ NIUQTQM[ WV \PM ÅMTL
before a baseball game] was one
of the proudest moments in my
life. The Boston Strong folks
gave us a standing 20-minute
ovation as we left the baseball
ÅMTL 1 ÅVITTa NMT\ OZI\Q\]LM NWZ
serving that I had never felt
1 [MZ^ML I[ I ZQÆMUIV QV 4QUI
Company, 3rd Battalion, 5th
Regiment, 1st Marine Division, at
combat base An Hoa west of Da
Dang in 1969. I know that you
have heard many Vietnam veteran
stories and probably a majority of them not so
positive. Well, I am one of the luckiest of all
After being severely wounded November
1969, I was medically retired in 1970. I went
to the Florida Institute of Technology on the GI
Bill and the vocational rehabilitation program.
After graduation in mechanical engineering in
1975, I started to work at the Kennedy Space
Center. I recently retired from 40 years there
with 150 rocket launches including every
space shuttle launch. I have a wonderful wife
and two great kids. Not bad for an old Jarhead.
Praise for Gen. Pace and His Battlefield Philosophy
back together and enabled our
nation and its values to survive
in a very dangerous world.
He is correct that “if you leave
\PM JI\\TMÅMTL \WW [WWV [WUM\PQVO
you do not want is going to come
in.” Winning the peace is as
important as winning the war.
Wherever the U.S. military goes
and stays, things get better.
When it leaves, things get worse.
Grand Rapids, Mich.
Send letters and email:
1919 Gallows Road, Suite 400
Vienna, VA 22182-4038
BILLIE WEISS@RED SOX (2)
Peter Pace [retired Marine
four-star general and former
chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
;\IЄ QV\MZ^QM_ML QV \PM
December issue] learned a lot
from his Vietnam service and put
those lessons to good use during
his 40 years in uniform. He, Colin
Powell, Norman Schwarzkopf and
a lot of others put the military
TO HONOR VIETNAM VETERANS
FROM THE MAKER OF
NASA'S MA-1 JACKET
FOR KENNEDY SPACE
CENTER GIFT SHOP
PERSONALIZED WITH A VIETNAM WAR VETERAN WOVEN PATCH
OUR VIETNAM MA-1 BRAVO JACKET is created by the company selected
Add an American Flag
patch for just $20!
to make the NASA MA-1 for its Kennedy Space Center gift shop. It's personalized to
honor your service to Country and reflect today's active lifestyles:
• TAILORED TO MEET NASA SPECS, in rugged wind & water-resistant polyester,
comfort rated at temperatures between 25-40 degrees Fahrenheit
for three season wear. Available in popular “Gun-metal Black”
or “Military Sage Green” outer shell.
• Quality features include "fell stitching" for superior fit, knit
collar, cuffs and waistband, official NASA orange lining,
heavy duty front zipper with storm flap, multiple snap
closure pockets - plus utility pocket on sleeve.
• EXCLUSIVE CONCEAL CARRY OPTION - two
inner pockets to secure valuables, which are
fitted with holster straps for those licensed to
carry a firearm.
• Available in sizes Small through 3XL.
• Thank You Introductory price starting at just $99 SAVE OVER $40! (See order form for details and available options)
PERSONALIZED TO HONOR YOUR MILITARY
SERVICE AS A VIETNAM VETERAN
ADD CONCEAL CARRY
TWIN HOLSTER FEATURE
FOR JUST $30 EXTRA.
• FREE - Vietnam Veteran woven patch affixed to the
chest of your jacket - PLUS a FREE Zipper Pull!
• You may choose to add a full color Officially Licensed
woven Service Patch* to the right sleeve of your
jacket for just $20 extra (see below).
YOU HAVE EARNED THE RIGHT TO WEAR THIS SPECIAL JACKET!
RECEIVE A FREE
“PROUD TO BE A VETERAN”
ZIPPER PULL WITH ORDER!
Veterans Commemoratives™, Two Radnor Corporate Center, Suite 120, Radnor, PA 19087-4599
I wish to order my MA1 Bravo Jacket with a FREE Vietnam Service Patch
and Zipper Pull, as follows:
(See chart above) S
Gun Metal Black
Military Sage Green
American Flag Patch on left shoulder (Add $20) .................
†Sizes XXL to 3XL (Add $20) ...............................................
Plus Shipping & Handling ........................................................
CC#: __________________________________________ Exp. Date: ____ / ____
Card Security Code (CSC):________ Signature: __________________________
Conceal Carry Feature (Add $30)......................................... $__________
Miitary Service Patch* on right sleeve (Add $20)................ $__________
Enclosed is my check payable to Veterans Commemoratives for the Total Due
Charge my credit card for the Total Due
Charge my credit card in two equal interest-free monthly payments
(We CANNOT ship to P.O. Boxes) Allow 2-3 weeks for delivery.
City___________________________ State_____ Zip ______________________
Phone # (_________) ______________________________________________
(In case we have any questions about your order)
By federal law, licensing fees paid to the U.S. Army for use of its trademarks provide support to the Army Trademark
Licensing Program, and net licensing revenue is devoted to U.S. Army Morale, Welfare, and Recreation programs.
*Service Branch Patches are purchased from Officially Licensed suppliers.
© ICM 2017
By Deborah Stadtler
A ﬂight into the past
The Air Force’s Vietnam-era A-1
Skyraider, inset, has features that
ofﬁcials would like to replicate in
a new group of aircraft. One of
the options, a Beechcraft AT-6
experimental plane, is shown ﬂying
over White Sands Missile Range in
New Mexcio on July 31, 2017.
The U.S. Air Force is looking back at the Vietnam War as
it explores options for future low-cost, slower-moving
aircraft that can be deployed for counterinsurgency,
close-air support or reconnaissance missions against the
Islamic State and other terrorist groups in the Middle
East and Africa.
1V \PMQZ Y]M[\ )QZ .WZKM WЅKQIT[ IZM ÅVLQVO QV[XQZItion in the single-seat, propeller-driven A-1 Skyraider,
an agile, slow-speed attack aircraft that could loiter over
>QM\VIU JI\\TMÅMTL[ IVL WЄMZ \PM \aXM WN KTW[M̆IQZ XXWZ\ \PI\ NI[\̆UW^QVO RM\ ÅOP\MZ[ KW]TL VW\ XZW^QLM Air
Force Times reported.
The new low-end aircraft would reduce the wear and
\MIZ WV \WLIa¼[ ÅOP\MZ[ 1\ IT[W KW]TL \ISM WЄ IVL TIVL WV
1V )]O][\ XQTW\[ ÆM_ NW]Z TQOP\ I\\IKS IQZKZIN\ QV
demonstrations at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico. After the data is evaluated, a possible second phase
would be a combat experiment in the Middle East, perhaps
in early 2018, said Air Force Secretary Heather Wilson.
The Skyraider and its daring missions were featured
in the August 2017 issue of Vietnam magazine. You can
ÅVL \PM IZ\QKTM WVTQVM I\ 0Q[\WZa6M\ KWU ;MIZKP ¹5WZM
Than Just a Prop.”
U.S. AIR FORCE/ETHAN WAGNER; INSET: U.S. AIR FORCE.
WAR PLANE AGAIN ON
AIR FORCE’S RADAR
Set with genuine diamonds
Finely hand-crafted in solid sterling
silver with 18K-gold plating
Sculpted Marine Corps Emblem
Engraved inside with Semper Fidelis
or call 1-866-768-6517
Members of the United States Marines are true heroes dedicated to the values
of Duty, Honor, and Courage. With their Semper Fi spirit, Marines are always
ready to proudly serve their country. Now, there’s no better way to celebrate
the values of these distinguished individuals than with our meaningful women’s
“USMC” Embrace Ring, an exclusive design from The Bradford Exchange.
Hand-crafted from solid sterling silver, this distinctive ring features twin
bands—one silver and one plated in 18K gold. At the center of the ring is
a sculpted Corps’ emblem of the eagle, globe and anchor adorned with 18K
gold-plated accents. The bands are embraced with two dazzling pavé ribbons
Reservations will be accepted on a
ﬁrst-come, ﬁrst-served basis.
Respond as soon as possible to
reserve your ring.
©2017 BGE 01-19310-001-BIRTC17
set with a total of four genuine diamonds. Inside the band, the ring is engraved
with the proud motto Semper Fidelis, making this a stunning expression of
Marine Corps pride and support for all those who serve.
An Exceptional Value... Available for a Limited Time
This ring is a remarkable value at $99*, payable in 4 easy installments of $24.75
and backed by our 120-day guarantee. It arrives in a custom case along with a
Bradford Exchange Certiﬁcate of Authenticity. This ring is not available in stores.
To reserve, send no money now; just mail the Reservation Application today!
*For information on sales tax you may owe to your state, go to bradfordexchange.com/use-tax.
SEND NO MONEY NOW
P.O. Box 806, Morton Grove, IL 60053-0806
YES. Please reserve the “USMC” Embrace Ring for me as
described in this announcement.
Order promptly for Christmas delivery.
Shown actual size
To assure a proper fit in women’s whole and half sizes 5-12, a ring sizer
will be sent to you after your reservation has been accepted.
*Plus $9.98 shipping and service (see bradfordexchange.com). Sales subject to
product availability and order acceptance.
Mrs. Mr. Ms.
Name (Please Print Clearly)
Vietnam Exhibit Opens at
New-York Historical Society
The New-York Historical Society unveiled a new exhibit, The Vietnam War
1945-1975, on Oct. 4, 2017. The exhibit features artifacts, video, audio and
XPW\WOZIXP[ WN \PM KWVÆQK\ NZWU Q\[ WZQOQV[ IN\MZ ?WZTL ?IZ 11 \PZW]OP \PM
Communist takeover of South Vietnam in 1975.
,Q[XTIa[ OQ^M IV IKKW]V\ WN \PM _IZ NZWU JW\P [QLM[ WN \PM JI\\TMÅMTL _PQTM
also showing the perspectives of anti-war protestors and supporters of the
war. The exhibition is accompanied by an interactive website and runs
through April 22, 2018.
SHIP NAMED FOR
WAR HERO TO BE
The Navy League of the United States announced that
a new ship named after a Marine Medal of Honor recipient killed in Vietnam will be commissioned in
March 2018, The Associated Press reported.
The USS Ralph Johnson, an Arleigh Burke-class
LM[\ZWaMZ PWVWZ[ I !̆aMIZ̆WTL XZQ^I\M ÅZ[\ KTI[[
from Charleston, South Carolina, who threw himself on a grenade that landed in a group of three
men participating in reconnaissance patrol during March 1968. His act of
valor saved the life of another Marine. The ship will be commissioned in
Charleston and based in Everett, Washington.
President Trump presented
the Medal of Honor on Oct. 23,
2017, to retired Army Capt.
Gary M. Rose, a Special Forces
medic who risked his life multiple times to treat wounded
comrades in 1970 while on an
operation in Laos.
His actions occurred during
Operation Tailwind, a military
venture—not revealed to the
American public—initiated to
attract the attention of North
Vietnamese Army troops in
Laos and draw some of them
away from a CIA and Laotian
force battling the NVA elsewhere in the country.
During the four-day mission
that started on Sept. 11, 1970,
the 22-year-old sergeant
treated and carried out the
_W]VLML _PQTM ]VLMZ ÅZM *a
\PM \QUM \PM ÅOP\QVO MVLML
more than a third of his company was wounded, and Rose
had gone without sleep or food
for days. When the men were
picked up by helicopter on the
fourth day, the copter carrying
Rose was shot down. Despite
his own wounds, he pulled others from the wreckage and administered aid until another
The Medal of Honor has now
been presented to 262 men for
actions in the Vietnam War.
AP PHOTO/ HENRI HUET; TOP LEFT: AP PHOTO; BOTTOM: U.S. NAVY; INSET: COURTESY RALPH H. JOHNSON VA MEDICAL CENTER
At the exhibit
U.S. troops battle Viet
Cong northeast of
Saigon on June 15, 1967.
★ ★ ★ ★ ★ # $ $ ! $ $ #! $ ! $ " # " ! ★ ★ ★ ★ ★
# "$ #" $ #!#" $ #!
#$ !# ! $ "#" ! $#! # ! $ !#
" ! " $ # $ $ # ! $ " "$
! $! $ "! $ " "
34 0/$"' 4 03,3+24/$04!- %24 120/'4)1&2-&1'4 12&%
%-&%4 341034&$,2/ - -+ 42/4%/+/04 /$04 30 -&342/
/$+20 41,414 0/$"4 104 32301+ 4 $04, 3&-1'4 12&%4%1,
312$03,4+/24 /$+"4-+4/2%304 12&%3, 4#24-,4 3-+
-,,$3"4"-03&2' 42/41''4 104 32301+,41+"42%3-0
41+"4 -''4+/24 34,/'"4-+4,2/03,
2P @@P.8IP@MJNBP=BNF+"3BNJMDPNBBG:LJ9P3M==BMDP=M MBP PHJNLIBMHH
FG@6GKJPNIDPD8KN=LBLJ2P:NJMKPKMHLHJNIJPJGP NJ@P !$$P6J
2P8IL 8MP:NKP@MDNBP PKL==GIPDLNBHP6GK
2P6LIMP 8NKJ P@G7M@MIJP"PNFF8KNJM
2PDNJMP:LIDG:PNJP PG FBGF+P3GHLJLGI
#.)!( 4 .).*(!
. .*)4 ) *
( (!# )(!
# $ " "#
7LMJIN@PHMK7LFMPPPPP 7LMJIN@P7MJMKNIPPPPP +GKMN
DMHMKJPHJGK@PPPPPP N.9NILHJNIPPPPPP LKN PPPPPP ::LL
M5)(?<E4P;<P*'P)/E) P?CP*?5E'P?C4ECP ?CP %0% P&ECP#A>)/P
&A'A (EP>?P 7E>ECA5<PF?**E*?CA>; E<
F/AC EP*'P)CE4;>P)AC4P %0% P&ECP#A>)/0
3( <P ! 0% P&ECP#A>)/P ?CP</;&&;5 P P/A54(;5 0PP3NPCE<0PA44P P 0 $ P<A(E<P>A 0PPPP
FHFP OOOOOOOOOOOOPPH; 5A> CE1 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
LILJLNBHP 1 OOOOOOOPPPPOOOOOOOPPPPOOOOOOO
FF 1OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOPPM &0OOOOO OOOOO
*..4 ( 4 #!
#) 4.( 4 * .*
7E>ECA5<PF?**E*?CA>; E< :A>)/PGC4ECPFE5>EC,PJ#?PKA45?CPF?C&?CA>EPFE5>EC,PH ;>EP! $,PKA45?C,P3NP!%$ " %%
-MH0 LP#;</P>?P?C4ECP*'P@;(;>AC'P:ACP7E>ECA5P:A>)/P&EC<?5A(; E4P#;>/P*'P
;5;>;A(<,P<EC ;)EP CA5)/PA54P'EAC<P<EC E40
*..4)#!4 # )4 4
#) 4 * 4) 4 .4(
.).*(! 4. .
H9L33LI.PNDDKMHH :EPFNIIGJP</;&P>?P30G0P=? E< PN((?#P " P#EE <P ?CP4E(; EC'0
F;>'1OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOPH>A>E1OOOOOP ;&1 OOOOOOOO
3/?5EP P OOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
L5P)A<EP#EP/A EP E<>;?5<PA ? >P'? CP?C4EC0
$! PLF@PPPPP:I3:NJ"7JI"$ !
# $ " # " ! $ " !# " " $ !# $ " #
Dickey Chapelle with South
Vietnamese troops in 1961.
DICKEY CHAPELLE MADE
Georgette “Dickey” Chapelle, an acclaimed photographer who died
KW^MZQVO \PM >QM\VIU ?IZ PI[ JMMV VIUML IV PWVWZIZa 5IZQVM IKcording to Marine Corps Times <PM IKKWTILM _I[ IXXZW^ML Ja +WUmandant Gen. Robert Neller and presented at the Marine Corps
Combat Correspondents Association annual dinner in August 2017.
<PM ?Q[KWV[QV VI\Q^M _I[ \PM ÅZ[\ NMUITM _IZ KWZZM[XWVLMV\ \W LQM
QV KWUJI\ +PIXMTTM _I[ SQTTML WV 6W^ ! Ja [PZIXVMT _PQTM WV
patrol when a Marine near her tripped a booby trap. She was buried
with full military honors.
+PIXMTTM KW^MZML 1_W 2QUI IVL 7SQVI_I QV ?WZTL ?IZ 11 IVL _I[
published in National Geographic, 4QNM and Reader’s Digest, among
others. She was inducted into the Milwaukee Press Club Hall of
Fame. Her life is the subject of a recent book and documentary.
John W. Lewis, critic of the Vietnam
War and China expert, died at 86
QV +ITQNWZVQI WV ;MX\ 0M
JMKIUM IV :7<+ KILM\ _PMV \PM
3WZMIV ?IZ [\IZ\ML IVL [MZ^ML I[ I
6I^a O]VVMZa WЅKMZ IN\MZ \PM _IZ
4M_Q[ _PQTM I XZWNM[[WZ I\ +WZVMTT
=VQ^MZ[Q\a QV ! JMKIUM WVM WN \PM
ÅZ[\ UIRWZ +PQVI [XMKQITQ[\[ IOIQV[\
the Vietnam War. In The United
States in Vietnam, he and Cornell
professor George McTurnan Kahin
XZMLQK\ML \PI\ \PM = ; _W]TL PI^M
to accept “an outcome in Vietnam
\PI\ Q[ ZMI[WVIJTa ZMXZM[MV\I\Q^M WN
the balance of political forces that
Richard Pyle, a chief of The Associated Press Saigon bureau during the
war, died Sept. 28, 2017. He was 83. Pyle went to Vietnam for AP in 1968—
working alongside Pulitzer Prize winners Peter Arnett, Horst Faas and
6QKS =\¸IVL [XMV\ Å^M aMIZ[ \PMZM [MZ^QVO I[ J]ZMI] KPQMN NWZ \PM TI[\
half of that period before taking a Washington assignment in 1973. The
1971 death of AP photographer Henri Huet, killed while riding in a
PMTQKWX\MZ [PW\ LW_V W^MZ I ZMUW\M IZMI WN 4IW[ IЄMK\ML 8aTM [W U]KP
that he returned 20 years later to search for the crash site, described in
the book 4W[\ 7^MZ 4IW[.
FROM LEFT: ROD SEARCEY/STANFORD NEWS SERVICE; AP PHOTO; TOP: WISCONSIN HISTORICAL SOCIETY IMAGE ID 75425 DICKEY CHAPELLE COLLECTION
Embossed Leather Duffel Bags
Crafted of Durable
2 2 2
Embossed on the Front
2 2 2
Padded Shoulder Strap for
Versatility and Comfort
Custom-crafted, Versatile Travel Essentials
Available Only from The Bradford Exchange
Actual Size is
22" W x 11" H
x 11" D
Boldly Bring Your U.S. Military Pride Along
The distinguished men and women of the U.S. Military have shown their
courage and commitment and now they can express their service branch
pride. Introducing the “Armed Forces Leather Duffel Bag,” a distinctive yet
practical travel essential that’s available only from The Bradford Exchange.
Custom-crafted of durable genuine brown leather with black leather trim and
handles, the bag is expertly embossed with the name and logo of the service branch,
along with stars and the year the branch was established, on the front. Designed
with traditional double handles, this go-anywhere duffel features a removable,
adjustable padded shoulder strap for versatility and comfort. Plus, to keep your
belongings organized and protected, the duffel features an interior zippered pocket
and 2 accessory pockets, an exterior slip pocket and a top double zip closure with 2
leather zipper pullers. Antique gold-toned hardware ﬁnishes the look.
A Remarkable Value... Available for a Limited Time
These handsome duffels are a remarkable value at $249.95* each, which you can
pay for in 5 easy installments of $49.99. To order yours, backed by our unconditional
90-day guarantee, send no money now, just mail in your Priority Reservation. These
genuine leather bags are not available in stores, so don’t miss out... inspire U.S.
service pride wherever you go and reserve yours today!
Ofﬁcially Licensed by the Department of the Navy ™Department of the Air Force. Ofﬁcially Licensed Product of the Air Force (www.airforce.com).
™Ofﬁcially Licensed Product of the United States Marine Corps. Ofﬁcial Licensed Product of the U.S. Army By federal law, licensing fees paid to
the U.S. Army for use of its trademarks provide support to the Army Trademark Licensing Program, and net licensing revenue is devoted to U.S.
Army Morale, Welfare, and Recreation programs. U.S. Army name, trademarks and logos are protected under federal law and used under license
by The Bradford Exchange.
SEND NO MONEY NOW
*For information on sales tax you may owe to your state, go to bradfordexchange.com/use-tax
©2017 The Bradford Exchange 01-24559-001-BIBMPOR
Mrs. Mr. Ms.
Name (Please Print Clearly)
9345 Milwaukee Avenue · Niles, IL 60714-1393
YES. Please reserve the Armed Forces Leather Duffel Bag(s)
checked below for me, as described.
Please Respond Promptly
T “Air Force” Leather Duffel Bag 01-26301-001 T “Navy” Leather Duffel Bag 01-26300-001
T “Army” Leather Duffel Bag 01-26299-001
*Plus a total of $19.99 shipping and service each (see bradfordexchange.com).
Please allow 2-4 weeks after initial payment for shipment.
Sales subject to product availability and order acceptance.
T “USMC” Leather Duffel Bag 01-24559-001
?IZ[ IZM NW]OP\ \_QKM 7VKM WV \PM
JI\\TMÅMTL IVL WVKM QV UMUWZa
Why did you leave college and join the Navy? 1 _I[ IV
ML]KI\QWV UIRWZ I\ 6WZ\PMI[\MZV C=VQ^MZ[Q\a QV *W[\WV E
1 PI\ML M^MZa UQV]\M WN Q\ 6WZ\PMI[\MZV _I[V¼\ I OWWL Å\
NWZ UM 1 KIUM NZWU I PQOP [KPWWT _Q\P I ZMTI\Q^MTa [UITT
V]UJMZ WN [\]LMV\[ KWUXIZML \W 6WZ\PMI[\MZV 1V NIK\
1 [XMV\ UW[\ WN Ua \QUM QV \PM 5][M]U WN .QVM )Z\[ WZ
\PM 1[IJMTTI /IZLVMZ 5][M]U ZI\PMZ \PIV QV KTI[[
1 PIL I JZW\PMZ QV \PM )ZUa [\I\QWVML QV /MZUIVa IVL
PM IL^Q[ML UM VW\ \W RWQV \PM )ZUa <PM [MI PIL IT_Ia[
JMMV XIZ\ WN Ua TQNM OZW_QVO ]X 1 PIL I OZMI\ ]VKTM _PW
_I[ I Å[PMZUIV WV \PM /ZIVL *IVS[ ;W \PM 6I^a _I[ I
TWOQKIT KPWQKM NWZ UM )VL [INM <PI\ _I[ WVM WN \PM LMKQL̆
QVO XWQV\[ NWZ UM 1\ _I[ [INM
1 KIV [\QTT ZMUMUJMZ I\ \PM JW\\WU WN \PM MVTQ[\UMV\
NWZU _I[ I [\I\MUMV\" ¹1 ^WT]V\MMZ NWZ UMLQKIT [MZ^QKM
L]\a º 1 [QOVML Ua QVQ\QIT[ 6I^a PW[XQ\IT Ua /WL PW_
KIV aW] JM IVa [INMZ' 4Q\\TM LQL 1 SVW_ 1 MVLML ]X QV JWW\
KIUX I\ /ZMI\ 4ISM[ CVI^IT [\I\QWV VMIZ +PQKIOWE )VL
\PMV \W PW[XQ\IT KWZX[ [KPWWT JIKS I\ /ZMI\ 4ISM[ IVL WV
\W *M\PM[LI CVI^IT PW[XQ\IT QV 5IZaTIVLE NWZ X[aKP \MKP
\ZIQVQVO \W OM\ I VM]ZWX[aKPQI\ZQK [XMKQIT\a
,M[XQ\M aW]Z JM[\ MЄWZ\[ aW] [\QTT MVLML ]X QV >QM\VIU
5a ÅZ[\ L]\a [\I\QWV IN\MZ \PM X[aKP \ZIQVQVO _I[ +PMT[MI
6I^IT 0W[XQ\IT CQV 5I[[IKP][M\\[E 1 _I[ QV KPIZOM WN \PM
X[aKP _IZL NWZ I TIZOM XWZ\QWV WN Ua 6I^a KIZMMZ 1 M`̆
XMK\ML \W OM\ W]\ \PMZM JMKI][M \PMZM _I[V¼\ MVW]OP \QUM
,I^QL ; .MZZQMZW UILM PQ[ ÅZ[\ KWV\ZQJ]\QWV \W
\PM VI\QWV¼[ >QM\VIU ?IZ ZMKWZL[ QV ! _PMV
PM ÅTTML W]\ MVTQ[\UMV\ NWZU[ NWZ \PM 6I^a IN\MZ
LZWXXQVO W]\ WN KWTTMOM <WLIa PM Q[ K][\WLQIV
WN UQTTQWV[ WN LWK]UMV\[ NZWU \PM _IZ I[
PMIL WN \PM 6I\QWVIT )ZKPQ^M[ IVL :MKWZL[
)LUQVQ[\ZI\QWV _PQKP PI[ QVKT]LML UIVa WN
\PW[M LWK]UMV\[ QV IV M`PQJQ\ \PI\ WXMVML QV
6W^MUJMZ IVL Z]V[ \PZW]OP 2IV !
.MZZQMZW _I[ IXXWQV\ML IZKPQ^Q[\ WN
\PM =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ Ja 8ZM[QLMV\ *IZIKS
7JIUI QV ! 0M XZM^QW][Ta [MZ^ML
NW]Z aMIZ[ I[ PMIL WN ZM[MIZKP TQJZIZQM[
NWZ \PM 6M_ AWZS 8]JTQK 4QJZIZa \PM
TIZOM[\ X]JTQK TQJZIZa [a[\MU QV \PM KW]V\Za
_Q\P NW]Z ZM[MIZKP TQJZIZQM[ IVL JZIVKP
TQJZIZQM[ .MZZQMZW _PW MIZVML LMOZMM[ QV
-VOTQ[P IVL TQJZIZa
Born: Dec. 31, 1945, Beverly,
[KQMVKM IN\MZ PQ[ 6I^a
Residence: Washington, D.C.
[MZ^QKM IT[W PMTL PQOP̆
TM^MT XW[Q\QWV[ QV TQJZIZQM[
University, bachelor’s and
master’s degrees in English
I\ \PM 5I[[IKP][M\\[
literature, 1972 and 1976;
1V[\Q\]\M WN <MKPVWTWOa
Simmons College of Library
and Information Science,
IVL ,]SM =VQ^MZ[Q\a
master’s degree, 1974
)\ \PM 6I\QWVIT
Military service: U.S. Navy,
May 1967-February 1971;
)ZKPQ^M[ PM TMIL[ IV
highest rank, petty ofﬁcer
IOMVKa WN IJW]\
In Vietnam: Hospital
MUXTWaMM[ QV NIKQTQ\QM[
corpsman, assigned to 1st
_PW XZM[MZ^M SMa NMLMZIT
Marine Division, FebruaryLWK]UMV\[ IVL UISM
March 1970; USS Sanctuary,
March 1970-January 1971
LMKTI[[QÅML WVM[ I^IQTIJTM
\W \PM X]JTQK .MZZQMZW
Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, 1965-67 and
IT[W _WZS[ _Q\P PQ[ [\IЄ
1971-96, rising to associate
director for public services and \W KZMI\M [XMKQIT M`PQJQ\[
acting co-director of libraries;
1V IV QV\MZ^QM_ _Q\P
Duke University, university
librarian and vice provost for
library affairs, 1996-2004;
+P]KS ;XZQVO[\WV PM
New York Public Libraries,
\ITS[ IJW]\ \PQVO[ XMWXTM
Andrew W. Mellon director and
chief executive of research
_QTT [MM I\ \PM VM_ M`PQJQ\
IVL _PI\ PM [I_
Today: Archivist of the United
ÅZ[\PIVL QV >QM\VIU
States, since Nov. 13, 2009
E X C L U S I V E LY D E S I G N E D R I N G S H O N O R Y O U R M I L I TA RY S E RV I C E T O C O U N T RY
VIETNAM SERVICE CAREER RINGS
HANDCRAFTED IN AMERICA FEATURING YOUR SERVICE AND CAREER INSIGNIA
A1 1ST INFANTRY DIVISION
BIG RED ONE - 100th Anniversary!
Air Force Ring shown with
AF8 TACTICAL AIR COMMAND
our personalized Vietnam Service Career Ring
will be handcrafted in America, with a solid 10 Karat
Gold Service Emblem on a polished capstone. The ring body
combines Sterling Silver and 24 KT Gold plating!
• Thank you priced at just $239*
with an affordable payment plan
available (See order form for details.)
• Your Service Branch emblem is cast in solid 10KT Gold, mounted on
a polished capstone and surrounded by the words VIETNAM
VETERAN in bold lettering.
• Your satisfaction is guaranteed 100% by Veterans Commemoratives,
and by America’s finest maker of quality Military and fraternal jewelry.
You may return your ring within 30 days for replacement or refund no questions asked. So, order today with confidence.
• Your Vietnam Medal & Ribbon in official colors is sculpted & handenameled on one shank. Your Career/Division Insignia is featured on
the opposite side (see choices below.)
YOU HAVE EARNED THE RIGHT TO WEAR THESE SPECIAL RINGS.
• Inside of band is engraved with your initials and years
of service and is solid and smooth for maximum
comfort. Our rings are never hollowed out.
ADDITIONAL CAREER / DIVISION EMBLEMS AVAILABLE! CALL OR VISIT WWW.VETCOM.COM FOR DETAILS.
NAVY & COAST GUARD
By federal law, licensing fees paid to the U.S. Army for the use of its trademarks provide support for the Army® Trademark Licensing
Program, and net licensing revenue is devoted to U.S. Army Morale, Welfare and Recreation programs. U.S. Army name, trademark
and logos are protected under federal law and used under license by Veterans Commemoratives.
WITH EVERY ORDER!
10TH MOUNTAIN 1ST CAVALRY 1ST ARMORED 82ND AIRBORNE 101ST AIRBORNE
FREE FLAG PIN
1ST INFANTRY 2ND INFANTRY 3RD INFANTRY 4TH INFANTRY 25TH INFANTRY
Or, Mail to: Veterans Commemoratives™ Military Career Service Rings, Two Radnor Corporate Center, Suite 120, Radnor, PA 19087-4599
YES. I wish to order the following exclusive Vietnam Veteran Career
Service Ring, personalized with my initials and year dates of service.
I Need Send No Money Now. I will be billed in four monthly
installments of $59.75* each with the first payment due prior to shipment.
PLEASE SEND ME A FREE AMERICAN FLAG LAPEL PIN!
Coast Guard (not shown)
Career Insignia: Enter emblem #. See pictures & numbers above: ________
(We CANNOT ship to P.O. Boxes) Allow 6-8 weeks for delivery.
Call or visit www.Vetcom.com for additional Career and Division Insignias.
Ring Size: ___ Initials (3): ____ ____ ____ Svc. Yrs: _____to_____
City:_______________________________ State:______ Zip: __________
(Use ring sizer below or check with your jeweler.)
Phone #: (_______)____________ Email: __________________________
(In case we have questions about your order.)
*Plus $19.95 for processing, shipping & handling.
PA residents add 6% state sales tax. © ICM 2017
FOR OTHER FINE MILITARY RINGS, WATCHES & COLLECTIBLES VISIT VETERANS COMMEMORATIVES ONLINE AT WWW.VETCOM.COM
That ship was used to treat wounded? AM[ 1\ [XMV\ \PM
LIa QV ,I 6IVO PIZJWZ +IIT\QM[ _MZM KWUQVO QV ITT \PM
\QUM [WUM Ja JWI\ J]\ UW[\ WN \PMU Ja PMTQKWX\MZ <PM
PIZJWZ _I[V¼\ [INM I\ VQOP\ JMKI][M WN KWVKMZV[ IJW]\
XW\MV\QIT MVMUa LMX\P KPIZOM[ CLZWXXML QV \PM _I\MZ
L]ZQVO \PM LIZSVM[[E ?M [XMV\ \PM VQOP\ KZ]Q[QVO \PQ[ JQO
KQZKTM NZWU ,I 6IVO ]X \W 0]M IVL JIKS )VL ITT VQOP\
TWVO _M _MZM \ISQVO WV XI\QMV\[ Ja PMTQKWX\MZ )\ LIaJZMIS _M _MV\ JIKS QV
For someone whose medical experience had been
with psychiatric patients, what was it like to see
seriously wounded patients on the Sanctuary? ?MTT
1 [I_ I NIQZ IUW]V\ WN \PI\ I\ *M\PM[LI QV JI[QK KWZX[
\ZIQVQVO _PMV 1 OW\ I ZW\I\QWV \PZW]OP \PM _IZL[ \PMZM
7V \PM [PQX WN KW]Z[M Q\ _I[ UWZM QV\MV[M IVL U]KP
UWZM WN Q\ )VL \PM \ZQIOM XQMKM WN Q\ _I[ VM_ 1 ^WT]V\MMZML \W _WZS QV \ZQIOM JMKI][M WVM WN Ua OWWL NZQMVL[
NZWU +PMT[MI 6I^IT 2QU 5IZWVMa _I[ QV KPIZOM WN \ZQIOM¸\PM LMKQ[QWV̆UISQVO IJW]\ _PW¼[ UW[\ LQ[\ZM[[ML
IVL _PW VMML[ \PM UW[\ I\\MV\QWV ÅZ[\
How did you deal with that? AW] R][\ OM\ ][ML \W Q\ 1
WN\MV \PQVS IJW]\ \PI\ _PMV 1 K]\ Ua[MTN WZ [WUM\PQVO
AW] R][\ OM\ ][ML \W Q\
Anything else about Vietnam that particularly sticks
out in your memory? <PMZM Q[ IVW\PMZ \PQVO 1 \PQVS
IJW]\ 1 _I[ VM^MZ INZIQL 1 _I[ QV I _IZ bWVM *]\ 1 _I[
QV I ZMTI\Q^MTa [MK]ZM IZMI 1 _I[ WV Ua _Ia \W \PM PMIL
WVM VQOP\ IVL \PMZM _MZM ^MZa I\\ZIK\Q^M KWTWZN]T J]Z[\[
1 LQLV¼\ SVW_ _PI\ \PM PMTT Q\ _I[ <]ZV[ W]\ Q\ _I[ I
[VQXMZ )N\MZ \PM NIK\ [WUMWVM \WTL UM _PI\ _I[ OWQVO WV
1 [PW]TL PI^M JMMV [KIZML *]\ 1 LQLV¼\ SVW_ _PI\ Q\ _I[
Fifty years later, you are helping to share the memories
of other veterans through the archives’ Remembering Vietnam
exhibit. Out of millions of docuUMV\[ UQTM[ WN ÅTU IVL PW]Z[ WN
audio, how did you decide what to
display? <PI\¼[ \PM ZWTM WN \PM M`PQJQ\QWV [\IЄ IVL \PM K]ZI\WZ[ _PW
SVW_ \PM UW[\ IJW]\ \PM ZMKWZL[
<PM KWVKMX\ LM^MTWXUMV\ [\IZ\[
IJW]\ \PZMM aMIZ[ W]\ \PQVSQVO IJW]\
PW_¼[ \PM [\WZa Q[ OWQVO \W JM \WTL
<PM JWWS \PI\ U[ Q\ ]X NWZ UM Q[
6W\PQVO -^MZ ,QM[" >QM\VIU IVL \PM
5MUWZa WN ?IZ CI VWVÅK\QWV _WZS
IJW]\ _Ia[ \PM _IZ Q[ ZMUMUJMZML Ja
XMWXTM WN ^IZQW][ VI\QWV[ QV^WT^ML QV Q\E Ja >QM\ <PIVP
6O]aMV C_PW KIUM \W \PM = ; I[ I ;W]\P >QM\VIUM[M
ZMN]OMM QV ! E 0M UISM[ I XWQV\ \PI\ _IZ[ IZM NW]OP\
\_QKM 7VKM WV \PM JI\\TMÅMTL IVL WVKM QV UMUWZa <PI\¼[
_PI\ :MUMUJMZQVO >QM\VIU Q[ ITT IJW]\ )[ QUXWZ\IV\
I[ \PM LWK]UMV\[ IZM \PM UW[\ QUXWZ\IV\ XQMKM WN \PQ[ Q[
\PM UMUWZQM[ _M¼ZM KIX\]ZQVO QV QV\MZ^QM_[ XMWXTM \MTTQVO \PM [\WZa WN _IZ NZWU \PMQZ XMZ[XMK\Q^M 7V JW\P [QLM[
How were those interviewees chosen? )TQKM 3IUX[
\PM K]ZI\WZ NWZ \PM M`PQJQ\ LM^MTWXML \PM QV\MZ^QM_
[KPML]TM ?M _WZSML _Q\P I XIVMT WN IL^Q[MZ[ PQ[\WZQIV[
UIQVTa \W KWUM ]X _Q\P VIUM[ WN \PM XMWXTM \W QV\MZ^QM_
)TQKM LQL QV\MZ^QM_[ )TT IZM QV \PM M`PQJQ\
As you know, the Vietnam War is a contentious topic.
<MTT UM IJW]\ Q\
There’s probably some skepticism about a government-sponsored exhibit on the war <PI\¼[ \PM JMI]\a
WN \PM[M QV\MZ^QM_[ <PM[M IZM \PM ZMIT NWTS[ \MTTQVO \PM
[\WZQM[ NZWU \PMQZ W_V XMZ[XMK\Q^M 1\¼[ VW\ \PM OW^MZVUMV\ 1\¼[ VW\ ][ QV\MZXZM\QVO _PI\ \PMa [IQL )VL \PM
CLWK]UMV\E ZMKWZL[ \MTT \PM OWWL [\]Є IVL \PM JIL [\]Є
Some of the material in your exhibit is recently declas[QÅML 0W_ U]KP WN \PM >QM\VIU ?IZ Q[ [\QTT KTI[[QÅML' 4W\[ TW\[ <PMZM Q[ [WUM [\]Є \PI\ XZWJIJTa _QTT
ZMUIQV KTI[[QÅML NWZ I _PQTM UW[\Ta JMKI][M WN UM\PWL[
C][ML NWZ QV\MTTQOMVKM OI\PMZQVO \PI\ _W]TL JM LQ[KTW[MLE
*]\ \PMZM¼[ IT[W \PQ[ P]OM Q[M WN ;WKQIT ;MK]ZQ\a V]UJMZ[ <PM UQTQ\IZa [\]Є PI[ ;WKQIT ;MK]ZQ\a V]UJMZ[ \PI\
PI^M \W JM ZMLIK\ML JMNWZM Q\ KIV JM ZMTMI[ML
When message would you like exhibit’s visitors to
leave with? 1¼U ZMITTa NWK][ML QV ITT WN W]Z M`PQJQ\[ WV
\PM 3 \PZW]OP KWUU]VQ\a _PW QV \PQ[ XIZ\QK]TIZ KI[M
SVW_ VW\PQVO I\ ITT IJW]\ \PM _IZ <PM [\WZQM[ _QTT \MTT
\PI\ \PQ[ _IZ _I[ NW]OP\ NWZ¸_PI\ ZMI[WV' ?Pa _MZM _M
QV^WT^ML' )VL 1 PWXM XMWXTM _QTT [\IZ\ \PQVSQVO IJW]\ _IZ
QV OMVMZIT IJW]\ \PM LM[\Z]K\QWV \W P]UIV K]T\]ZM[ IVL
TQNM IVL _Ia WN TQNM \PI\ _IZ[ JZQVO _Q\P \PMU V
COURTESY DAVID S. FERRIERO
left in my enlistment to go through the
ÅMTL \ZIQVQVO \W [MZ^M QV >QM\VIU 1 _I[
[PWKSML _PMV 1 OW\ WZLMZ[ QV 2IV]IZa
! \W ZMXWZ\ \W \PM [\ 5IZQVM ,Q^Q[QWV >QM\VIU Ja \PM \P WN .MJZ]IZa
! <PM XMZ[WVVMT WЅKM I\ +PMT[MI
6I^IT 0W[XQ\IT _QZML ?I[PQVO\WV"
?PI\¼[ \PM [\WZa PMZM' *]\ \PM WZLMZ[
[\WWL ;W 1¼U WV I XTIVM \W ,I 6IVO
<PM NWTS[ QV \PM XMZ[WVVMT WЅKM QV
+PMT[MI [IQL _PMV aW] OM\ \W >QM\VIU
TWWS ]X +PQMN ,][\a :PWLM[ )VL [WV
WN I O]V PM _I[ \PM WVM _PW KPMKSML
UM QV <PM ÅZ[\ _WZL[ W]\ WN PQ[ UW]\P
_MZM ¹?PI\ QV \PM PMTT IZM _M OWQVO \W
LW _Q\P aW]'º <PMa KW]TLV¼\ [MVL UM
\W \PM ÅMTL JMKI][M 1 LQLV¼\ PI^M ÅMTL
\ZIQVQVO 0M OI^M UM ITT WN \PM[M ]VQNWZU[ [QLMIZU ÆIS
RIKSM\ PMTUM\ M^MZa\PQVO \PI\ 1 VMMLML IVL [QVKM 1 PIL
X[aKP \ZIQVQVO PM \WTL UM \W ZMXWZ\ \W \PM X[aKP _IZL
<_W UWV\P TI\MZ 1 OW\ WZLMZ[ NWZ \PM =;; ;IVK\]IZa hosXQ\IT [PQX
David S. Ferriero, left, enjoys shore
leave with shipmate Jim Maroney at
Subic Bay in the Philippines in 1970.
For Less Than $ 200
Try it RISK-FREE for 45 days!
Complete Refund Guarantee!
How can a hearing aid that costs
less than $200 be every bit as good as
one that sells for $2,250 or more?
The answer: Although tremendous strides
have been made in Advanced Hearing Aid
Technology, those cost reductions have not
been passed on to you. Until now...
MDHearingAid® uses the same
kind of Advanced Hearing Aid Technology
incorporated into hearing aids that cost
thousands more at a small fraction
of the price.
— Don W., Sherman, TX
Over 300,000 satisﬁed MDHearingAid
TAKE ADVANTAGE OF OUR
customers agree: High-quality,
FDA-registered hearing aids don’t
45-DAY RISK-FREE TRIAL!
have to cost a fortune. The fact is,
Hearing is believing and we invite you to try
you don’t need to spend thousands
this nearly invisible hearing aid with no
for a hearing aid. MDHearingAid
annoying whistling or background noise for
yourself. If you are not completely satisﬁed
is a medical-grade hearing aid
with your MDHearingAid, return it within 45
offering sophistication and high
days for a FULL REFUND.
performance, and works right out
of the box with no time-consuming
For the Lowest Price Call
“adjustment” appointments. You
can contact a licensed hearing
specialist conveniently on-line or
by phone — even after your
purchase at no cost. No other
company provides such extensive
support. Now that you know...why pay more?
READY TO USE RIGHT
OUT OF THE BOX!
and get FREE Batteries for 1 Year
Plus FREE Shipping
DOCTOR DESIGNED | AUDIOLOGIST TESTED | FDA REGISTERED
Proudly assembled in America!
Fill ’er up
A probe was inserted into the
basketlike receptacle of a tanker
aircraft’s hose during in-air refueling.
Extra fuel tanks were installed
on the wings to extend the
Starﬁghter’s range and could
be dropped after use.
Razorlike wings were
streamlined for supersonic
ﬂight. On the tarmac, shields
were placed on the wing edges
to protect ground crews.
)ZUML NWZ I ÅOP\
An M61 20 mm multibarrel
Gatling-type rotary gun was
designed to blast enemy
aircraft during close-in
aerial “knife ﬁghts.”
The Starﬁghter could
be outﬁtted with
loaded on each wing.
By Carl O. Schuster
-TMK\ZQK 2̆ !̆ )
pounds of thrust
Wingspan: 21 feet,
Max. speed: Mach
Combat radius with
two wing tanks:
! VI]\QKIT UQTM[
5 UU KIVVWV#
\_W \W NW]Z )15̆!
Bomb load: Two
or rocket pods
In December 1951, after Lockheed Corp. aircraft designer Clarence “Kelly” Johnson
ZM\]ZVML NZWU UMM\QVO[ _Q\P = ; )QZ .WZKM XQTW\[ ÅOP\QVO W^MZ 3WZMI PM _I[ KWUUQ\\ML
\W LM^MTWXQVO \PM _WZTL¼[ NI[\M[\ IVL PQOPM[\̆ÆaQVO ÅOP\MZ 4WKSPMML IXXZW^ML PQ[ \MIU¼[
design on Oct. 31, 1952, as Model 83. The Air Force ordered two prototypes for testing
on March 1, 1953.
<PM ÅZ[\ @.̆ XZW\W\aXM ÆM_ WVM aMIZ TI\MZ 1\ _I[ VW\M_WZ\Pa NWZ Q\[ [PWZ\ _QLM
_QVO _Q\P I XMZ̆\PQV TMILQVO MLOM WVTa QVKPM[ \PQKS <PM XZW\W\aXM[ ]VLMZ_MV\
I [MZQM[ WN UWLQÅKI\QWV[ \W [WT^M TIVLQVO OMIZ IVL [\IJQTQ\a XZWJTMU[ \PI\ IZW[M L]ZQVO
\M[\QVO 0W_M^MZ XZWL]K\QWV I_IQ\ML QV[\ITTI\QWV WN \PM LM[QOV¼[ QV\MVLML /MVMZIT -TMK̆
\ZQK 2̆ ! IN\MZJ]ZVQVO \]ZJWRM\ MVOQVM[ <PM ZMT\QVO A.̆ JMKIUM \PM JI[Q[ NWZ \PM
.̆ ) \PI\ MV\MZML [MZ^QKM QV ! IKPQM^QVO [M^MZIT [XMML KTQUJ̆ZI\M IVL WXMZI\QWVIT
ÆQOP\ ZMKWZL[ 8QTW\[ KITTML Q\ \PM BQXXMZ WZ BQX
7V )XZQT ! ! \PM .̆ +̆MY]QXXML \P <IK\QKIT .QOP\MZ ;Y]ILZWV IZZQ^ML I\
,I 6IVO )QZ *I[M <PM XTIVM I ÅOP\MZ̆JWUJMZ ^IZQIV\ PIL I ZMN]MTQVO XZWJM IVL PIZL
XWQV\[ \W UW]V\ M`\MZVIT N]MT \IVS[ JWUJ[ WZ ]X \W NW]Z )15̆! ;QLM_QVLMZ QVNZIZML̆
O]QLML IQZ̆\W̆IQZ UQ[[QTM[ 1\[ XZQUIZa UQ[[QWV _I[ M[KWZ\QVO 4WKSPMML -+̆ UW\PMZ̆
[PQX[ KIZZaQVO LZWVM[ IVL \PM ¹*QO -aMº MIZTa _IZVQVO ZILIZ̆MY]QXXML XTIVM[ \PI\
XZW^QLML Z^MQTTIVKM XXWZ\ \W = ; IQZKZIN\ W^MZ 6WZ\P >QM\VIU <PM ;\IZÅOP\MZ[ IT[W
KWVL]K\ML [\ZQSM IVL KTW[M̆IQZ̆XXWZ\ UQ[[QWV[ QV 6WZ\P IVL ;W]\P >QM\VIU I[ _MTT I[
7XMZI\QWV 1ZWV 0IVL UQ[[QWV[ \W LM[\ZWa 6WZ\P >QM\VIUM[M UQ[[QTM [Q\M[
<PM .̆ +¼[ LMXTWaUMV\ \W 1VLWKPQVI MVLML WV 2]Ta ! ! IN\MZ UWZM \PIV
[WZ\QM[ ,]ZQVO \PI\ XMZQWL .̆ +[ _MZM TW[\ QV ;W]\PMI[\ )[QI¸[Q` \W OZW]VLÅZM
NW]Z \W VWVKWUJI\ KI][M[ \PZMM \W ;W^QM\ ;)̆ ZNIKM̆\W̆IQZ UQ[[QTM[ IVL WVM \W I +PQ̆
VM[M 2̆ ÅOP\MZ _PQTM ЄMZQVO I VI^QOI\QWV [a[\MU[ NIQT]ZM VMIZ +PQVI¼[ 0IQVIV 1[TIVL
7N\MV KITTML ¹\PM ZWKSM\ _Q\P I UIV QV Q\ º \PM .̆ _I[ \PM ÅZ[\ WXMZI\QWVIT IQZKZIN\
\W [\IQV 5IKP [XMML QV ÆQOP\ 1\ ЄMZML NZWU [PWZ\ ZIVOM WJ[WTM\M I^QWVQK[ PQOP
TIVLQVO [XMML IVL ]V\QT TI\M ! IV ]VZMTQIJTM MVOQVM
6WVM\PMTM[[ \PM ;\IZÅOP\MZ [MZ^ML \PM = ; IVL [M^MZIT WN Q\[ ITTQM[ _MTT 6WZ\P >QM\̆
VIU¼[ XQTW\[ VM^MZ KPITTMVOML WVM QV KWUJI\ IVL 1\ITa¼[ IQZ LMNMV[M ^IZQIV\ \PM .̆ ;
[MZ^ML \PZW]OP I OZMI\ \M[\QUWVa \W 2WPV[WV¼[ LM[QOV IVL ^Q[QWV V
“My friends all hate their
cell phones… I love mine!” FR
Say good-bye to everything you hate about cell phones. Say hello to the Jitterbug Flip.
“Cell phones have gotten so small,
I can barely dial mine.” Not the
Jitterbug® Flip. It features a large keypad
for easier dialing. It even has a larger
display and a powerful, hearing aid
compatible speaker, so it’s easy to
see and conversations are clear.
“I had to get my son to program
it.” Your Jitterbug Flip setup process
is simple. We’ll even program it with
your favorite numbers.
“What if I don’t remember a number?”
Friendly, helpful Personal Operators are
available 24 hours a day and will even
greet you by name when you call.
Order now and receive a
FREE Car Charger – a $25 value
for your Jitterbug Flip. Call now!
Personal Operator Assistance
No add’l charge
No add’l charge
30-Day Return Policy2
Long Distance Calls
More minute plans and Health & Safety Packages available.
Ask your Jitterbug expert for details.
“My phone’s battery only lasts a short time.” Unlike
most cell phones that need to be recharged every day,
the Jitterbug Flip was designed with a long-lasting battery,
so you won’t have to worry about running out of power.
“Many phones have features that
are rarely needed and hard to use!”
The Jitterbug Flip contains easy-to-use
features that are meaningful to you.
A built-in camera makes it easy and
fun for you to capture and share your
favorite memories. And a flashlight with
a built-in magnifier helps you see in
dimly lit areas. The Jitterbug Flip has
all the features you need.
“I’d like a cell phone to use in an
emergency.” Now you can turn your
phone into a personal safety device with
5Star® Service. In any uncertain or unsafe
situation, simply press the 5Star button to
speak immediately with a highly-trained Urgent
Response Agent who will confirm your location,
evaluate your situation and get you the help you
“My cell phone company wants to lock me in
a two-year contract!” Not with the Jitterbug Flip.
There are no contracts to sign and no cancellation fees.
Red and Graphite.
Enough talk. Isn’t it time you found
out more about the cell phone that’s
changing all the rules? Call now! Jitterbug
product experts are standing by.
Call toll-free to get your
Jitterbug Flip Cell Phone
Please mention promotional code 107562.
We proudly accept the following credit cards:
IMPORTANT CONSUMER INFORMATION: Jitterbug is owned by GreatCall, Inc. Your invoices will come from GreatCall. 1Monthly fees do not include government taxes or assessment surcharges and are
subject to change. Plans and services may require purchase of a Jitterbug Flip and a one-time setup fee of $35. Coverage is not available everywhere. 5Star or 9-1-1 calls can only be made when cellular service
is available. 5Star Service will be able to track an approximate location when your device is turned on, but we cannot guarantee an exact location. 2We will refund the full price of the Jitterbug phone and the
activation fee (or setup fee) if it is returned within 30 days of purchase in like-new condition. We will also refund your first monthly service charge if you have less than 30 minutes of usage. If you have more
than 30 minutes of usage, a per minute charge of 35 cents will be deducted from your refund for each minute over 30 minutes.You will be charged a $10 restocking fee. The shipping charges are not refundable.
There are no additional fees to call GreatCall’s U.S.-based customer service. However, for calls to a Personal Operator in which a service is completed, you will be charged 99 cents per call, and minutes will
be deducted from your monthly rate plan balance equal to the length of the call and any call connected by the Personal Operator. Jitterbug, GreatCall and 5Star are registered trademarks of GreatCall, Inc.
Copyright ©2017 GreatCall, Inc. ©2017 firstSTREET for Boomers and Beyond, Inc.
Jan. 22 Dan Rowan
and Dick Martin’s 4I]OP̆1V
LMJ]\[ WV 6*+ 1\ KZMI\ML I
new type of the variety show
_Q\P NI[\̆XIKML QZZM^MZMV\
humor, psychedelic sets,
whacky characters and
silly phrases such
as “sock it to me.”
1\ IT[W TI]VKPML
Goldie Hawn and Lily
Tomlin to stardom.
Jan. 14 Bart Starr and the
National Football League’s Green
Bay Packers pound the Oakland
Raiders of the American Football
League 33-14 in the NFL-AFL
World Championship Game
(later dubbed Super Bowl II).
Jan. 21 Paul Simon and
Art Garfunkel release their
soundtrack to The Graduate,
\PM ! ,][\QV 0WЄUIV̆
Anne Bancroft movie about a
confused college graduate’s
seduction by “Mrs. Robinson.”
Feb. 3 The Lemon Pipers, a pop band formed in 1966,
land the top spot on the Billboard charts with “Green
Tambourine.” It was the only big hit for the group,
which disbanded in 1969.
Feb. 8 Moviegoers
are introduced to
8TIVM\ WN \PM )XM[
_PMZM I[ I OZW]X
LQ[KW^MZ IXM[ Z]TM
and humans are
0M[\WV Q[ WVM WN
IVL 3QU 0]V\MZ
Jan. 21 The Battle of Khe Sanh
begins as North Vietnamese Army
gunners in “neutral” Laos begin
shelling the U.S. Marine base in the
northwest corner of South Vietnam.
The siege lasted 77 days until relief
Feb. 12 More than 1,000
black sanitation workers
strike in Memphis,
<MVVM[[MM NWZ JM\\MZ
_IOM[ [INMZ KWVLQ\QWV[
and union recognition
IN\MZ \_W _MZM KZ][PML
to death in a truck
compactor. A negotiated
agreement ended the
strike on April 16.
Feb. 19 Mr. Roger’s
its run on National
Educational Television (merged into
8*; QV ! .ZML
:WOMZ[ I U][QKQIV
IVL UQVQ[\MZ ][M[
X]XXM\[ U][QK IVL
OMV\TMVM[[ \W PMTX
XZM[KPWWTMZ[ NIKM \PM
emotions and events
in their lives.
Feb. 28 Gore Vidal’s Myra Breckinridge is published. Considered
\PM ÅZ[\ VW^MT NWK][ML WV I \ZIV[gender character as Myron Breckinridge becomes Myra, its discus[QWV WN [M`]IT ZWTM[ UISM[ \PM JWWS
KWV\ZW^MZ[QIT¸IVL I JM[\̆[MTTMZ
Jan. 31 An NVA and Viet Cong
WЄMV[Q^M WN I\ TMI[\ \ZWWX[¸
^QWTI\QVO I KMI[M̆ÅZM L]ZQVO \PM
Lunar New Year holiday called
<M\¸[\ZQSM[ UWZM \PIV [Q\M[
throughout South Vietnam with full
NWZKM IN\MZ [WUM XZMUI\]ZM I\\IKS[
WV 2IV )T\PW]OP \PM +WUU]nists were soundly defeated over the
VM`\ NM_ _MMS[ IVL \WWS MVWZUW][
KIIT\QM[ \PM UIOVQ\]LM WN \PM <M\
7ЄMV[Q^M QVKT]LQVO I JZMIKP WN \PM
= ; -UJI[[a QV ;IQOWV _I[ I [PWKS
\W \PM )UMZQKIV X]JTQK
Feb. 1 1V ;IQOWV ;W]\P >QM\VIUM[M
XWTQKM KPQMN *ZQO /MV 6O]aMV 6OWK
4WIV M`MK]\M[ KIX\]ZML >+ WЅKMZ
6O]aMV >IV 4MU _Q\P I XQ[\WT [PW\ \W
the head. Associated Press journalist
-LLQM )LIU[¼ XPW\W WN \PM OZQ[Ta M^MV\
became an iconic image of the war.
Feb 7 ) [\WZa Ja )8 ZMXWZ\MZ 8M\MZ
)ZVM\\ [XZMIL[ WVM WN \PM UW[\ NIUW][ XPZI[M[ WN \PM _IZ" ¹1\ JMKIUM
necessary to destroy the town to save
it.” Arnett attributed the quote to an
]VQLMV\QÅML UIRWZ KWUUMV\QVO WV
MЄWZ\[ \W LZQ^M >QM\ +WVO W]\ WN \PM
\W_V 1\ Q[ WN\MV QVKWZZMK\Ta XPZI[ML
as “We had to destroy the village in
order to save it.”
Feb. 26 )N\MZ \PM TWVOM[\ ÅOP\ NWZ
I KQ\a L]ZQVO \PM <M\ 7ЄMV[Q^M 0]M
is declared “secured” and cleared of
6>) IVL >+ \ZWWX[ IT\PW]OP ¹UWXXQVO ]Xº WXMZI\QWV[ KWV\QV]M ]V\QT
March 7. U.S. and South Vietnamese
LMI\P[ \W\IT )V M[\QUI\ML
\W MVMUa \ZWWX[ _MZM SQTTML
)LLQ\QWVITTa \PM +WUU]VQ[\[ M`MK]\ML \W 0]M KQ^QTQIV[
JAN. 14: HISTORYNET ARCHIVES; JAN. 21: GUY ACETO; JAN 22: AF ARCHIVE/
ALAMY AND HISTORYNET ARCHIVES (BUTTON); FEB. 3: GUY ACETO;
FEB. 8: 20TH CENTURY FOX; FEB. 12: AP PHOTO/CHARLIE KELLY;
FEB. 19: PHOTOFEST: FEB. 28: AF ARCHIVE/ALAMY
Communists attacks in January 1968, and the reaction to
them, dashed U.S. hopes for an all-out victory in Vietnam
By James H. Willbanks
In a staged February 1968 photo for U.S.
News & World Report, a couple look at a
scene from Vietnam, illustrating the weeks of
ﬁlmed carnage during the Tet Offensive that
changed public perceptions of the war.
An inﬂuential voice
CBS News anchor Walter Cronkite interviews a
professor at the University of Hue in February 1968.
In a broadcast later that month, Cronkite described
the war in Vietnam as “mired in stalemate.”
A C-47 Skytrain, struck by
rocket and mortar shelling
during Tet, is just a pile of
wreckage at Tan Son Nhut
Air Base outside Saigon.
<-< 7..-6;1>5IRWZ +WUU]VQ[\ /ZW]VL )\\IKS[
2IV ̆ .MJ !
:-;-):+0" -:13 >144 ):,
Ban Me Thuot
Bien Hoa/Long Binh
The North Vietnamese
Army and Viet Cong
attacked 36 of 44
ﬁve of six autonomous
cities including Saigon
and Hue, 64 of 242 district capitals and more
than 50 hamlets. Some
attacks were limited to
long-range artillery ﬁre
or commando raids,
such as the hit on Cam
Ranh Bay, about 200
miles north of Saigon.
The major ground
attacks (involving at
least one enemy infantry
battalion) are shown
on the map.
TOP: GETTY IMAGES; BOTTOM: EVERETT COLLECTION INC./ALAMY
V 2IV]IZa ! L]ZQVO >QM\VIU¼[ <M\ PWTQLIa \PM 6WZ\P >QM\VIUM[M )ZUa IVL >QM\ +WVO O]MZZQTTI[
TI]VKPML IV WЄMV[Q^M \PI\ MVLML QV I LQ[I[\ZW][ UQTQ\IZa LMNMI\ NWZ \PM +WUU]VQ[\[ J]\ \PM M`\MV[Q^MVM[[ IVL [\ZMVO\P WN \PMQZ I\\IKS[ ZM^MZJMZI\ML QV \PM = ; _Q\P LQ[XQZQ\QVO IN\MZ[PWKS[ \PI\ _W]TL ]T\QUI\MTa
OQ^M )UMZQKI¼[ MVMUa ITT \PM \MZZQ\WZa Q\ PIL NIQTML \W _QV L]ZQVO <M\
<PQ[ Q[ PW_ Q\ PIXXMVML"
In the summer of 1967, frustrated with the stalemate
WV \PM JI\\TMÅMTL IVL KWVKMZVML IJW]\ \PM IOOZM[[Q^M
)UMZQKIV \IK\QK[ L]ZQVO \PM XZM^QW][ aMIZ +WUU]VQ[\
TMILMZ[ QV 0IVWQ LMKQLML \W [\ZQSM I LMKQ[Q^M JTW_ IOIQV[\
the South Vietnamese and their U.S. allies. Their new
KIUXIQOV _I[ LM[QOVML \W JZMIS \PM [\ITMUI\M _Q\P I
¹OMVMZIT WЄMV[Q^Mº \PI\ _W]TL PQ\ [Q\M[ \PZW]OPW]\ ;W]\P
>QM\VIU QVKT]LQVO XZM^QW][Ta ]V\W]KPML ]ZJIV KMV\MZ[
IVL IKPQM^M \PZMM WJRMK\Q^M[" 8ZW^WSM I ¹OMVMZIT ]XZQ[QVOº IUWVO \PM ;W]\P¼[ XWX]TI\QWV [PI\\MZ \PM ;W]\P
>QM\VIUM[M IZUML NWZKM[ IVL KWV^QVKM \PM )UMZQKIV[
that the war was unwinnable.
<PM +WUU]VQ[\[ XZMXIZML NWZ \PM WЄMV[Q^M _Q\P I
UI[[Q^M J]QTL]X WN \ZWWX[ IVL MY]QXUMV\ QV \PM ;W]\P
<PMa IT[W QVQ\QI\ML LQ^MZ[QWVIZa I\\IKS[ IOIQV[\ ZMUW\M
W]\XW[\[ \W T]ZM = ; NWZKM[ QV\W \PM KW]V\Za[QLM I_Ia
NZWU \PM \IZOM\ML XWX]TI\QWV IZMI[
)N\MZ [WUM XZMUI\]ZM I\\IKS[ WV 2IV \PM WЄMV[Q^M JMOIV QV MIZVM[\ QV \PM MIZTa UWZVQVO PW]Z[ WN 2IV
! )JW]\ 6>) IVL >+ \ZWWX[ \WWS IL^IV\IOM WN \PM KMI[M̆ÅZM K][\WUIZa L]ZQVO \PM 4]VIZ 6M_
AMIZ KMTMJZI\QWV KITTML <M\ QV >QM\VIU \W UW]V\ UWZM
\PIV [QU]T\IVMW][ I[[I]T\[ QV \PM ;W]\P 5IVa ;W]\P
>QM\VIUM[M \ZWWX[ _MZM WV PWTQLIa TMI^M IVL \PM +WUU]VQ[\ NWZKM[ QVQ\QITTa MVRWaML _QLM[XZMIL KKM[[
?Q\PQV LIa[ PW_M^MZ UW[\ WN \PM I\\IKS[ QV \PM [UITTMZ
\W_V[ IVL PIUTM\[ _MZM \]ZVML JIKS 0MI^a ÅOP\QVO
PW_M^MZ KWV\QV]ML I\ [WUM XTIKM[ QV ITUW[\ ITT WN ;W]\P
>QM\VIU¼[ ZMOQWV[ QVKT]LQVO ;IQOWV IVL J[MY]MV\
XPI[M[ WN \PM WЄMV[Q^M _W]TL M`\MVL QV\W \PM MIZTa NITT
UWV\P[ WN !
Gen. William Westmoreland, \PM \WX OMVMZIT QV ;W]\P
>QM\VIU I[ PMIL WN \PM 5QTQ\IZa )[[Q[\IVKM +WUUIVL
>QM\VIU LMKTIZML QV I [\I\MUMV\ WV .MJ \PI\ ¹\PM MVMUa¼[ \ZMIKPMZW][ UQTQ\IZa IVL \MZZWZQ[\ WЄMV[Q^M PI[
NIQTML \W I\\IQV Q\[ WJRMK\Q^M NWZ _PQKP PM PI[ XIQL IVL
_QTT KWV\QV]M \W XIa I \ZMUMVLW][ XZQKM º ?M[\UWZMTIVL
[MMUML \W JM [IaQVO \PI\ \PM NIQTML +WUU]VQ[\ I\\IKS[
ZMXZM[MV\ML \PM ¹TI[\ OI[Xº WN I TW[QVO KI][M
)UMZQKIV[ [\]VVML Ja \PM [KWXM IVL NMZWKQ\a WN \PM
WЄMV[Q^M PW_M^MZ [I_ VW\ I ^QK\WZQW][ UQTQ\IZa J]\ I
OW^MZVUMV\ \PI\ PIL UQ[TML \PMU IJW]\ ITTQML XZWOZM[[
QV \PM _IZ 1V 6W^MUJMZ ! ?M[\UWZMTIVL PIL ZIQ[ML
M`XMK\I\QWV[ _PMV PM [IQL \PI\ )UMZQKIV[ _MZM _QVVQVO
\PM _IZ ?PI\ XMWXTM _I\KPML WV \PMQZ \MTM^Q[QWV [M\[
M^MZa VQOP\ L]ZQVO \PM <M\ 7ЄMV[Q^M [IQL W\PMZ_Q[M
1V \PM _ISM WN <M\ \PM UMLQI \WWS IV QVKZMI[QVOTa ]VNI^WZIJTM ^QM_ WN 8ZM[QLMV\ 4aVLWV * 2WPV[WV¼[ XWTQKa
QV >QM\VIU IVL VM_[ ZMXWZ\[ L]ZQVO IVL IN\MZ <M\ PIL I
[QOVQÅKIV\ QUXIK\ WV ITZMILa LW_V_IZL̆\ZMVLQVO X]JTQK
WXQVQWV <PM M`\MV[Q^M UMLQI KW^MZIOM MVIJTML \PM )UMZQKIV X]JTQK \W [MM NWZ Q\[MTN \PM JTWWL[PML IVL LM^I[\I\QWV
_ZW]OP\ Ja \PM ÅOP\QVO <PM XQK\]ZM[ NZWU >QM\VIU UILM
Q\ KTMIZ \PI\ )UMZQKI¼[ NWM ZMUIQVML U]KP [\ZWVOMZ \PIV
\PM XWTQ\QKQIV[ IVL OMVMZIT[ PIL TML XMWXTM \W JMTQM^M
View from the ground
The top U.S. commander
in Vietnam, Gen. William
Westmoreland, visits his
troops in the aftermath of
Tet on March 23, 1968
Walter Cronkite, the anchorman for “CBS Evening
News” and perhaps the most trusted journalist in the na\QWV ÆM_ \W ;W]\P >QM\VIU QV UQL̆.MJZ]IZa IVL ^Q[Q\ML
0]M _PMZM \PM JI\\TM [\QTT ZIOML 1V I [XMKQIT PITN̆PW]Z
ZMXWZ\ IN\MZ PQ[ ZM\]ZV \W \PM =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ QV TI\M .MJZ]IZa +ZWVSQ\M \WTL PQ[ I]LQMVKM" ¹<W [Ia \PI\ _M IZM UQZML
QV [\ITMUI\M [MMU[ \PM WVTa ZMITQ[\QK aM\ ]V[I\Q[NIK\WZa
KWVKT][QWV 1\ [MMU[ VW_ UWZM KMZ\IQV \PIV M^MZ \PI\
\PM JTWWLa M`XMZQMVKM WN >QM\VIU Q[ \W MVL QV I [\ITMUI\M 1\ Q[ QVKZMI[QVOTa KTMIZ \W \PQ[ ZMXWZ\MZ \PI\ \PM
WVTa ZI\QWVIT _Ia W]\ \PMV _QTT JM \W VMOW\QI\M VW\ I[
^QK\WZ[ J]\ I[ IV PWVWZIJTM XMWXTM _PW TQ^ML ]X \W \PMQZ
XTMLOM \W LMNMVL LMUWKZIKa IVL LQL \PM JM[\ \PMa KW]TL º
+ZWVSQ\M¼[ JZWILKI[\ PIL I [QOVQÅKIV\ QUXIK\ WV 2WPV[WV 1\ PI[ JMMV ZMXWZ\ML \PI\ \PM XZM[QLMV\ ZMUIZSML
¹1N 1¼^M TW[\ +ZWVSQ\M 1¼^M TW[\ \PM KW]V\Za º <PMZM Q[ VW
I]\PWZQ\I\Q^M XZWWN \PI\ 2WPV[WV ]\\MZML \PW[M _WZL[
J]\ \PMa VWVM\PMTM[[ IZM KTW[M \W \PM \Z]\P JMKI][M
Johnson’s deteriorating public support would get worse
over one of the most controversial issues to develop in the
IN\MZUI\P WN \PM <M\ 7ЄMV[Q^M¸I ZMY]M[\ NWZ ILLQ\QWVIT
\ZWWX[ 7V .MJ /MV -IZTM ?PMMTMZ KPIQZUIV WN \PM
2WQV\ +PQMN[ WN ;\IЄ [MV\ I UM[[IOM \W ?M[\UWZMTIVL I[SQVO QN PM VMMLML ZMQVNWZKMUMV\[ ?M[\UWZMTIVL ZMXTQML
\PI\ PM LQL VW\ VMML IVa\PQVO M`KMX\ \PM IXXZW`QUI\MTa
\ZWWX[ ITZMILa XZWUQ[ML <PM VM`\ LIa ?PMMTMZ
More troops needed?
Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Earle Wheeler,
here at a July 1965 meeting with President
Lyndon B. Johnson, wanted the president to
mobilize more troops after Tet.
+ZWVSQ\M KTMIZTa ZMÆMK\ML \PM _QLM[XZMIL LQ[[I\Q[NIK\QWV
_Q\P \PM ILUQVQ[\ZI\QWV¼[ XWTQKQM[ 8ZM^QW][Ta RW]ZVITQ[\[
PIL OMVMZITTa IKKMX\ML \PM WX\QUQ[\QK ZMXWZ\[ WN UQTQ\IZa
IVL OW^MZVUMV\ I]\PWZQ\QM[ J]\ TQSM UIVa W\PMZ )UMZQKIV[ \PMa _MZM [PWKSML Ja \PM JTWWLa ÅOP\QVO IVL \PM
IJQTQ\a WN \PM +WUU]VQ[\[ \W TI]VKP KP I JZWIL WЄMV[Q^M
2WPV[WV¼[ XWTQKQM[ _MZM IT[W ]VLMZ I\\IKS QV +WVOZM[[
,MUWKZI\QK ;MV :WJMZ\ . 3MVVMLa WN 6M_ AWZS KTIQUML
\PI\ <M\ PIL ¹ÅVITTa [PI\\MZML \PM UI[S WN WX\QKIT QTT][QWV
with which we have concealed our true circumstances,
M^MV NZWU W]Z[MT^M[ º *]\ Q\ _I[ I :MX]JTQKIV [MVI\WZ
/MWZOM )QSMV WN >MZUWV\ _PW M`XZM[[ML \PM ^QM_ WN
UIVa QV +WVOZM[[ _PMV PM [IQL ¹1N \PQ[ Q[ I NIQT]ZM 1 PWXM
\PM >QM\ +WVO VM^MZ PI^M I UIRWZ KKM[[ º
<PM XZM[QLMV\¼[ XWTT V]UJMZ[ XT]UUM\ML *a TI\M .MJZ]IZa ! Z^Ma[ [PW_ML \PI\ WVTa XMZKMV\ WN
)UMZQKIV[ MVLWZ[ML 2WPV[WV¼[ PIVLTQVO WN \PM _IZ LW_V
NZWU XMZKMV\ QV 6W^MUJMZ !
TOP: NATIONAL ARCHIVES (2); LEFT: HULTON ARCHIVE/GETTY IMAGES; BOTTOM: GETTY IMAGES
A city in ﬂames
Smoke marks enemy positions
bombed on Jan. 31, 1968, in response
to the Communist attacks on Saigon.
At right, the ﬁres around the city
continue to burn as night comes.
DICK SWANSON/THE LIFE IMAGES COLLECTION/GETTY IMAGES
sent a message saying the president was
considering diversionary attacks north of
the Demilitarized Zone or in eastern Laos to
relieve pressure on the nearby Marine base
at Khe Sanh, which had been under siege
The U.S. ambassador to Vietnam,
since Jan. 21.
Ellsworth Bunker, with hands in
After another exchange of messages,
pockets, sees the dead body of a Viet
Wheeler again urged Westmoreland to ask
Cong, among those who breached
for troops if he needed them. This time Westthe U.S. Embassy grounds during
moreland said he could use more men to reTet but were killed or captured
plenish his forces after the Tet battles.
before they got much farther.
Although the enemy had lost some 40,000
troops, it still had a large force that threatened the provinces just south of the DMZ,
and intelligence reports indicated Hanoi was
sending in more soldiers to restock its ranks. Even so, Johnson did not mention his plans to use the second and
Westmoreland thought he had the Communists on the run third increments other than in Vietnam.
Johnson was taken aback by Westmoreland’s request
and more troops in pursuit could drive them from border
sanctuaries in Cambodia and cut the Ho Chi Minh Trail for 206,000 more troops. The president realized an inwith a thrust into Laos. He also believed calling up addi- crease of that size in Vietnam would require a call-up of
tional troops would convince the North Vietnamese that the reserves—a move that would not only energize the
anti-war movement but also threaten the American econthe United States was serious about achieving a victory.
Wheeler’s concerns about troop levels extended be- omy and the future of his Great Society programs in civil
yond Southeast Asia. With 30 to 50 percent of the Army, rights, health care, education and the “war on poverty.”
5IZQVM[ 6I^a IVL )QZ .WZKM KWUUQ\\ML \W ÅOP\QVO WZ <PM KW[\[ WN Z]VVQVO \PM _IZ QV >QM\VIU IVL ÅVIVKQVO
supporting the war in Vietnam, the Joint Chiefs chair- the Great Society agenda were more than the United
man had told Johnson he was worried that the U.S. might ;\I\M[ KW]TL IЄWZL <PM XZM[QLMV\ PIL XZWXW[ML I XMZVW\ JM IJTM \W ZM[XWVL \W I ÆIZM̆]X MT[M_PMZM ]VTM[[ cent surtax on income in 1967, but Congress had refused
more reservists were mobilized and combat-ready. He to pass the legislation until the tax hike was accompanied
[I_ \PM ÅOP\QVO \PI\ KWV\QV]ML IN\MZ <M\ I[ IV WXXWZ\]- by cuts in domestic spending.
2WPV[WV I[SML VM_ ,MNMV[M ;MKZM\IZa +TIZS +TQЄWZL
nity to persuade Johnson to call units of the reserves
into active duty to strengthen the “strategic reserve”— _PW PIL \ISMV WЅKM 5IZKP \W NWZU I \I[S NWZKM _Q\PQV
forces kept readily available to react to any global threat. the Defense Department to evaluate the situation in
The president sent Wheeler to Saigon to confer with South Vietnam and make a recommendation on WestWestmoreland. Upon his return to Washington on Feb. 25, UWZMTIVL¼[ ZMY]M[\ <PM XZM[QLMV\ \WTL +TQЄWZL ¹/Q^M UM
?PMMTMZ XZMLQK\ML I ZMVM_ML +WUU]VQ[\ WЄMV[Q^M IVL \PM TM[[MZ WN \PM M^QT[ º +TQЄWZL PIL KKMMLML :WJMZ\ 5Kcontended that more troops were necessary unless the Namara, who had quietly turned against the war and deUnited States was “prepared to ac- XIZ\ML QV 2IV]IZa ! +TQЄWZL LQZMK\ML 2WPV[WV¼[
cept some reverses.” On Feb. 28, election campaign in 1964 and been a leading supporter
Wheeler presented Johnson with a WN \PM _IZ MЄWZ\ J]\ TQSM 5K6IUIZI PM _I[ VW_ PI^QVO
request from Westmoreland for doubts about U.S. involvement.
+TQЄWZL¼[ \I[S NWZKM I[[M[[ML = ; [\ZI\MOa QV >QM\VIU
206,000 more troops (in addition to
the small increase promised ear- and reviewed the proposals for additional troops. The
lier). There were more than 515,000 group examined the implications of any new escalation
and concluded that the existing policy in Vietnam was
U.S. troops in Vietnam at the time.
The 206,000-troop increase NIQTQVO +TQЄWZL _PW XZW^QLML \PM OZW]X¼[ ÅVLQVO[ \W
would be accomplished in three Johnson on March 4, believed an increase in U.S. forces
[\MX[ <PM ÅZ[\ QVKZMUMV\ WN XZWUQ[ML ¹VW MIZTa MVL \W \PM KWVÆQK\ VWZ IVa KKM[[ QV
108,000 troops would go to Vietnam I\\ZQ\QVO \PM MVMUa WZ MZWLQVO 0IVWQ¼[ _QTT \W ÅOP\ º
Shunning a large troop increase, the task force adby May 1. And the remaining 98,000
would be sent in two increments, on vised the president to send about 22,000 additional
Sept. 1 and Dec. 1. However, Wheeler troops to Vietnam and approve a call-up of 245,000 reLQL VW\ XTIV \W LMXTWa \PM ÅVIT \_W servists “to improve our strategic reserve in the United
increments to Vietnam unless the States,” but link any further troop increases in Vietnam
NVA launched another successful to the performance of the Saigon government and its
WЄMV[Q^M 1V[\MIL PM QV\MVLML \W IZUML NWZKM[ 8ZQ^I\MTa +TQЄWZL \WTL \PM XZM[QLMV\" ¹<PM
use them to bolster the stateside re- major concern of the people is that they do not see victory
serve forces. Wheeler’s report to ahead. The military has not come up with a plan for vicFEBRUARY 2018
tory. The people were discouraged as more men go in and
are chewed up in a bottomless pit.”
The situation for the Johnson administration worsened considerably when The New York Times ran a story
on March 10 revealing Westmoreland’s request for the
206,000 troops. NBC News reporter Frank McGee told
the nation that the additional troops would only result in
more destruction, not peace and victory.
.WZ U]KP WN \PM )UMZQKIV X]JTQK \PM <M\ 7ЄMV[Q^M
battles in January and February had been a rude awakening to the realities of the war and prompted a re-evaluation of the nation’s commitment. And now in March,
after being repeatedly told by political and military leaders that the Communists were fading, Americans were
[PWKSML \W ÅVL \PI\ ?M[\UWZMTIVL IVL 2WPV[WV _MZM
considering a troop increase in Vietnam.
Meanwhile, television, newspaper and magazine pic\]ZM[ WN KTW[M̆Y]IZ\MZ ÅOP\QVO ZMUQVLML NIUQTQM[ WVKM
again of the escalating human costs of the war. It seemed
to them that no matter how many troops we sent in, how
many of the enemy we killed, the Communist leadership
would replace them with large numbers of more men,
regardless of the huge cost in North Vietnamese lives.
And the war would go on without end.
By late March, a new poll on the Vietnam War revealed
that 78 percent of the surveyed Americans felt the United
States was not making any progress in the war, and only
26 percent approved of Johnson’s handling of the war.
On March 12, two days after news broke about the
proposed 206,000 additional troops, the Democratic
presidential primary was held in New Hampshire. Sen.
Eugene McCarthy, relatively unknown outside his state
of Minnesota and running on an anti-war platform as the
“Peace Candidate,” astonished the nation by coming
within a few hundred votes of defeating Johnson.
Four days after the New Hampshire primary, a potentially much stronger Democratic candidate, Robert KenVMLa¸[MMQVO \PM ZMIK\QWV \W \PM <M\ 7ЄMV[Q^M \PM
president’s low poll numbers and the results of the primary—announced his decision to enter the race. Ken28
Johnson was shocked by this shift in opinion among
these solidly anti-Communist elder statesmen and military leaders, some of whom had helped shape the policies
that had gotten the United States involved in Vietnam in
\PM ÅZ[\ XTIKM ) ^Q[QJTa IVOZa 2WPV[WV KWUXTIQVML ¹<PM
establishment bastards have bailed out [on me].” Nevertheless, the Wise Men’s recommendations, clearly a reX]LQI\QWV WN PQ[ _IZ XWTQKQM[ OZMI\Ta QVÆ]MVKML \PM
president. He wrote in his memoirs that he had asked
himself at the time, “If they [the Wise Men] had been so
LMMXTa QVÆ]MVKML Ja \PM ZMXWZ\[ WN \PM <M\ WЄMV[Q^M _PI\
must the average citizen in the country be thinking?”
On Sunday, March 31, Johnson spoke to the American
people in a nationally televised broadcast. He said the Tet
7ЄMV[Q^M PIL JMMV I NIQT]ZM NWZ \PM +WUU]VQ[\[ J]\ PM
LQL VW\ WЄMZ IVa WX\QUQ[\QK XZMLQK\QWV[ 1V[\MIL \PM XZM[ident announced a halt to the bombing raids in North
Vietnam except for an area north of the Demilitarized
No end in sight
Secretary of Defense Clark
Clifford led a task force that gave
a bleak assessment of prospects
for a U.S. victory in Vietnam.
nedy, like McCarthy, made opposition to the
war the central issue of his campaign.
Johnson also faced a more hostile Congress. Sen. J. William Fulbright, an Arkansas Democrat who chaired the Foreign
Relations Committee, opened new hearings
on administration’s conduct of the war. In
the House, 139 members signed a petition
asking Johnson for a complete review of
Vietnam policy. These responses reinforced
the administration’s belief that additional
escalation would prove increasingly divisive.
A beleaguered Johnson called for a meetQVO WN ]VWЅKQIT [MVQWZ IL^Q[MZ[ PM ZMferred to as the Wise Men—former Cabinet
WЅKMZ[ XZM[QLMV\QIT IQLM[ IUJI[[ILWZ[
generals and others. They included former
Secretary of State Dean Acheson, former Ambassador to
South Vietnam Henry Cabot Lodge, former national security adviser McGeorge Bundy and three retired generals, Omar Bradley, Matthew Ridgway and Maxwell Taylor.
Johnson had gone to the Wise Men for counsel as recently as November 1967. They had recommended that
the president stay the course in Vietnam and press ahead
with his current program. Now in the wake of the Tet Offensive, Johnson turned again to the group for advice.
The Wise Men met on March 25, joined by Secretary
WN ;\I\M ,MIV :][S IVL ,MNMV[M ;MKZM\IZa +TQЄWZL <PM
OZW]X _I[ JZQMNML Ja UQTQ\IZa IVL +1) WЅKQIT[ _PW [IQL
that even with reinforcements it might take an additional
Å^M \W aMIZ[ \W LMNMI\ \PM +WUU]VQ[\[ QV >QM\VIU
After two days of discussion, the Wise Men met with the
president and told him they had concluded that the war
was unwinnable with current policies. Though there was
some disagreement, the Wise Men had reached a general
consensus on America’s role in South Vietnam. No additional troops should be sent. The bombing of North Vietnam should be halted. And the United States should move
toward a negotiated settlement and disengagement.
LEONARD MCCOMBE/THE LIFE COLLECTION/GETTY IMAGES; BUTTON: DAVID J. & JANICE L. FRENT/GETTY IMAGES
TET’S CASUALTY COUNT
Zone and called upon North Vietnamese leaders to join
the United States in peace talks. And at the end of the
speech Johnson paused and said: “With America’s sons
QV \PM ÅMTL[ NIZ I_Ia _Q\P )UMZQKI¼[ N]\]ZM ]VLMZ KPITTMVOM ZQOP\ PMZM I\ PWUM _Q\P W]Z PWXM[ IVL \PM _WZTL¼[
PWXM[ NWZ XMIKM QV \PM JITIVKM M^MZa LIa 1 LW VW\ JMTQM^M
\PI\ 1 [PW]TL LM^W\M IV PW]Z WZ I LIa WN Ua \QUM \W IVa
XMZ[WVIT XIZ\Q[IV KI][M[ WZ \W IVa L]\QM[ W\PMZ \PIV \PM
I_M[WUM L]\QM[ WN \PQ[ WЅKM¸\PM XZM[QLMVKa WN aW]Z
KW]V\Za º <PMV PM [\]VVML PQ[ TQ[\MVMZ[" ¹1 [PITT VW\ [MMS
IVL 1 _QTT VW\ IKKMX\ \PM VWUQVI\QWV WN Ua XIZ\a NWZ IVW\PMZ \MZU I[ aW]Z XZM[QLMV\ º <PM >QM\VIU ?IZ PIL ÅVITTa LM[\ZWaML 2WPV[WV¼[ XZM[QLMVKa
1V 2]VM ! ?M[\UWZMTIVL _PW PIL KWUUIVLML
5)+> NWZ ͇ aMIZ[ _I[ JZW]OP\ PWUM IVL XZWUW\ML \W
= ; )ZUa KPQMN WN [\IЄ 2WPV[WV PIL UILM \PM LMKQ[QWV
\W ZMXTIKM ?M[\UWZMTIVL _Q\P PQ[ LMX]\a /MV +ZMQOP\WV
)JZIU[ QV UQL̆2IV]IZa JMNWZM \PM <M\ I\\IKS[ J]\ \PM
LMTIaML IVVW]VKMUMV\ MVIJTML ?M[\UWZMTIVL¼[ KZQ\QK[
to maintain that the president had become disenchanted
_Q\P \PM OMVMZIT NWZ ZMI[WV[ ZMTI\ML \W <M\ IVL ¹SQKSML
PQU ]X[\IQZ[ º
1V \PM IN\MZUI\P WN \PM <M\ 7ЄMV[Q^M IVL 2WPV[WV¼[
LMKQ[QWV VW\ \W Z]V NWZ ZM̆MTMK\QWV \PM =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ JMcame embroiled in a bitter election campaign. Former
Vice President Richard Nixon received the Republican
VWUQVI\QWV NWZ \PM XZM[QLMVKa IVL QUXTQML \PI\ PM PIL I
¹[MKZM\ XTIVº \W MVL \PM _IZ QN MTMK\ML 5MIV_PQTM \PM
,MUWKZI\QK 8IZ\a [XTQV\MZML W^MZ \PM _IZ Q[M 5K+IZ\Pa IVL 3MVVMLa _WV UW[\ WN \PM XZM[QLMV\QIT XZQUIZQM[
>QKM 8ZM[QLMV\ 0]JMZ\ 0]UXPZMa _PW LQL VW\ KWUXM\M
QV \PM XZQUIZQM[ MV\MZML \PM ZIKM QV )XZQT _Q\P 2WPV[WV¼[
XXWZ\ 3MVVMLa _I[ I[[I[[QVI\ML QV 2]VM IN\MZ _QVVQVO \PM +ITQNWZVQI XZQUIZa IVL 0]UXPZMa _WV \PM VWUination in August at a chaotic Chicago convention marred
Ja JTWWLa [\ZMM\ JI\\TM[ JM\_MMV IV\Q̆_IZ XZW\M[\MZ[ IVL
TWKIT XWTQKM 0]UXPZMa _I[ \WW KTW[MTa
QLMV\QÅML _Q\P 2WPV[WV¼[ NIQTML XWTicies in Vietnam to unite his
XIZ\a IVL 6Q`WV _WV \PM
6W^ MTMK\QWV 0M _I[ QVI]O]ZI\ML WV 2IV ! ! >QM\VIU _I[ VW_ 6Q`WV¼[ _IZ
Nixon began to implement
I XWTQKa KITTML >QM\VIUQbI\QWV _PQKP JWT[\MZML ;W]\P
>QM\VIU¼[ IZUML NWZKML _Q\P
improved training and a vast modMZVQbI\QWV MЄWZ\ +WVK]ZZMV\Ta PM
JMOIV I _Q\PLZI_IT WN )UMZQKIV \ZWWX[
that continued until almost all U.S. ground
[WTLQMZ[ PIL TMN\ Ja \PM MVL WN ! 1V [XZQVO
! = ; IL^Q[MZ[ IVL UI[[Q^M )UMZQKIV
IQZ XW_MZ PMTXML \PM ;W]\P >QM\VIUM[M JMI\
back a North Vietnamese invasion.
)N\MZ [MKZM\ VMOW\QI\QWV[ _Q\P \PM 6WZ\P
Vietnamese and a stepped-up U.S. bombing
KIUXIQOV \PM KWUJI\IV\[ ZMIKPML IV IOZMM-
2IV ̆5IZKP !
“Other allies” category includes troops from Australia, South Korea and Thailand.
“Enemy forces” number encompasses soldiers from both the North Vietnamese Army and
NOTE: Published casualty counts from Tet frequently differ from each other for various reasons.
The enemy death toll is an estimate, as are the wounded totals for both sides. Additionally, the
date range may vary. Jan 30-March 5 incorporates the periods of most intense ﬁghting. Other
tabulations extend the date to March 31, for example, and get a U.S. death toll of 3,895.
SOURCE: Staying the Course, October 1967 to September 1968: U.S Army Combat Operations
in Vietnam, U.S. Army Center of Military History
UMV\ \W MVL \PM _IZ <PM 8IZQ[ 8MIKM )KKWZL[ _MZM [QOVML
QV 2IV]IZa ! IVL I KMI[M̆ÅZM _I[ QVQ\QI\ML [WWV
\PMZMIN\MZ *a 5IZKP ITT )UMZQKIV UQTQ\IZa NWZKM[ PIL
JMMV _Q\PLZI_V NZWU ;W]\P >QM\VIU <PM KMI[M̆ÅZM
PW_M^MZ _I[ WVTa I UWUMV\IZa T]TT QV \PM ÅOP\QVO _PQKP
KWV\QV]ML NWZ \_W UWZM aMIZ[ ]V\QT \PM ÅVIT +WUU]VQ[\
WЄMV[Q^M W^MZZIV ;W]\P >QM\VIU QV )XZQT !
<PM <M\ 7ЄMV[Q^M XZW^ML \W JM \PM \]ZVQVO XWQV\ WN \PM
>QM\VIU ?IZ IVL Q\[ MЄMK\[ _MZM NIZ̆ZMIKPQVO -^MV
\PW]OP \PM +WUU]VQ[\[ _MZM [W]VLTa LMNMI\ML I\ \PM
\IK\QKIT TM^MT \PMQZ X[aKPWTWOQKIT ^QK\WZa I\ \PM [\ZI\MOQK
level set into motion the events that culminated in the
TWVO IVL JTWWLa = ; _Q\PLZI_IT IVL \PMV \PM NITT WN ;W]\P
2IUM[ 0 ?QTTJIVS[ I ZM\QZML )ZUa TQM]\MVIV\ KWTWVMT
IVL LMKWZI\ML >QM\VIU ^M\MZIV Q[ \PM /MVMZIT WN \PM
)ZUa /MWZOM + 5IZ[PITT +PIQZ WN 5QTQ\IZa 0Q[\WZa I\
\PM )ZUa¼[ +WUUIVL IVL /MVMZIT ;\IЄ +WTTMOM I\
.WZ\ 4MI^MV_WZ\P 3IV[I[ IVL \PM I]\PWZ WZ MLQ\WZ
WN JWWS[ QVKT]LQVO <PM <M\ 7ЄMV[Q^M" ) +WVKQ[M
0Q[\WZa X]JTQ[PML QV
Sen. Eugene McCarthy,
running for the 1968
nomination as the “peace
candidate,” gets an enthusiastic
response at an airport stop.
THE NVA’S PLAN FOR
A GREAT ESCAPE
A North Vietnamese Army battalion was ordered to free
captured Viet Cong so they could join the ﬁght during Tet, but U.S.
gunships and the 173rd Airborne had other plans for the intruders
By Erik Villard
LARRY BURROWS/THE LIFE PICTURE COLLECTION/GETTY IMAGES; RIGHT: U.S. AIR FORCE
n a clear and moonless night, about 200 soldiers from the North Vietnamese Army’s
5th Battalion, 95th Regiment, crouched in the
ZQKM ÅMTL[ R][\ _M[\ WN <]a 0WI I [UITT Å[PQVO
\W_V \PI\ [MZ^ML I[ \PM KIXQ\IT WN 8P] AMV XZW^QVKM IJW]\ UQTM[
<PM JI\\ITQWV KWUUIVLMZ ;MVQWZ +IX\ 4M @]IV +I] _PQ[XMZML
ÅVIT QV[\Z]K\QWV[ \W PQ[ \PZMM KWUXIVa KWUUIVLMZ[# VMIZJa I [UITT
OZW]X WN TWKIT O]MZZQTTI[ _PW PIL TML \PM 6>) [WTLQMZ[ \PZW]OP \PM
LIZS IVL ]VNIUQTQIZ KW]V\Za[QLM _IQ\ML VMZ^W][Ta NWZ XMZUQ[[QWV \W
TMI^M JMNWZM ITT PMTT JZWSM TWW[M 1\ _I[ IJW]\ " I U WV 2IV
! I \QUM _PMV UW[\ >QM\VIUM[M _MZM MVRWaQVO \PM 4]VIZ 6M_
AMIZ PWTQLIa SVW_V I[ <M\
4M LQ[UQ[[ML \PM O]QLM[ IVL [MV\ PQ[ KWUXIVa KWUUIVLMZ[ JIKS
\W \PMQZ UMV <PM KIX\IQV PWXML \PI\ \PM [MKWVL ]VQ\ QV \PM I[[I]T\
\PM \P 4WKIT .WZKM *I\\ITQWV WN \PM >QM\ +WVO _I[ _IQ\QVO QV \PM
LIZSVM[[ [WUM_PMZM \W \PM [W]\P ZMILa \W I\\IKS <]a 0WI +Q\a _PMV
\PM UWUMV\ KIUM <PW[M UMV _MZM VW\ I[ _MTT̆IZUML I[ 4M¼[
[WTLQMZ[ <PM TWKIT >QM\ +WVO ZMTQML WV [QVOTM̆[PW\ ZQÆM[ NZWU \PM
?WZTL ?IZ 11 MZI _PQTM 6WZ\P >QM\VIUM[M \ZWWX[ ][ML \PM +PQVM[M
^MZ[QWV WN \PM )3̆ I[[I]T\ ZQÆM[ IVL ;3; [MUQ̆I]\WUI\QK KIZJQVM[
ITWVO _Q\P ;W^QM\̆UILM :8, TQOP\ UIKPQVM O]V[ * ZWKSM\ TI]VKPMZ[ IVL I NM_ PMI^a UIKPQVM O]V[ <PM TWKIT NWZKM [WTLQMZ[ PW_M^MZ
_MZM QV JM\\MZ XPa[QKIT [PIXM 5W[\ WN 4M¼[ \ZWWX[ _MZM OI]V\ NZWU
P]VOMZ IVL RI]VLQKML NZWU UITIZQI I ZMT\ WN \PMQZ \QUM QV \PM
UW]V\IQV[ _PMZM NWWL IVL UMLQKQVM _MZM LQЅK]T\ \W WJ\IQV
<PM \P *I\\ITQWV¼[ PMI^a XXWZ\ _MIXWV[ \_W UU UWZ\IZ[
IVL \PMQZ KZM_[ _IQ\ML NWZ 4M \W OQ^M \PM WZLMZ \W ÅZM \PM IOZMML
]XWV [QOVIT \W [\IZ\ \PM I\\IKS WV <]a 0WI -^MZa ZW]VL VMMLML \W
KW]V\ <PM UWZ\IZ KZM_[ PIL WVTa I LWbMV ZW]VL[ NWZ MIKP \]JM# \PM
* O]VVMZ[ VW UWZM \PIV NW]Z ZWKSM\[ MIKP# \PM UIKPQVM O]VVMZ[
WVTa I NM_ JW`M[ WN IUUW# IVL \PM ZQÆMUMV TM[[ \PIV I P]VLZML
ZW]VL[ MIKP 1\ PIL \W JM MVW]OP <PMZM _W]TL JM VW _Q\PLZI_IT VW
ZM\ZMI\ NZWU \PM JI\\TM \W KWUM 4M \WTL PQ[ UMV <PM KQ\a U][\ JM
\ISMV 4M VWLLML \W PQ[ UWZ\IZ KZM_[ <PM ÅZ[\ \_W ZW]VL[ [TQL LW_V
\PM \]JM[ IVL \PMV [PW\ W]\ _Q\P I XMZK][[Q^M JIVO <PM I\\IKS WV
<]a 0WI PIL JMO]V
The NVA 95th Regiment \ZIKML Q\[ TQVMIOM \W I ]VQ\ QV 0W +PQ 5QVP¼[
>QM\ 5QVP IZUa \PI\ NWZUML QV <P]I <PQMV XZW^QVKM QV ! 1V )XZQT
An AC-47 “Spooky”
gunship, like the one
shown here and at right,
unleashed its rapid-ﬁre
miniguns on units of the
battalion that attacked
an artillery base and
prison camp at Tuy Hoa.
1962, the 95th Regiment was established as part of the
NVA 325th Division. Its troops completed their training
in the southern panhandle of North Vietnam and in
neighboring Laos before crossing the Demilitarized Zone
separating North and South Vietnam in October 1964.
Consisting of 2,000 soldiers organized into three battalions, several support companies and a headquarters element, the 95th Regiment headed to the Central
Highlands, where it operated in Kontum, Pleiku and Darlac provinces until September 1965.
With more NVA regiments scheduled to arrive in the
highlands that autumn, Hanoi shifted the regiment to the
central coast to become the primary NVA unit in Phu Yen
province. The 95th Regiment reported to the Southern
Sub-Command of Military Region 5, a headquarters that
The armament at the American
artillery base at Tuy Hoa included
M42 Dusters with twin 40 mm
anti-aircraft guns. This Duster is
near Saigon in February 1968.
also controlled the NVA 18B Regiment in neighboring
Khanh Hoa province to the south. The 95th coordinated
its activities with several Viet Cong units, most notably
the 85th Local Force Battalion and the 30th Main Force
Battalion, operating under the control of the Viet Cong
Between 1945 and 1965, Phu Yen had been a Communist stronghold, and most of its population (350,000 residents in 1965) knew only one government—the one
represented by Ho Chi Minh’s political commissars. Only
the provincial capital in the seaside city of Tuy Hoa and
a handful of district towns were beholden to French
and later South Vietnamese authority. When the NVA
95th Regiment arrived in late 1965, it enjoyed wide freedom of maneuver because the main South Vietnamese
unit in Phu Yen—the 47th Regiment, 22nd Infantry
Division, Army of the Republic of Vietnam—and local
security units stayed close to Tuy Hoa and the settlements near Highway 1, the main north-south road
through the populated lowlands along the coast. The 95th
established several base camps in the hills overlooking
the Tuy Hoa Valley. From there it could easily reach the
lowlands when it chose to raid government targets or obtain food and intelligence from local Viet Cong units.
That favorable situation changed in early 1966 when
the 1st Brigade of the 101st Airborne Division, one of
the elite American mobile units in Vietnam, moved into
OPPOSITE: GENEVIEVE CHAUVEL/SYGMA/GETTY IMAGES; MAP: PAUL FISHER; THIS PAGE: TOP: GETTY IMAGES; RIGHT: U.S. AIR FORCE
Enemy troops attacked Tuy Hoa with Soviet
RPD light machine guns and B40 rocket
launchers, being ﬁred here in a 1972 battle.
Phu Yen province. Supported by a battalion of U.S. helicopters, the airborne brigade managed to locate and
engage the 95th Regiment nearly a dozen times in the
coming year, reducing the Communist unit from 2,000
men to around 900 men by the end of 1966. The 95th
retreated deep into the hills of Phu Yen province during
\PM ÅZ[\ [Q` UWV\P[ WN ! \W M[KIXM ITTQML [_MMX[ IVL
\PM OZW_QVO _MQOP\ WN *̆ JWUJMZ [\ZQSM[
After receiving a large contingent of North Vietnamese
replacements, the regiment returned to the populated
KWI[\ WN \PM <]a 0WI IVL <]a )V LQ[\ZQK\[ QV )]O][\ !
\W QV\MZNMZM _Q\P \PM ]XKWUQVO MTMK\QWV[ NWZ I VM_ XZM[Qdent and vice president of South Vietnam, members of a
6I\QWVIT )[[MUJTa IVL WЅKQIT[ I\ \PM XZW^QVKM LQ[\ZQK\
IVL ^QTTIOM TM^MT <PM LQ[Z]X\QWV MЄWZ\ aQMTLML TQUQ\ML
ZMT\[ >W\QVO \WWS XTIKM I[ XTIVVML QV UW[\ PIUTM\[ IVL
^QTTIOM[ IVL \PM \]ZVW]\ _I[ ZMTI\Q^MTa PQOP 5WZMW^MZ
the NVA unit sustained several hundred casualties in
KTI[PM[ _Q\P \PM ;W]\P 3WZMIV \P 1VNIV\Za :MOQUMV\
NZWU \PM ¹<QOMZº ,Q^Q[QWV \PI\ PIL \ISMV W^MZ WXMZI\QWV[
QV \PM IZMI IN\MZ \PM [\ *ZQOILM WN \PM [\ )QZJWZVM TMN\
earlier in the year.
Pressure on the 95th increased QV ;MX\MUJMZ ! _PMV
\PM ZL )QZJWZVM *ZQOILM UW^ML NZWU \PM ,IS <W IZMI
WN 3WV\]U XZW^QVKM \W \PM <]a 0WI JI[QV WN 8P] AMV XZW^QVKM \W JMOQV 7XMZI\QWV *WTTQVO I UQ[[QWV LM[QOVML \W XZW\MK\ \PM XWX]TI\ML TW_TIVL[ IVL \PM NWWL XZWL]KML \PMZM
The North Vietnamese stayed out of sight through the end
WN \PM aMIZ KPWW[QVO VW\ \W MUMZOM M^MV _PMV UW[\ WN \PM
ZL )QZJWZVM ZM\]ZVML \W ,IS <W QV MIZTa 6W^MUJMZ NWZ
a monthlong deployment.
<PM 6>) [WTLQMZ[ WN \PM ! \P :MOQUMV\ _MZM LQ[XMZ[ML
in company- and platoon-size groups throughout the interior mountains, moving frequently to avoid detection by
= ; ZMKWVVIQ[[IVKM ]VQ\[ IVL [\ZQSM[ Ja )UMZQKIV JWUJMZ[ <PMa _MZM K]\ WЄ NZWU ZMO]TIZ NWWL [PQXUMV\[ \PI\
\PM ZMOQUMV\ PIL ZMKMQ^ML NZWU TW_TIVL >QM\ +WVO IOMV\[
<PM UMV _MZM QV TW_ [XQZQ\[ I[ ! KIUM \W I KTW[M
1V \PM ÅVIT UWV\P[ WN \PM aMIZ \PM KWUUIVL OZW]X WN
\PM ! \P :MOQUMV\ ZMKMQ^ML _WZL NZWU \PM 5QTQ\IZa :MOQWV PMILY]IZ\MZ[ \PI\ 0IVWQ _I[ OWQVO \W TI]VKP I
UI[[Q^M VI\QWV_QLM WЄMV[Q^M MIZTa QV ! <PM ZMOQUMV\¼[ UQ[[QWV _I[ \W TQJMZI\M <]a 0WI QV KWVR]VK\QWV
_Q\P \PM \P 4WKIT .WZKM *I\\ITQWV IVL I
team of Viet Cong agents in the city. The
! \P KW]TL VW\ M`XMK\ IVa ZMQVNWZKMUMV\[ WZ
ILLQ\QWVIT XXTQM[ <PM ZMOQUMV\ _W]TL
VMML \W UISM LW _Q\P _PI\ Q\ PIL ;_ITTW_QVO _PI\M^MZ UQ[OQ^QVO[ Q\ UQOP\ PI^M \PM
ZMOQUMV\IT KWUUIVL OZW]X _WZSML WV IV
I\\IKS XTIV [IaQVO VW\PQVO \W \PM [WTLQMZ[
IJW]\ \PM KWUQVO WЄMV[Q^M QV WZLMZ \W XZM[MZ^M UI`QU]U [MKZMKa
/Q^MV \PM _MISMVML [\I\M WN \PM ZMOQUMV\
its commanders decided to commit their
[\ZWVOM[\ ]VQ\ \PM \P *I\\ITQWV \W \PM I\\IKS IVL ZMQVNWZKM Q\ _Q\P \ZWWX[ NZWU \PM
4th and 6th battalions to reach a strength of around 200
[WTLQMZ[ /]QLML Ja TWKIT >QM\ +WVO O]MZZQTTI[ \PM \P *I\\ITQWV _W]TL LM[KMVL NZWU Q\[ UW]V\IQV KIUX IVL KZW[[
\PM <]a 0WI >ITTMa ]VLMZ \PM KW^MZ WN LIZSVM[[ [SQZ\QVO
the handful of South Vietnamese outposts that lay along
7VKM QV XW[Q\QWV \PM JI\\ITQWV _W]TL [MVL I \PQZL WN Q\[
\ZWWX[ \W I\\IKS I = ; IZ\QTTMZa KWUXW]VL WV \PM MLOM WN
I [UITT IQZÅMTL SVW_V I[ <]a 0WI 6WZ\P IVL VM`\ \W \PM
Tuy Hoa district headquarters and a counterbattery
ZILIZ [Q\M UIVVML Ja IZ\QTTMZaUMV NZWU \PM ZL )QZJWZVM <PM IZ\QTTMZa KWUXW]VL UIVVML Ja *I\\MZa + WN
\PM VL *I\\ITQWV VL .QMTL )Z\QTTMZa :MOQUMV\ KWV\IQVML \_W ̆QVKP PW_Q\bMZ[ \_W UU O]V[ I XIQZ WN
5 ,][\MZ[ IZUWZML \IVSTQSM ^MPQKTM[ _Q\P \_QV
UU IV\Q̆IQZKZIN\ O]V[ IVL NW]Z W]\MZ J]VSMZ[
MY]QXXML _Q\P 5 UIKPQVM O]V[ <PM I\\IKS NWZKM _I[
\W \ISM W]\ \PM IZ\QTTMZa XQMKM[ IVL \PMV IL^IVKM WV \PM
IQZÅMTL LM[\ZWaQVO \PM IQZKZIN\ ITZMILa \PMZM IVL XZM^MV\ing helicopter reinforcements from landing on the strip.
<PM ZMUIQVLMZ WN 4M¼[ \ZWWX[ _W]TL [\WZU \PM XZW^QVKQIT XZQ[WV R][\ \W \PM [W]\P WN \PM IZ\QTTMZa KWUXW]VL
seize the facility and release the 500 or so Viet Cong prisWVMZ[ IZUQVO \PMU _Q\P KIX\]ZML _MIXWV[ [W \PMa KW]TL
RWQV \PM ÅOP\ 5MIV_PQTM \ZWWX[ NZWU \PM \P 4WKIT
Robust air support
An F-100 Super Sabre ﬁghter-bomber
rests at the Tuy Hoa airﬁeld in an
Force Battalion were to penetrate the heart of Tuy Hoa
by moving west along the bank of the Da Rang River and
then overrunning the small downtown area where the
province headquarters was located. They would hopefully
be greeted by hundreds of civilians who had been mobilized by Viet Cong agents and were ready to participate
in a popular uprising. Perhaps even some South Vietnamese soldiers would decide to join the revolution.
4M KPW[M \W QOVWZM \PM TIZOM RM\̆KIXIJTM IQZÅMTL SVW_V
as Tuy Hoa South that lay a few kilometers south of town,
as well as the base camp of the 173rd Airborne and the
South Korean 26th Infantry Regiment just beyond, near
the hamlet of Phu Hiep. Hanoi’s objective was to decapitate the South Vietnamese government. If all went according to plan, Le’s forces could grab a victory before
U.S. and South Korean troops were able to bring their
XMZQWZ ÅZMXW_MZ IVL UWJQTQ\a \W JMIZ
When the base camp of the ARVN 47th Infantry came
under mortar attack at 1:30 a.m. on Jan. 30, the deputy
province senior adviser, Lt. Col. Vernon J. Walters,
alerted the 173rd Airborne that the city was under assault. The province chief, Lt. Col. Nguyen Van Ba, sent
word to the South Vietnamese regional headquarters in
Pleiku City and then ordered the 47th Regiment commander to muster all the troops he had in the city for its
defense. The shelling lasted for 20 minutes. When it
ended, the U.S. and South Vietnamese soldiers in Tuy Hoa
braced themselves for a ground attack. What followed
instead was a strange, pregnant silence.
Le and his 200 men strained their ears, hoping to hear
the sounds of battle as the Viet Cong of the 85th Local
Force Battalion began their attack. Ten minutes passed,
and then 20. The silence stretched on until two hours and
UQV]\M[ PIL MTI[XML 4M ÅVITTa OI^M \PM WZLMZ \W I\tack at 4 a.m., knowing that the coming daylight would
soon expose his position. Unknown to the North Vietnamese battalion commander, the 85th Local Force Battalion
turned back for home after running afoul of a South Vietnamese outpost on its approach to the city. The Viet Cong
ROBERT WHITAKER/GETTY IMAGES
The North Vietnamese hoped they could
knock out Tuy Hoa’s artillery pieces, which
included 8-inch howitzers, such as this one
in northern South Vietnam in 1970.
agents in the city chose to remain in hiding,
knowing that it would be suicidal to emerge
without the 85th to support them. The
5th Battalion was on its own.
One of Le’s companies headed for the U.S.
artillery base, while the remaining two companies veered south to attack the prisoner
WN _IZ KWUXW]VL <PM ÅZ[\ I[[I]T\ OZW]X
managed to penetrate the western side of the
artillery base despite taking severe casualties from the U.S. perimeter guards and the
twin Dusters. The North Vietnamese attackers seized one of the outer bunkers and
JZQMÆa W^MZZIV WVM WN \PM UU O]V[
damaging its barrel with a grenade before
JMQVO LZQ^MV JIKS Ja = ; LMNMV[Q^M ÅZM <PM
soldiers of Battery C created a new defensive
line to contain the enemy, holding them to a
30-meter pocket and preventing any attackers from
ZMIKPQVO \PM IQZÅMTL WZ VMIZJa ;W]\P >QM\VIUM[M [MK\WZ
About 200 meters to the south, the main body of the
5th Battalion was having problems as it tried to overrun
the POW compound. A few NVA soldiers got into a guard
tower at the northwestern corner of the facility, but none
of the attackers penetrated the jail itself. Under constant
ÅZM NZWU \PM ;W]\P >QM\VIUM[M LMNMVLMZ[ \PM +WUU]nist troops took cover in a drainage ditch along the western side of the compound. Le ordered his men to hold
their position in hopes that the 85th Battalion would still
make its appearance and break the stalemate.
That decision sealed the fate of his unit. At 5:10 a.m.,
an AC-47 “Spooky” gunship arrived from Nha Trang, and
\PM XTIVM JMOIV XW]ZQVO TWVO J]Z[\[ WN ÅZM NZWU Q\[
[Q`̆JIZZMTML UU UQVQO]V[ QV\W \PM ZQKM ÅMTL[ _PMZM
Le had left his mortar crews. Ninety minutes later, two
CH-47 Chinook helicopters and a group of UH-1D Iroquois
“Huey” helicopters began arriving at Tuy Hoa North with
two platoons from Company D of the 4th Battalion, 503rd
Infantry Regiment, the 173rd Airborne’s ready reaction
NWZKM I\ 8P] 0QMX -VMUa ÅZM LIUIOML WVM WN \PM +PQVWWS
helicopters, but all of Company D landed safely. Le and
his men were now trapped on the northern edge of Tuy
Hoa City, unable to retreat to the mountains with the
Spooky and several Huey gunships prowling overhead
and ARVN troops from the 47th Regiment moving into
blocking positions to the west.
Company D’s commander, Capt. Jim Jackson, sent his
2nd Platoon into the artillery compound to push out the
North Vietnamese attackers. As the American troops advanced on the enemy salient, one of the Dusters used its
40 mm cannon to demolish the machine gun bunker the
attackers had seized earlier that morning. Grenades and
5 ZQÆM ÅZM SQTTML UW[\ WN \PM W\PMZ 6WZ\P >QM\VIUM[M
soldiers who clung to the western perimeter of the compound, but not before an enemy bullet mortally wounded
Lt. Col. Robert E. Whitbeck, commander of the 173rd Airborne’s 3rd Battalion, 319th Field Artillery Regiment,
Binh Tinh hamlet
U.S. radar site
U.S. artillery compound
LEFT: NATIONAL ARCHIVES; RIGHT U.S. ARMY
Lay of the land
The North Vietnamese 5th Battalion, striking from a
position to the right of the frame, attacked the artillery
and prison compounds, until a vigorous American
response forced the battered unit to retreat to Binh Tinh.
_PW _I[ WJ[MZ^QVO \PM ÅOP\ NZWU \PM KW]V\MZJI\\MZa
ZILIZ IZMI ?Q\PQV UQV]\M[ \PM IZ\QTTMZa KWUXW]VL
_I[ WVKM IOIQV KTMIZ WN MVMUa [WTLQMZ[
;Y]MMbML NZWU \PZMM [QLM[ 4M IVL PQ[ ZMUIQVQVO UMV
PIL VW KPWQKM J]\ \W ZM\ZMI\ [W]\P \W *QVP <QVP I ZMN]OMM
PIUTM\ WV \PM MLOM WN <]a 0WI <PMa JMOIV \W LQO [XQLMZ
PWTM[ IVL J]QTL W^MZPMIL KW^MZ ][QVO _PI\M^MZ XQMKM[ WN
_WWL IVL UM\IT [PMM\QVO \PMa KW]TL ÅVL QV \PM PIUTM\
= ; IVL ;W]\P >QM\VIUM[M \ZWWX[ M[\IJTQ[PML I KWZLWV
IZW]VL \PM PIUTM\ _PQTM \PM KWUUIVLMZ WN \PM \P *I\\ITQWV ZL 1VNIV\Za 4\ +WT 2IUM[ 0 2WPV[WV TIVLML
I\ <]a 0WI 6WZ\P _Q\P +WUXIVa + \W RWQV \PM ÅOP\
>QM_QVO \PM PIUTM\ NZWU I [IVL L]VM JM\_MMV *QVP
<QVP IVL \PM KQ\a *I IVL 2WPV[WV IOZMML WV I XTIV
?IV\QVO \W OM\ I[ UIVa KQ^QTQIV[ W]\ WN \PM PIUTM\ I[
XW[[QJTM *I WZLMZML I X[aKPWTWOQKIT WXMZI\QWV[ \MIU
MY]QXXML _Q\P J]TTPWZV[ \W \MTT \PM ZM[QLMV\[ \W ÆMM ;WUM
KQ^QTQIV[ LQL IT\PW]OP \PM X[ăWX[ \ZWWX KW]TLV¼\ XMZILM \PM MVMUa \W ZZMVLMZ )N\MZ *I _I[ [I\Q[ÅML PM
PIL LWVM ITT PM KW]TL LW 2WPV[WV IZZIVOML NWZ = ; IQZKZIN\ \W LW][M \PM PIUTM\ _Q\P \MIZ OI[ )[ [WWV I[ \PM
KTW]L NWZUML PM [MV\ I KWUXIVa WN OI[̆UI[S _MIZQVO
\ZWWX[ QV\W *QVP <QVP \W LZQ^M W]\ \PM MVMUa <PM )UMZQKIV[ OIQVML I NWW\PWTL QV \PM PIUTM\ J]\ \PM I\\IKS NIT\MZML _PMV \PMQZ MaM XQMKM[ JMOIV \W NWO ]X _Q\P UWQ[\]ZM
<ISQVO PMI^a KIIT\QM[ NZWU \PM _MTT̆PQLLMV 6>)
\ZWWX[ 2WPV[WV¼[ UMV _Q\PLZM_
*I IOZMML \PI\ \PM \QUM PIL KWUM NWZ [\ZWVOMZ UMIZM[ )N\MZ [XMISQVO _Q\P \PM ZL )QZJWZVM¼[ KWUUIVLMZ *ZQO /MV 4MW 0 ;KP_MQ\MZ _PW PIL R][\ IZZQ^ML
Ja PMTQKWX\MZ *I OI^M XMZUQ[[QWV NWZ IQZ IVL IZ\QTTMZa
[\ZQSM[ WV *QVP <QVP ) ÆQOP\ WN Å^M = ; )QZ .WZKM .̆
;]XMZ ;IJZM ÅOP\MZ̆JWUJMZ[ X]T^MZQbML \PM PIUTM\ _Q\P
̆XW]VL JWUJ[ IVL J]ZVML Q\ \W I[P _Q\P VIXITU <PM
IQZ[\ZQSM[ LM^I[\I\ML \PM 6WZ\P >QM\VIUM[M Z^Q^WZ[
SQTTQVO WZ _W]VLQVO M^MZaWVM QV \PM KWUUIVL OZW]X ITWVO
_Q\P LWbMV[ WN W\PMZ [WTLQMZ[ )Z\QTTMZa \WWS W^MZ _PMV \PM
RM\[ LMXIZ\ML <PM ZMUIQV[ WN *QVP <QVP J]ZVML \PZW]OPW]\ \PM ZM[\ WN \PM LIa 4M _I[ JILTa QVR]ZML L]ZQVO \PM
IQZ[\ZQSM[ IVL TQSMTa XMZQ[PML [WUM\QUM L]ZQVO \PM VQOP\
Enemy riﬂe ﬁre stuck Lt. Col. Robert E.
Whitbeck of the 173rd Airborne.
The story of the 5th Battalion I\ <]a 0WI QTT][\ZI\M[
UIVa WN \PM XZWJTMU[ \PI\ W\PMZ +WUU]VQ[\ JI\\ITQWV[
IT[W NIKML L]ZQVO \PM <M\ 7ЄMV[Q^M <PM ]VQ\ _I[ _MTT̆
IZUML J]\ ]VLMZ̆[\ZMVO\P _PMV Q\ _MV\ QV\W IK\QWV \PM
UWZVQVO WN 2IV ) SMa XXWZ\QVO ]VQ\ \PM \P 4WKIT
.WZKM *I\\ITQWV LQL VW\ [PW_ ]X WV \QUM \PM \P _W]TL
MVL ]X I\\IKSQVO <]a 0WI WV .MJ JZQMÆa WKK]XaQVO
XIZ\ WN LW_V\W_V JMNWZM _Q\PLZI_QVO 4M¼[ XTIV \W TQJMZI\M \PM <]a 0WI XZQ[WV IVL \PMV IZU \PM QVUI\M[ LQL VW\
KKMML <PM >QM\ +WVO IOMV\[ QV \PM KQ\a NIQTML \W UWJQTQbM
I XWX]TIZ ]XZQ[QVO IVL \PM ;W]\P >QM\VIUM[M NWZKM[
QV <]a 0WI LQL VW\ NWTL J]\ QV[\MIL NW]OP\ _Q\P M`KMX\QWVIT JZI^MZa
?PMV LIaTQOP\ KIUM \PM ITTQML NWZKM[ JZW]OP\ \PMQZ
XMZQWZ ÅZMXW_MZ IVL UWJQTQ\a \W JMIZ WV \PM W]\V]UJMZML \P *I\\ITQWV QVÆQK\QVO OZQM^W][ TW[[M[ <PW]OP \PM
! \P :MOQUMV\ _W]TL ZMKWV[\Q\]\M Q\[ LM[\ZWaML JI\\ITQWV
IVL UISM I [MKWVL I\\IKS WV <]a 0WI L]ZQVO \PM UWZVQVO
WN 5IZKP ̆ ! \PM [MKWVL I[[I]T\ _I[ VW UWZM KKM[[N]T \PIV \PM ÅZ[\ <PI\ [MKWVL I\\IKS WV <]a 0WI
XZW^ML \W JM \PM TI[\ OI[X WN \PM <M\ 7ЄMV[Q^M J]\ VW\ \PM
MVL WN 0IVWQ¼[ IUJQ\QWV[ NWZ Q\[ OMVMZIT WЄMV[Q^M̆OMVMZIT
]XZQ[QVO [\ZI\MOa _PQKP XZWL]KML IVW\PMZ ZW]VL WN I\\IKS[ QV 5Ia X]\\QVO ! WV \ZIKS \W JM \PM JTWWLQM[\
aMIZ WN \PM >QM\VIU ?IZ V
-ZQS >QTTIZL Q[ LQOQ\IT UQTQ\IZa PQ[\WZQIV I\ \PM = ;
)ZUa +MV\MZ WN 5QTQ\IZa 0Q[\WZa QV ?I[PQVO\WV , +
IVL I]\PWZ WN \PM NWZ\PKWUQVO JWWS ;\IaQVO \PM +W]Z[M
7K\WJMZ ! \W ;MX\MUJMZ ! " = ; )ZUa +WUJI\
7XMZI\QWV[ QV >QM\VIU 0M Q[ IT[W \PM NW]VLMZ IVL LQZMK\WZ WN \PM .IKMJWWS OZW]X >QM\VIU?IZ0Q[\WZa7ZO
Manning the wall
Hard ﬁghting rocked the
city of Hue from the initial
Tet attacks of Jan. 31, 1968,
until the end of February.
On Feb. 4, these Marines
crouched behind a wall
near an old fortress, called
the Citadel, respond to
heavy sniper ﬁre.
After enemy forces stormed the city,
U.S. Marines were dispatched to relieve
a besieged American base
By Mark Bowden
hen the shooting started at 2:30 a.m. on
Jan. 31, 1968, during the Tet celebration of
the Lunar New Year, U.S. Army radioman
Frank Doezema was on guard duty in the
northwest tower of the Hue compound that
housed Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, a Saigon-based organization that directed American combat forces in the country.
Below was Duy Tan Street—the stretch of Highway 1 that passed
through the city. To the north on a clear night you could see past the
white walls of the two-story Hue University to the Huong River, the
Truong Tien Bridge, and across the water the Citadel, a walled fortress that was once the seat of a Vietnamese empire.
Doezema saw North Vietnamese Army soldiers moving in the
[\ZMM\[ JMTW_ P]VLZML[ WN \PMU ?PMV \PMa IL^IVKML _Q\P ZQÆM[ IVL
rocket tubes, Doezema raked them with an ear-shattering blast of
his machine gun. Those who did not fall dragged the others back. A
few minutes later they came again, he raked them once more, and
once more he drove them back.
The shooting shocked the sleepy compound awake. Some of the
roughly 400 men staying there were combat veterans, but most were
not. The compound was considered a rear post, a transit stopover for
\PM = ; )ZUa IVL 5IZQVM WЅKMZ[ I\\IKPML \W ;W]\P >QM\VIUM[M
troops in the 1st Division of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. It
Excerpted from Hue 1968: A Turning
Point of the American War in
Vietnam. Copyright 2017 by Mark
Bowden. Reprinted with the permission
of the publisher, Atlantic Monthly
Press, an imprint of Grove Atlantic Inc.
All rights reserved.
_I[ UIVVML UW[\Ta Ja WЅKM _WZSMZ[ KWWS[ LZQ^MZ[
XXTa WЅKMZ[ IVL \PM [\IЄ WN )ZUa +WT /MWZOM )LSQ[[WV _PW PIL \ISMV KWUUIVL WVTa LIa[ MIZTQMZ
5MV [KZIUJTML \W \PMQZ I[[QOVML XW[Q\QWV[ )LSQ[[WV
[\MXXML W]\ WN PQ[ Y]IZ\MZ[ PI^QVO Y]QKSTa LZM[[ML <_W
UWZ\IZ[ M`XTWLML W^MZPMIL IOIQV[\ I ZWWN IVL UWUMV\[
TI\MZ \_W UWZM [\Z]KS QV \PM KW]Z\aIZL 7VM QOVQ\ML \PM OI[
\IVS WN I RMMX _PQKP JMKIUM I JITT WN JZQOP\ WZIVOM ÆIUM
)LSQ[[WV¼[ ÅZ[\ \PW]OP\ _I[ \PI\ \PM [WKKMZ [\ILQ]U
IKZW[[ \PM [\ZMM\ U][\ JM ]VLMZ I\\IKS IVL \PMa _MZM
JMQVO [\Z]KS Ja MZZIV\ ÅZM
<PM ZWWN PIL TQ\MZITTa NITTMV QV WV 5IZQVM 5IR .ZIVS
*ZM\P _PW KZI_TML \W PQ[ [PW_MZ [\ITT KT]\KPQVO PQ[ ZQÆM
) [MKWVL JTI[\ [MV\ LW_V [PI\\MZML KMQTQVO \QTM[ \PI\ “Something is going on,” [IQL \PM 5IZQVM _PW I_ISWXMVML I K]\ WV PQ[ NWZMPMIL 8IZ\Ta J]ZQML IVL JTMMLQVO MVML /WZLWV *I\KPMTTMZ I\ 8P] *IQ *I\KPMTTMZ LZM[[ML
*ZM\P XIVQKSML NWZ I UWUMV\ ]V\QT PM ZMITQbML PM PIL VW\ Y]QKSTa QV \PM LIZS ) 5IZQVM KIX\IQV PM PIL ZMKMV\Ta
I[UML KWUUIVL WN )TXPI +WUXIVa [\ *I\\ITQWV
JMMV JILTa P]Z\
8]TTQVO PQU[MTN W]\ WN \PM LMJZQ[ PM _MV\ QV\W \PM KW]Z\- [\ 5IZQVM[ 1V I NM_ LIa[ PQ[ UMV _W]TL JM LZQ^QVO ]X
aIZL _PMZM PM UM\ 5IZQVM +IX\ 2QU +WWTQKIV *W\P ZIKML \PM ZWIL QV\W 0]M \W O]IZL \PM 6I^a¼[ J][a JWI\ ZIUX
\W QV[XMK\ \PM XMZQUM\MZ UISQVO ZM ITT \PM LMNMV[Q^M <PM MIZTăUWZVQVO I\\IKS[ [PWZ\̆KQZK]Q\ML \PI\ XTIV -`XW[Q\QWV[ _MZM UIVVML IVL XXTQML _Q\P IUUW 1N IV- XTW[QWV[ I\ \PM <IU <PIQ \IVS JI[M UQTM[ [W]\P WN 0]M
W\PMZ I\\IKS _I[ KWUQVO \PM[M _MZM KZQ\QKIT UQV]\M[ 8M- OW\ M^MZaWVM¼[ I\\MV\QWV IVL \PMZM _MZM ZMXWZ\[ WN ÅOP\ZQWLQKITTa ,WMbMUI K]\ TWW[M I [\ZMIU WN ÅZM NZWU PQ[ QVO ITT W^MZ \PM KW]V\Za <PM ÅZ[\ QV \PMQZ IZMI IZZQ^ML
\W_MZ *W\P \W_MZ[ _MZM UIVVML J]\ \PM \PZMI\ [MMUML IJW]\ \PM [IUM \QUM UWZ\IZ ZW]VL[ [\IZ\ML KZI[PQVO QV\W JM KWUQVO WVTa NZWU \PM NZWV\ 1N \PM MVMUa KIUM NZWU [QLM \PM JI[M <PM ZMXWZ\[ SMX\ KWUQVO *IL \PQVO[ _MZM
[M^MZIT LQZMK\QWV[ I\ WVKM \PM XW[\ KW]TL JM MI[QTa W^MZZ]V PIXXMVQVO QV \PM KQ\a Q\[MTN
<PM IX\Ta VIUML *ZQO /MV .W[\MZ 4I0]M PIL WVTa
1\ [W]VLML I[ QN ITT WN 0]M _I[ ]VLMZ I\\IKS
_MMS[ MIZTQMZ \ISMV W^MZ I\ \PM JI[M I\ 8P] *IQ 0M PIL
,WMbMUI WXMVML ÅZM IOIQV 0M _I[ _WZSQVO PIZL
JMMV QV[\ITTML I[ KWUUIVLMZ WN <I[S .WZKM
_PMV I ZWKSM\ M`XTWLML IOIQV[\ \PM \W_MZ¼[ ZWWN 0Q[ O]V
@̆:Ia I VM_Ta KZMI\ML MЄWZ\
_MV\ [QTMV\ +WWTQKIV ZIV \W \PM \W_MZ IVL KTQUJML ]X
\PI\ KWUJQVML \PM [\
\PM VIZZW_ XTI\NWZU \W ZMUIV \PM XW[Q\QWV <PM OZMIVL \P 5IZQVM ZMOQVILM PIL [MV\ [PIZL[ WN \QV [TI[PQVO LW_V WV ,WMbMUI
UMV\[ \W U][KTM ]X \PM
<PM 5IZQVM KIX\IQV NW]VL PQ[ NZQMVL JILTa [TQKML IVL
)UMZQKIV UQTQ\IZ a
JTMMLQVO PMI^QTa 7VM TMO _I[ VMIZTa [M^MZML
XZM[MVKM QV \PM VWZ\P*ZM\P UILM PQ[ _Ia ]X \W \PM ZWWN WN \PM UIQV
MZVUW[\ XZW^QVKM[ <I[S
J]QTLQVO WV \PM VWZ\P [QLM *MTW_ PM KW]TL [MM MVMUa
.WZKM @̆:Ia _I[ NIZ NZWU
[WTLQMZ[ ITT W^MZ \PM [\ZMM\[ I JTWKS I_Ia IVL [\IZ\ML
I _MTT̆WQTML _IZ̆ÅOP\QVO
[Y]MMbQVO WЄ [PW\[ I\ \PMU _Q\P PQ[ ZQÆM /]IZL[ QV
UIKPQVM ?PMV \ZW]JTM
\PM J]VSMZ W]\[QLM \PM UIQV OI\M _MZM [PWW\QVO
KIUM \PI\ UWZVQVO \PM
<PMa PIL XTMV\a WN \IZOM\[ )[ *ZM\P _I\KPML \WW
Capt. (later Col.)
OMVMZIT PIL WVTa I [SM\KPa
LQ[\IV\ \W [PW]\ I _IZVQVO WVM LM\MZUQVML MVMUa
VW\QWV WN _PI\ _I[ OWQVO WV
[WTLQMZ KZW[[ML \PM [\ZMM\ KZMX\ ]X JMPQVL \PM
“saddled up” for
J]\ PM _I[ LM\MZUQVML IVL
J]VSMZ IVL LZWXXML I OZMVILM QV[QLM <PM M`XTWthe drive to Hue.
KWVÅLMV\ PM KW]TL ZMOIQV \PM
[QWV [QTMVKML \PM J]VSMZ¼[ O]V[ *ZM\P [\IZ\ML
TOP: BETTMANN/GETTY IMAGES; LEFT: U.S. MARINE CORPS
Casualties of Hue
A tank rolls past two
Vietnamese bodies and
the remains of a cart.
ÅZQVO WV I]\WUI\QK IVL \PZM_ LW_V [M^MZIT OZMVILM[ )TT
IZW]VL \PMU \PMZM _I[ [PWW\QVO M`XTW[QWV[ ÆIZM[ IVL
\PM [KZMIU[ WN \PM _W]VLML
)N\MZ \PM Æ]ZZa WN QVQ\QIT I\\IKS[ \PM MVMUa [MMUML \W
PI^M JIKSML WЄ <PM )UMZQKIV[ SVM_ Q\ KW]TLV¼\ TI[\¸J]\
Q\ LQL 1\ IUIbML +WWTQKIV _PW KW]TL [MM PW_ ^]TVMZIJTM
\PMa _MZM *]\ PM \WWS IL^IV\IOM WN \PM T]TT \W \]ZV \PM
\W_MZ W^MZ \W W\PMZ[ IVL KTQUJML JIKS LW_V \W ZIQ[M \PM
KWUUIVL KMV\MZ I\ 8P] *IQ WV \PM ZILQW .WZ \PM \QUM
JMQVO PM [IQL \PM KWUXW]VL _I[ [MK]ZM <PMa VMMLML
PMTX J]\ \PMZM _I[ VW QUUMLQI\M KZQ[Q[
+WWTQKIV LQLV¼\ SVW_ _PI\ _I[ OWQVO WV JMaWVL \PM QUUMLQI\M VMQOPJWZPWWL J]\ \PMZM PIL JMMV I TW\ WN [PWW\QVO
;WUM WN \PM )UMZQKIV[ [KI\\MZML IZW]VL \PM KQ\a PIL
KITTML QV LM[XMZI\M NWZ PMTX 1N \PMZM _MZM \PI\ UIVa 6>)
IVL >QM\ +WVO W]\ \PMZM _PMZM _MZM \PMa' ?Pa _MZM \PMa
VW\ PQ\\QVO \PM KWUXW]VL PIZLMZ' 1\ _I[ \PM WVTa )UMZQKIV JI[M WN IVa KWV[MY]MVKM QV \PM KQ\a
<PM \Z]\P Q[ \PI\ IV W^MZM`\MVLML 6>) JI\\ITQWV \PI\
PIL WKK]XQML ¹\PM \ZQIVOTMº¸IV IZMI WN UIRWZ OW^MZVUMV\
WЅKM[ IVL [KPWWT[¸_Q\P KP MI[M LQLV¼\ LIZM <PMZM _MZM
\WW NM_ UMV \W TI]VKP I UIRWZ I[[I]T\ WV \PM KWUXW]VL
<PM _PWTM XWQV\ WN \PM KQ\a QV^I[QWV _I[ \W [XIZS I KQ\QbMV
]XZQ[QVO 1N \PI\ PIXXMVML _PI\ PWXM _W]TL \PM[M ZZW]VLML )UMZQKIV[ PI^M'
The Truong Tien Bridge across the Huong
River (Perfume River to Americans) was
destroyed by Communist ﬁghters leaving Hue.
These Vietnamese walk down the damaged
span toward transports to the other side.
M45 Quadmounts—the Marines called them Quad 50s—a
standard 2½-ton cargo truck with four .50-caliber machine
O]V[ WV I [\MMT \]ZZM\ \PI\ KW]TL ZW\I\M I N]TT KQZKTM IVL ÅZM
an astonishing 1,800 rounds per minute. The men rode in
“six-by-sixes,” rugged six-wheel drive trucks painted with
OZMMV IVL JZW_V [XTW\KPM[ WN KIUW]ÆIOM _Q\P I ÆI\ UM\IT
JML IVL ZMUW^IJTM _WWLMV [TI\[ WV JW\P [QLM[ \PI\ WЄMZML
little protection; the slats were there mostly to keep loads
NZWU ZWTTQVO WZ JW]VKQVO WЄ
They rode for two hours in wet, cold darkness and then
stopped in the middle of nowhere. There was no sign of the
needy ARVN unit. Batcheller’s commanders in Phu Bai told
him to turn around and head in the opposite direction, back
through the base and up Highway 1 through Hue to a point
farther north, where they were to link up with an Army unit.
Rapid ﬁring support
Marine relief units headed to Hue
traveled with Quadmounts, trucks
carrying four .50-caliber machine guns.
TOP: BETTMANN/GETTY IMAGES; INSET: U.S.ARMY; MAP: PAUL FISHER; BOTTOM RIGHT: BETTTMANN/GETTY IMAGES
i ve e r )
g R iv
on me R
H r fu
initiative with whatever forces were at hand.
Batcheller received an order to “saddle up” his company on trucks, pronto, and head south. An ARVN unit
on the way to Da Nang needed help. Pvt. John Ligato
hadn’t even had time to dry his socks. He had been
walking around with wet feet for days, so as soon as he
OW\ \W I PWW\KP PM PIL \ISMV WЄ PQ[ JWW\[ _I[PML IVL
wrung out his socks, and hung them up to dry. He was
told he’d be back by noon, so he left them.
<PMa ZWTTML W]\ QV LIZSVM[[ I KWV^Wa WN ÆI\JML
\Z]KS[ ÅTTML _Q\P \QZML LQ[OZ]V\TML UMV TML IVL NWTlowed by two Army Dusters: light armored vehicles with
\_QV UU O]V[ \PI\ KW]TL ÅZM P]VLZML[ WN PQOP̆M`plosive rounds per minute. They also had two Army
Lance Cpl. Mike Anderegg was farther up Highway 1. He
_I[ LZQ^QVO I 8I\\WV ÆIUM \IVS I BQXXW _PQKP QV[\MIL WN
I ! UU O]V UW]V\ML WV \PM NZWV\ PIL I XW_MZN]T ÆIUM\PZW_MZ ?Q\P PQU _MZM IVW\PMZ BQXXW IVL \_W O]V̆
mounted Pattons. They were on their way to the boat ramp
in Hue, where they were supposed to be loaded onto boats
and shipped north.
But as the tanks approached the southern tip of the triangle, they came upon the column of incinerated ARVN
\IVS[ R][\ W]\[QLM <IU <PIQ ) 5IZQVM MUJIZSI\QWV WЅKMZ
Lt. Col. Ed LaMontagne, who had hitched a ride with them,
some cover for
ﬁghting in the
streets of Hue.
was in charge by default. He didn’t like the look of those
destroyed tanks and had about decided to return to Phu
*IQ _PMV *I\KPMTTMZ¼[ KWV^Wa ZWTTML ]X <PM WЅKMZ[ KWVsulted with LaHue’s command center. They were to proceed to the MACV compound, which was under siege.
They started north again, more cautiously now.
Batcheller stood behind the turret on one of the tanks.
He saw what appeared to be enemy soldiers in the distance
moving parallel to the road. Tanks were vulnerable unless
surrounded by infantry to prevent attackers from getting
\WW KTW[M [W PM WZLMZML PQ[ UMV WЄ \PM \Z]KS[ 1V \PM OZIa
LZQbbTM TQVM[ WN PMTUM\ML UMV QV ÆIS RIKSM\[ IVL LQZ\a
green fatigues began walking alongside, behind and in
front of the tanks. The captain swiftly changed his mind
_PMV [M^MZIT WN \PMU _MZM PQ\ Ja [VQXMZ ÅZM 1V \PM ^MPQcles, they could move faster. So they reboarded the trucks.
The convoy sped up.
) [PWZ\ LQ[\IVKM IPMIL _I[ \PM )V +]] *ZQLOM 1\ PIL
big holes in it from the satchel charges that had failed to
bring it down. The Marines drove across warily, and a
short distance farther, in the city now, they approached a
cluster of two-story houses close to the road on both sides.
<PMa IL^IVKML \W_IZL I JQO \ZIЅK KQZKTM )ZZIaML IZW]VL
the circle were six ARVN tanks and an armored personnel
carrier, remnants of the stray ARVN column. All of them
were empty, and most were badly damaged.
<PMa _MZM [\QTT QV \PM \ZIЅK KQZKTM _PMV [PWW\QVO
started from all sides. A man walking behind Batcheller
NMTT KT]\KPQVO PQ[ TMO <PMV KIUM IVW\PMZ J]Z[\ WN ÅZM SQTTQVO \PM _W]VLML UIV IVL SVWKSQVO \PM KIX\IQV WЄ PQ[ NMM\
He tumbled from the impact and came to rest at the base
of the tree, tangled in a coil of barbed wire. He had been hit
with three rounds in his right arm and leg. A bullet had
gone straight through the leg, breaking his femur and leaving a great open gash. Tangled in the wire, he could not
move. He shouted to his men to stay clear.
Batcheller bellowed to his gunnery sergeant, John
Canley, that Canley was now in command. Most of the
[PWW\QVO _I[ KWUQVO NZWU \PM PW][M[ QV \PM ÅMTL J]\
\PMZM _MZM U]bbTM ÆI[PM[ QV \PM ZQKM XILLQM[ WV MQ\PMZ
More than half of Alpha Company was dead or wounded.
<PMV KIUM PMTX .ZWU JMPQVL QV I RMMX KIUM 4\ +WT 5IZcus Gravel, their battalion commander, with his opera\QWV[ WЅKMZ 5IR ?IT\MZ 5]ZXPa# IVL I +I\PWTQK 6I^a
chaplain, Richard Lyons. Behind them was a long convoy
of trucks. Gravel had thrown it together and headed north
after hearing still more alarming reports from Hue.
Capt. Chuck Meadows’ Golf Company was not part of
Gravel’s command, but it was available. Gravel said,
¹+P]KS 1 _IV\ aW] \W OM\ aW]Z KWUXIVa WV \PM[M \Z]KS[ º
0M OM[\]ZML \W \PM MUX\a \Z]KS[ TQVML ]X W]\[QLM ¹?M IZM
OWQVO ]X \W 0]M ?M¼TT JM JIKS Ja \PQ[ IN\MZVWWV º
Meadows told his men to travel light. Soon out of the
OI\M PM VW\QKML [WUM\PQVO Å[Pa <PMZM _MZM VW XMWXTM
moving on Highway 1. Ordinarily during Tet the road by
that time of morning was busy with people on bikes or
walking. Then they came across the burned-out ARVN
\IVS[ .IZ\PMZ ]X \PMZM _I[ JTWWL WV \PM ZWIL IVL JWLQM[
on the street where Batcheller’s convoy had been.
They came to an abrupt halt when they caught up to
)TXPI +WUXIVa ]VLMZ ÅZM [\ITTML WV \PM M`XW[ML ZWIL
/ZI^MT¼[ RMMX [SQLLML KZW[[_Q[M IVL M^MZaWVM LQ^ML NWZ
KW^MZ <PM KZIKS IVL XWX WN O]VÅZM _MZM M^MZa_PMZM <PM
Dusters and Quad 50s were still roaring. There were dead
and wounded scattered about.
?PMV 4aWV[ [I_ *I\KPMTTMZ K]ZTML ]X IVL \IVOTML I\
the base of a tree, badly wounded, he forgot his spiritual
UQ[[QWV IVL TQN\ML I LQ[KIZLML ZQÆM 0M JMOIV KZI_TQVO
\W_IZL \PM _W]VLML KIX\IQV ÅZQVO WV I]\WUI\QK QV\W \PM
opposite rice paddy. Batcheller waved him back.
/ZI^MT [MV\ PQ[ LZQ^MZ JIKS NWZ \PM RMMX IVL \WTL PQU
to move it alongside the downed captain, enabling four
Marines to reach him. Navy hospital corpsman Michael
Ker and Ligato, the Marine who’d left his socks behind,
and two others knelt alongside the big captain, freed him
from the wire’s barbs and eased him onto a poncho.
Ligato saw Batcheller go white and close his eyes. He
U.S. MARINE CORPS
On the count of three
Sgt. Freddy Gonzalez led his men on a charge
into houses ﬁlled with enemy shooters.
side too. The Dusters and Quad 50s were blasting away,
but there were too many targets. The men of the 3rd Pla\WWV _MZM ITT ÆI\\MVML \W \PM OZW]VL )TNZMLW ¹.ZMLLaº
Gonzalez, a wiry Texas sergeant, their acting platoon
leader, stood beside a tree looking down at them. He signaled that they were going to charge.
The houses sheltering the enemy were to their left.
Gonzalez was not going to charge straight at them; he
wanted his men to get to the ditch on the far side of the
road and sprint north until they were outside the sweep
of the machine guns. Then they could reach the houses’
VWZ\P ÆIVS Ja Z]VVQVO IKZW[[ \PM ÅMTL 1\ [MMUML Qcidal. But on Gonzalez’s count of three, the men got up
IVL [\IZ\ML Z]VVQVO ,M[XQ\M \PM TW[[M[ WN [WUM UMV ÅZM
from the Quad 50s and the Dusters enabled most of
/WVbITMb¼[ XTI\WWV \W OM\ IKZW[[ \PM ÅMTL IVL IZW]VL \W
\PM [QLM WN \PM PW][M[ <PM [MZOMIV\ _I[ \PM ÅZ[\ \W MV\MZ
the closest structure, and his squad must have taken the
gunners inside by surprise because he emerged with an
IZUN]T WN ZQÆM[ IVL I JQO OZQV WV PQ[ NIKM
TOP: GETTY IMAGES; BOTTOM: BETTMANN/GETTY IMAGES
thought the captain was dying. They lifted
him and ran. They set Batcheller down behind Gravel’s jeep, and Ker splinted his right
leg with a shovel.
5MILW_[ \WWS IL^IV\IOM WN KW^MZQVO ÅZM
to race into an Esso station at the roundabout.
He found a city map on a wall inside and
Enemy soldiers could be seen moving
across the road behind them, and, worried
\PI\ \PMa UQOP\ KTW[M Q\ WЄ /ZI^MT WZLMZML
all the wounded to be put on one truck, and
all of the dead on another. Bloody men torn
to pieces, missing limbs, conscious or just
barely conscious, were hastily loaded. Gunny Canley, who
had a shrapnel wound to his face, arrived carrying Patrick
Fraleigh, a private whom he had dragged to cover, shielding him partly with his own body. He went to work packing
.ZITMQOP¼[ _W]VL[ J]\ LM[XQ\M PQ[ JM[\ MЄWZ\[ \PM aW]VO
man stopped breathing.
After making a U-turn, the two trucks made a run for
it. When they barreled back through the gauntlet, the pas[MVOMZ[ _PW KW]TL [\QTT [PWW\ ÅZML WV I]\WUI\QK
Gravel and Meadows watched the two trucks disappear
QV\W \PM LQ[\IVKM [W]\P_IZL <PMa _MZM QV I JQOOMZ ÅOP\
than they had anticipated. Checking the gas station map,
they saw that the MACV compound was close. Up ahead
_MZM \PM ÅZ[\ ]ZJIV JTWKS[ WN 0]M *]\ QV \PM LQ[\IVKM \PMa
could also see many uniformed enemy soldiers. For all his
time in Vietnam, Meadows had only rarely laid eyes on
M^MV I [QVOTM 6>) WZ >+ ÅOP\MZ <PW[M PM PIL [MMV TWWSML
ragged, poorly dressed and poorly armed. These were wellequipped and clearly had plenty of ammo because they
were using it at a good clip. As the convoy started forward
WVKM UWZM \PM TM^MT WN ZM[Q[\IVKM [\QЄMVML
The convoy was stuck. There was an enemy spotter and
machine gun in the spire of a Catholic church to the west
R][\ ZIQVQVO ÅZM LW_V WV \PMU ;KI\\MZML WЄ \PM ZWIL
Alpha and Golf companies did not dare remount the vehicles, but it was also too dangerous to stay where they were.
One of the tanks slowly aimed its gun and took one shot,
which removed the top of the spire.
Gunning for the enemy
Marines walk behind an M48 tank whose guns
are aimed over an outer wall of the Citadel.
On the move
Marines are trucked to a
command post in Hue.
LaMontagne, who recognized the increasingly urban
streets and had been to the MACV compound before, recommended to Gravel that he be allowed to take two of the
tanks and sprint ahead. They could bring back help.
A cheer went up inside the compound when LaMontagne
and the tanks sped through the front gate. It was as if the
cavalry had just ridden over the hill. But as he quickly
explained to the compound’s commander, Adkisson, it was
the rescuers who needed rescuing.
Coolican, Breth and Fred Drew, an Army lieutenant,
commandeered trucks and with hastily recruited volunteers raced back down Highway 1 with LaMontagne, takQVO PMI^a ÅZM I[ \PMa _MV\ 1\ _I[V¼\ NIZ \W _PMZM /ZI^MT
and Meadows and the remnants of Alpha and Golf were
XQVVML LW_V <PM ILLQ\QWVIT XXZM[[QVO ÅZM MVIJTML \PM
Marines to move again. The able-bodied heaved their dead
and wounded aboard the vehicles and then climbed up
themselves. On the short drive to the compound they saw
many bodies to the west of the road, where they had been
LQZMK\QVO UW[\ WN \PMQZ ÅZM 1\ OOM[\ML IV ITUW[\ QVM`haustible number of enemy soldiers, since shooting from
that direction had hardly slowed.
The convoy limped through the front gate of the compound, the shattered remains of the two convoys that had
left Phu Bai hours earlier. Meanwhile, at Task Force
X-Ray’s headquarters, the two trucks Gravel sent back
_MZM IT[W IZZQ^QVO *I\KPMTTMZ _I[ WЄ̆TWILML _Q\P \PM
others at the base hospital and then lost consciousness.
Fraliegh, the Marine whom Canley had tried to rescue,
was placed with the other dead outside the morgue, until
an orderly happened by and the corpse spoke up. “Good
afternoon, Marine,” Fraleigh said.
“We’ve got a live one!” the man screamed, and Fraleigh
was hurried into surgery.
It was just past 3 p.m. The bloodied Marines of Alpha
and Golf had seen more combat than any of them had ever
before encountered in Vietnam. And their day wasn’t over.
C<PM QV\MV[M ÅOP\QVO QV 0]M KWV\QV]ML ]V\QT \PM KQ\a
_I[ ÅZUTa QV )UMZQKIV IVL ;W]\P >QM\VIUM[M KWV\ZWT WV
Feb. 25 after the NVA had retreated.] V
Mark Bowden is the author of 13 books, including New
York Times best-seller Black Hawk Down.
THE LAST STAND
OF DETACHMENT 5
A small band of military broadcasters in Hue
fought gallantly against the Tet onslaught
By Rick Fredericksen
Eight broadcasters with American Forces Vietnam
Network’s Detachment 5 playfully pose for a
photograph in front of their Hue TV station in
1967. The ﬁve standing on the right were attacked
in their quarters during the 1968 Tet Offensive.
They are, starting at far right, James DiBernardo,
Courtney Niles, John Anderson, Harry Ettmueller
and Don Gouin.
ARMY PUBLIC AFFAIRS HALL OF FAME
Forces TV station
was in a compound
that also housed
the Tet attacks.
Left in ruins
The sleeping quarters
of the American
broadcasters was the
scene of a ﬁve-day
standoff culminating in
a 16-hour ﬁnal assault.
Sgt. 1st Class Don Gouin
takes a break outside
Detachment 5’s TV
trailer, which housed
a transmitter and
small news studio.
Spec. 4 John Bagwell
works the dials in the
1st Cavalry Division’s
radio studio in An Khe.
A few weeks later he
was transferred to Hue.
TOP: LEFT, RON TURNER; RIGHT: DON GOUIN; INSETS: U.S. NAVY; BOTTOM: JOHN BAGWELL
ntroducing television to South Vietnam’s
northernmost provinces was doomed
from the start. For the pioneers assigned
to build the American Forces Vietnam Network’s most
remote broadcast facility, there was trouble even before
they arrived: While still in Saigon, an AFVN engineer was
badly injured in a grenade attack and evacuated out of
7V 5Ia ! ).>6 WЅKQITTa WXMVML Q\[ VM_M[\
]XKW]V\Za IЅTQI\M LM[QOVI\ML ,M\IKPUMV\ QV 0]M
South Vietnam’s third largest city. The Viet Cong
IV[_MZML LMÅIV\Ta _Q\P I UWZ\IZ I\\IKS ;Q` _MMS[
later, the TV tower collapsed when a fuel truck backed
QV\W I O]a _QZM SVWKSQVO +PIVVMT WЄ \PM IQZ NWZ Å^M
_MMS[ <PM QVI][XQKQW][ JMOQVVQVO WN \PM 0]M <> [\I\QWV
foreshadowed the detachment’s tragic demise in a
Communist assault, which would seal a poignant place
for AFVN in broadcasting history.
By the time of the Tet holiday celebrating the Lunar
6M_ AMIZ QV 2IV]IZa ! I [\IЄ WN [Q` UMV _I[
WXMZI\QVO \PM M`XIVLQVO JZWILKI[\ NIKQTQ\a <_W W\PMZ[
PIL R][\ IZZQ^ML NZWU \PM [\ +I^ITZa ,Q^Q[QWV
(Airmobile) to help begin the detachment’s new radio
service. Spec. 5 Steven Stroub and Spec. 4 John Bagwell,
who had been working at the 1st Air Cav’s own radio
station at An Khe in the central part of the country, were
reassigned to AFVN, assuring that American radio would
be there for the troops when the division moved to Camp
-^IV[ R][\ VWZ\P_M[\ WN 0]M
7V \PM VQOP\ WN 2IV ! 0]M _I[ XTIKML WV N]TT
alert by Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, which
oversaw military operations throughout South Vietnam.
*ZWILKI[\ MVOQVMMZ )ZUa ;XMK 0IZZa -\\U]MTTMZ WVM
of only two survivors of the attack still living, remembers
the ominous signs. “With all my contacts, they kept telling
me you don’t want to be here for Tet,” he said. “You need
\W JM WV : : ,WV¼\ JM PMZM º
<PI\ VQOP\ 0]M¼[ WZQOQVIT ).>6 \MTM^Q[QWV [\I\QWV
[QOVML WЄ NWZ \PM TI[\ \QUM <PM ÅVIT \_W XZWOZIU[ _W]TL
have been ABC’s Combat and The Fugitive, according to
a published TV schedule.
The station’s eight-man team of military broadcasters
and a visiting civilian engineer, Courtney Niles, an Army
veteran employed by NBC International, worked out of
0]M¼[ ¹JZWILKI[\ KMV\MZ º <PM KWUXW]VL I\ 6W ,WVO
,I ;\ PW][ML VW\ WVTa ).>6¼[ NIKQTQ\QM[ J]\ IT[W \PM KQ\a¼[
Vietnamese television station. It was the former residence
of the U.S. consul.
The Americans were sleeping in their billet, a villa one
[\ZMM\ W^MZ I\ 6W <ZIV ,]K ;\ _PMV ¹ITT PMTT JZWSM
loose” in the pre-dawn hours of Jan. 31, recalls Bagwell,
the other remaining survivor. “We had a pretty good view
from our back door,” he said. “We could actually see the
attack going on.”
1V \PM PW]Z[ LIa[ IVL _MMS[ \PI\ NWTTW_ML 0]M _W]TL
JMKWUM IV QKWVQK ÆI[PXWQV\ WN \PM KW]V\Za_QLM <M\
7ЄMV[Q^M [\IOML Ja \PM 6WZ\P >QM\VIUM[M )ZUa IVL >QM\
Cong guerillas, who took control of large sections of
Enemy gunners targeted the television station on the
ÅZ[\ VQOP\ ) UWZ\IZ [PMTT XMVM\ZI\ML \PM ZWWN WN ).>6¼[
UIQV\MVIVKM [PML I\ \PM ,WVO ,I KWUXW]VL
.ZWU \PM LM\IKPUMV\¼[ JQTTM\ \PM WЅKMZ QV KPIZOM
5IZQVM 4\ 2IUM[ ,Q*MZVIZLW KITTML \PM TWKIT 5)+>
PMILY]IZ\MZ[ QV 0]M WV \PM PW][M \MTMXPWVM *IO_MTT
said. “They told us to stay put. Fighting, they thought, was
ITT W^MZ \PM KQ\a ;WUM\QUM \PM VM`\ LIa \PM TQVM _I[ K]\
We were on our own at that point.”
) XZW\ZIK\ML [QMOM I\ \PM ^QTTI [\IZ\ML _Q\P [VQXMZ ÅZM
“We could see them out there every now and then
XZWJQVO º [IQL -\\U]MTTMZ _PW KIZZQML IV 5 ZQÆM <PM
others were armed with a hodgepodge of weapons that
ZMY]QZML LQЄMZMV\ IUU]VQ\QWV _PQKP _I[ I^IQTIJTM WVTa
in limited quantities.
In addition to Ettmueller’s M14, the defenders had a
KWTTMK\QWV WN WTL 5 KIZJQVM[ I KW]XTM WN 5 ZQÆM[ I
.45-caliber pistol, a 12-gauge shotgun, a heavy M60
UIKPQVM O]V IVL [Q` PIVL OZMVILM[ <PM LM\IKPUMV\ _I[
never issued its M79 grenade launcher, Ettmueller
ZMKITT[ ¹<PM XXTa WЅKMZ QV ;IQOWV \PW]OP\ \PI\ _M
didn’t need it because we were in the city.”
The men took up positions inside the house to secure
the entry points. They had C rations, drinking water and
even a transoceanic radio that was their link to the
outside world as they listened to AFVN radio broadcasting
from Saigon. Bagwell was guarding the window in the
bedroom where he slept. “We eluded them for a couple of
days and actually thought that we would eventually be
rescued,” he said.
)N\MZ [M^MZIT LIa[ IV )UMZQKIV PMTQKWX\MZ ÆM_ W^MZ
“As far as they knew, the whole city had been taken,”
Ettmueller said. “They came buzzing over, and the door
O]VVMZ ÅZML LW_V WV ][ º <PM [\]VVML UMV M[KIXML \PM
With no warning, an enemy soldier appeared in front of
*IO_MTT¼[ _QVLW_ IVL ÅZML IV )3̆ ZQÆM ¹0M¼[ R][\ I
kid, probably 10, 11, 12 years old,” Bagwell thought. “I
could hear one of the bullets go by my right ear, and a
second later another bullet went past my left ear and the
kid was shaking.” Poor marksmanship saved Bagwell.
“When he shot at me I realized I’ve got to kill this kid or
he’s going to kill me, so I shot him and he fell in front of
Marine riﬂemen and
tank crews watch for
Army troops in Hue
on Feb. 4, 1968.
Fighting rages among
the rubble of Hue’s historic
fortress, the Citadel.
As the radio played, Bagwell heard an AFVN newscast.
“Someone they were interviewing, I think it was [MACV
commander Gen. William] Westmoreland, said, ‘Oh yes,
we knew that this was going to happen in Hue.’ We looked
at each other and thought, ‘We wish you’d told us.’”
1V \PM NW]Z\P LIa WN \PM [\IVLWЄ \PM JQTTM\ TW[\ XW_MZ
IVL \PM UMV UW^ML IUWVO ÆQKSMZQVO KIVLTM[ _PQTM
hostile soldiers outside surrounded them and gathered
for a mass attack. A salvo of three or four rocket-propelled
grenades signaled the start of the assault. “One B40
[rocket] went right through the window,” Ettmueller said,
¹IVL JTM_ \PM JIKS _ITT IXIZ\ KZI[PML LW_V WV \WX WN UM
crashed down on top of Tom Young,” a Marine sergeant
and the station’s newscaster. The other men in the villa
¹PIL \W X]TT ][ W]\ NZWU ]VLMZVMI\P \PM LMJZQ[ º
<PM MVQVO JZI_T _I[ KPIW\QK IVL JZ]\IT 7VM
attacker, carrying a satchel with explosives, tried to get
QV[QLM J]\ WVM WN \PM JZWILKI[\MZ[ [PW\ PQU <PM ZMT\QVO
explosion splattered the parked AFVN pickup truck.
Army Sgt. 1st Class John Anderson, the noncommissioned
WЅKMZ QV KPIZOM _I[ [PW\ QV \PM KPM[\
Anderson, Marine Cpl. John Deering and Army Sgt.
[\ +TI[[ ,WV /W]QV _MZM IZUML _Q\P KIZJQVM[ LI\QVO
NZWU ?WZTL ?IZ 11 ¹-^MZa \QUM \PMa ÅZML \PW[M
CKIZJQVM[E \PM UIOIbQVM[ NMTT W]\ º -\\U]MTTMZ OZ]UJTML
The most potent weapon the Americans possessed,
\PM 5 UIKPQVM O]V _I[ KIXIJTM WN ÅZQVO [M^MZIT
P]VLZML ZW]VL[ XMZ UQV]\M J]\ PIL VW\ JMMV XZWXMZTa
UIQV\IQVML <PM O]V RIUUML IN\MZ ÅZQVO R][\ \_W ZW]VL[
and was promptly discarded. Ettmueller picked apart
\PM 5 ¼[ JMT\ML̆IUU]VQ\QWV IVL [I^ML \PM ZW]VL[
_PQKP KW]TL JM ][ML QV PQ[ 5 IVL
took up a shielding position at the
JIKS WN \PM PW][M
“They were coming up and trying to
throw grenades in the window,” he
[IQL ¹1 SQTTML NW]Z XW[[QJTa Å^M 1
VIQTML \PMU QV \PM JIKS WN \PM PW][M
with my M14. I had it on rock ’n’ roll
[fully automatic].” After daylight,
Ettmueller discovered a dud enemy
OZMVILM WV \PM ÆWWZ JM\_MMV PQ[ TMO[
The 16-hour assault had extended
\PM X]VQ[PQVO [\ITMUI\M QV\W I ÅN\P
day. Injuries were mounting for the
JMTMIO]MZML ).>6 KZM_ IVL XXTQM[
of food and water were now exhausted.
LEFT ABOVE: AP PHOTO: BELOW: BETTMANN/GETYY IMAGES
-\\U]MTTMZ LM[KZQJML \PM ÅVIT UWUMV\[" ¹<PMa _MZM
[PWW\QVO :8/[ QV\W \PM J]QTLQVO <PM PW][M _I[ WV ÅZM 1\
_I[ NITTQVO LW_V IZW]VL W]Z MIZ[ º <PM )UMZQKIV[ PIL
VW KPWQKM J]\ \W ÆMM IVL \Za \W UISM Q\ \W \PM 5)+>
KWUXW]VL I UQTM I_Ia
6QTM[ SVM_ PQ[ _Ia IZW]VL 0]M IVL \WWS \PM TMIL W]\
\PM NZWV\ LWWZ *IO_MTT MUX\QML PQ[ TI[\ UIOIbQVM I[ \PM
MVMUa _I[ KTIUWZQVO QV\W \PM JIKS WN \PM PW][M IVL
NWTTW_ML 6QTM[ )[ \PMa ÆML 6QTM[ _I[ [PW\ QV \PM TMO IVL
\PMV UWZ\ITTa _W]VLML TMI^QVO *IO_MTT ITQ^M J]\ TW[\
-\\U]MTTMZ IVL \PM W\PMZ[ PIL [XTQ\ WЄ QV \PM WXXW[Q\M
LQZMK\QWV _Q\P 6>) [WTLQMZ[ QV PW\ X]ZQ\ <PM )UMZQKIV[
[KIUXMZML IKZW[[ I ZQKM XILLa J]\ KW]TL VW\ OM\ \PZW]OP
I NMVKM IVL _MZM \ZIXXML VM`\ \W \PM = ; 1VNWZUI\QWV
;MZ^QKM TQJZIZa _PQKP PIL JMMV O]\\ML Ja ÅZM ¹?M _MZM
ÅZQVO JIKS J]\ \PM XZWJTMU _I[ _M _MZM PMUUML QV WV
\PZMM [QLM[ º -\\U]MTTMZ [IQL ZMTQ^QVO \PM ÅVIT
LM[XMZI\QWV ¹<PMa _MZM UIaJM NMM\ I_Ia \PZW_QVO
OZMVILM[# I]\WUI\QK _MIXWV[ ÅZM 1 OW\ [PW\ QV \PM TMO
<PM ILZMVITQV _I[ X]UXQVO º
AW]VO _I[ SQTTML QV I J]Z[\ WN I]\WUI\QK _MIXWV[ ÅZM
IVL ;\ZW]J _I[ PQ\ QV \PM ]XXMZ TMN\ IZU _PMZM I JZWSMV
JWVM XQMZKML PQ[ [SQV
<PM \ZIXXML IVL _W]VLML UMV JMKIUM KIX\Q^M[
¹<PMa \QML ][ ]X _Q\P KWUUW CKWUU]VQKI\QWV[E _QZM º
-\\U]MTTMZ [IQL ¹IVL I[ \PMa [\IZ\ML \W TMIL ][ W]\ PM
C;\ZW]JE [\IZ\ML \W NIT\MZ IVL \PI\¼[ _PMV \PMa \]ZVML
IZW]VL IVL [PW\ PQU ZQOP\ QV NZWV\ WN UM 1¼TT VM^MZ NWZOM\
\PI\ <PMZM _I[ VW UMZKa º
7ЅKMZ QV KPIZOM ,Q*MZVIZLW PIL PQLLMV QV I XQTM WN
\ZI[P J]\ NWZ [WUM ]VSVW_V ZMI[WV PM TMN\ PQ[ PQLQVO
XTIKM -\\U]MTTMZ [IQL ¹1N PM¼L [\IaML \PMZM \PMa _W]TL
VM^MZ PI^M NW]VL PQU )TT WN I LLMV \PMa JZQVO
,Q*MZVIZLW W]\# \PMa \WWS PQ[ OTI[[M[ WЄ LZWXXML ¼MU WV
\PM OZW]VL IVL [\MXXML WV ¼MU 1 TI]OPML 1 KW]TLV¼\
PMTX Q\ º
)[ \PM Å^M Z^Q^WZ[ _MZM UIZKPML I_Ia \W JMKWUM
XZQ[WVMZ[ \PMa _Q\VM[[ML [WUM WN \PM ÅZ[\ M`MK]\QWV[ WN
VWVKWUJI\IV\[ QV 0]M ¹<PMa UILM ][ TWWS º -\\U]MTTMZ
[IQL ¹<PMa PIL \PM[M XMWXTM WV \PMQZ SVMM[ PIVL[ \QML
JMPQVL \PMQZ JIKS _Q\P \PMQZ PMILC[E LW_V <PMa _MZM
[PWW\QVO XMWXTM QV \PM JIKS WN \PM PMIL >QM\VIUM[M
KQ^QTQIV[ .Q^M XMWXTM JIVO JIVO JIVO º
5MIV_PQTM *IO_MTT _I[ L]KSQVO ÅZM IVL Z]VVQVO
JM\_MMV PW][M[ I[ PM \ZQML \W OM\ I_Ia ¹1 NMT\ \PMZM _I[
\PQ[ 8TM`QOTI[ ZZW]VLQVO UMº PM ZMKITTML ¹<PMZM _I[
[WUM\PQVO SMMXQVO \PM J]TTM\[ NZWU ZMIKPQVO UM º 7VM
[PW\ OW\ \PZW]OP PW_M^MZ PQ\\QVO PQU QV \PM NWW\ ¹1¼L
XZWJIJTa OWVM I OWWL MQOP\ KQ\a JTWKS[ 1 LWV¼\ SVW_ _PMZM
1 IU 1 [IQL I XZIaMZ IVL 1 TWWSML ]X IVL PMZM _I[ \PQ[
+I\PWTQK KP]ZKP \PI\ _I[ TQ\MZITTa VW\ \PMZM [MKWVL[
JMNWZM 1 UMIV Q\ R][\ IXXMIZML NZWU VW_PMZM º
*IO_MTT SVWKSML WV \PM LWWZ IVL I XZQM[\ TM\ PQU QV
J]\ QV[Q[\ML ¹1¼U VW\ OWQVO \W PQLM aW] QV aW]Z ]VQNWZU º
<PMa _MV\ \W \PM JIKSaIZL IVL J]ZQML *IO_MTT¼[ ZQÆM IVL
NI\QO]M[ 0M X]\ WV \aXQKIT >QM\VIUM[M KQ^QTQIV KTW\PQVO
IVL LLMVTa _I[ QV I KI\PMLZIT _Q\P IJW]\ ZMN]OMM[
0QOPM[\ IKPQM^ML ZIVS[ IZM [PW_V
Killed in action
Thomas Young, [MZOMIV\ 5IZQVM +WZX[
IVVW]VKMZ# 0W\ ;XZQVO[ )ZSIV[I[
Courtney Niles, )ZUa ^M\MZIV <> MVOQVMMZ NWZ
6*+ 1V\MZVI\QWVIT# ,M\ZWQ\ 5QKPQOIV
Steven Stroub, [XMKQITQ[\ )ZUa JZWILKI[\
[XMKQITQ[\# )][\QV 5QVVM[W\I
John Deering, O]VVMZa [MZOMIV\ 5IZQVM +WZX[
XZWOZIU LQZMK\WZ# 6I[P^QTTM <MVVM[[MM# LMKMI[ML
Donat “Don” Gouin UI[\MZ [MZOMIV\ )ZUa
KPQMN MVOQVMMZ# +MV\ZIT .ITT[ :PWLM 1[TIVL#
James DiBernardo, UIRWZ 5IZQVM +WZX[ WЅKMZ
QV KPIZOM# .]T\WV 6M_ AWZS# LMKMI[ML
John Anderson, UI[\MZ [MZOMIV\ )ZUa
VWVKWUUQ[[QWVML WЅKMZ QV KPIZOM# <WZZMa 6M_
Harry Ettmueller, [MZOMIV\ ÅZ[\ KTI[[ )ZUa
<> MVOQVMMZ# 8TMI[IV\^QTTM 6M_ 2MZ[Ma
John Bagwell, [XMKQITQ[\ )ZUa ZILQW
IVVW]VKMZ# )ZLUWZM 7STIPWUI
5IVa PIL JMMV _W]VLML
<PM XZQM[\ LQ[O]Q[ML \PM )UMZQKIV [WTLQMZ I[ WVM WN \PM
>QM\VIUM[M KIIT\QM[ Ja _ZIXXQVO OI]bM IZW]VL
*IO_MTT¼[ PMIL \W KW^MZ PQ[ NIKM IVL PIQZ ¹<PM WVTa \PQVO
[PW_QVO _I[ R][\ Ua MaM[ º PM ZMUMUJMZML IVL LM[KZQJML
_PI\ PIXXMVML VM`\ ¹<PM LWWZ [_]VO WXMV IVL \PM
6WZ\P >QM\VIUM[M KIUM QV IVL [\IZ\ML TWWSQVO XZWJIJTa
NWZ UM º )[ \PMa _ITSML LW_V \PM PITT WVM [\WXXML IVL
XWQV\ML PQ[ ZQÆM QVKPM[ NZWU *IO_MTT¼[ VW[M ¹1 _I[
[\IZQVO ]X \PM JIZZMT WN IV )3̆ KTW[ML Ua MaM[ IVL
\PW]OP\ 1¼L LQM J]\ PM LQLV¼\ ZMKWOVQbM UM I[ JMQVO
)UMZQKIV 0M JW]OP\ Q\ º
*IO_MTT _I[ P]UIV KWV\ZIJIVL IVL \PM XZQM[\
Q[WTI\ML PQU QV \PM [\MMXTM ¹1 _I[ TIaQVO \PMZM IVL ITT WN
I LLMV _M [\IZ\ML OM\\QVO [PMTTML º PM ZMUMUJMZML 1V
LQ[JMTQMN *IO_MTT ZMITQbML ¹1\ _I[ \PM )UMZQKIV[
;WUMWVM PIL QV[\Z]K\ML \PM )UMZQKIV[ \PI\ \PM 6WZ\P
>QM\VIUM[M _MZM PQLQVO QV \PM KP]ZKP º )\ VQOP\NITT PM
_I[ \WTL \W TMI^M <PM XZQM[\ XWQV\ML \W_IZL I TQOP\ NIZ
QV\W \PM LQ[\IVKM¸IV )UMZQKIV W]\XW[\
*IO_MTT UW\Q^I\ML PQU[MTN _Q\P PWXM" ¹1 _IV\ \W OM\
Bombs blast a moat
that goes around the
walls of the Citadel.
married. I want to have kids. I want to get out of this.” He
slipped out of the church and was slogging through rice
paddies when danger appeared overhead. “An American
helicopter started shining a light on me. I would stop, and
I would move, and they would move their light.” That catand-mouse pursuit continued for more than an hour. “I
thought, I’ve made it this far, and the Americans are
going to kill me thinking I’m a Vietnamese.” The chopper
Wounded and cold, Bagwell crawled to a ravine and
waited across from a U.S. Army unit until morning came.
“The sun comes up, I sneezed, and these guys have no
QLMI _PW 1 IUº PM [IQL ¹;W 1 X]TTML WЄ Ua _PQ\M [PQZ\ IVL
kind of waved it in the air, jumped up and said, ‘For God’s
[ISM XTMI[M LWV¼\ [PWW\ ¼º <PMa ÅZML I _IZVQVO [PW\ IVL
challenged whether he really was an American. “With this
Okie [Oklahoma] accent you can’t tell? I’m John Bagwell.”
The soldiers said they thought he was dead and had been
looking for his body.
7V \PM [M^MV\P LIa IN\MZ \PM <M\ 7ЄMV[Q^M [TIUUML
QV\W 0]M \PM OZQ\\a LQ[K RWKSMa _I[ ÅVITTa [INM ;XMK
Mike Larson, who worked with him at the 1st Air Cav’s
X]JTQK IЄIQZ[ WЅKM [I_ *IO_MTT TaQVO WV I KW\ I\ +IUX
Evans right after the ordeal. “I think he was probably a
little shell-shocked, as you can imagine,” Larson said. “We
were soldiers. We carried a weapon, but pretty much did
our shooting with cameras.”
Bagwell said he counted a dozen times when he should
have been killed. His good fortune continued in the days
after his escape. A nurse told him his leg would have to
be amputated because of his untreated foot injury, but it
healed. Months later, Bagwell learned from a friend that
on the night he left for Saigon, his tent was shelled and
the soldier who took his bunk died instantly. “God has
allowed me to live for some strange reason.”
Back home in Ardmore, Oklahoma, Bagwell discovered
that his mother had saved a Newsweek magazine with an
article about a Vietnamese priest executed in Hue for
hiding an American. “I’m pretty sure that would have
been him and they were referring to me,” Bagwell
presumed. “I could have been a prisoner of war easily.”
Ettmueller and the other four survivors of
,M\IKPUMV\ _MZM 87?[ NWZ Å^M aMIZ[ [\IZ\QVO _Q\P I
harsh, barefoot march up the Ho Chi Minh Trail. They
endured the squalor and abuse that was common for
Americans held in North Vietnam’s most infamous
prisons. Ettmueller came home with nightmares and
what he called war souvenirs: “Every now and then a
piece of shrapnel will pop out of my leg.”
Deering, the detachment’s program director, survived
UWV\P[ QV [WTQ\IZa KWVÅVMUMV\ Ja KWV[\Z]K\QVO \PM
perfect radio station entirely in his mind, according to
PQ[ JQWOZIXPa I\ UIKWQ VM\ 0M \PMV MY]QXXML Q\ [\IЄML
it and managed it. The imaginary project became the
87?¼[ WJ[M[[QWV IVL PMTXML PQU W^MZKWUM \PM LM[XIQZ
WN JZ]\IT +WUU]VQ[\ KWVÅVMUMV\
Anderson, the NCO in charge at the station, conducted
a similar mental exercise in solitary. “He built a radio
[\I\QWV NZWU \PM OZW]VL ]X TIaQVO \PM JZQKS[ Å\\QVO \PM
windows, even installing the wiring and equipment,”
IKKWZLQVO \W I [\WZa _ZQ\\MV Ja \PM )ZUa X]JTQK IЄIQZ[
WЅKM I\ .WZ\ 5WVUW]\P 6M_ 2MZ[Ma )N\MZ \PM 87?[
were released with a group freed in March 1973,
)VLMZ[WV ÅVITTa IKPQM^ML PQ[ ^Q[QWV _PMV PM JMKIUM
WXMZI\QWV[ UIVIOMZ NWZ I JWVI ÅLM ZILQW [\I\QWV QV
Niagara Falls, New York.
.QN\a aMIZ[ IN\MZ \PM OPI[\Ta [\IVLWЄ I\ ).>6 JW\P
of the remaining survivors are more than 70 years old,
and some pleasant memories of Vietnam emerge.
Ettmueller recalls using a 16 mm projector to show
movies on a wall for the kids in Hue: “They liked Combat
and Batman.” Ettmueller returned to Hue in 2017 but
KW]TL VW\ ÅVL \PM XTIKM _PMZM \PZMM JZWILKI[\MZ[ _MZM
SQTTML Å^M \ISMV XZQ[WVMZ IVL WVTa WVM M[KIXML 0M PI[
gone back to college to study history.
Bagwell talked about his DJ days when he was a
BETTMANN/GETTY IMAGES (2)
Brothers in arms
Marines assist a wounded
comrade in a Hue courtyard
after a Viet Cong attack.