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UEC823 M1 CM 2018 Global change JA 2 .pdf



Nom original: UEC823 -M1_CM_2018 Global change JA 2.pdf
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UE823 - Impact des changements globaux
sur les écosystèmes
Effect of rising level of atmospheric CO2
Acidification & other process

Joey Allen
A.T.E.R.
LIEC - Université de Lorraine
Joey.allen@univ-lorraine.fr

Contenu pédagogique de l’UE – EC 823 – Impact des
changements globaux sur les écosystèmes
Objectifs :
• Aborder les bases de la climatologie et de la météorologie. Acquérir les connaissances de
base et un point de vue critique sur les données relatives aux changements globaux
(réchauffement, homogénéisation, surexploitation) et comprendre les enjeux
environnementaux et sociétaux liés à ces questions.
Pré-requis : Connaissances de base en écologie des populations et des
communautés; connaissances de base des outils de traitement statistiques des données
biologiques et environnementales
Contenu pédagogique de l’UE :
• […]
• Les évidences d’un réchauffement global et sa répercussion sur la faune et la flore en
place. Les changements de biodiversité en réponse aux changements globaux :
évidences, risques et éléments clés de gestion.
• De l’extinction d’espèces locales aux introductions d’espèces cosmopolites : le risque
d’une homogénéisation de la biosphère. Les invasions biologiques.
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Auto inscription mot clé
3milian@_2018
Utilisation que par les
étudiants du UE – copyright!
Avec le téléchargement des
fichiers vous acceptez les
règles d’utilisation!

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Global change ?
• Climate change  side effect of increasing [CO2]atm.

• Increase of [CO2]atm.
+ other side effects

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CO2
• [CO2]atm increased by 40% since ~1850 (Hartman et al. 2013).
• Current level: 400 ppm (= 400 µatm, 0.04%).
• Will potentially double by the year 2100 (Ciais et al. 2013)

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Direct effect of pCO2 on organisms

Urabe et al. Glob Ch Biol 2003
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Direct effect of pCO2 on organisms

Urabe et al. Glob Ch Biol 2003
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Direct effect of pCO2 on organisms

Urabe et al. Glob Ch Biol 2003
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Direct effect of pCO2

Urabe et al. Glob Ch Biol 2003
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Direct effect of pCO2

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Direct effect of CO2
• in situ (or in greenhouse) CO2 enrichment
• Système FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment)

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Direct effect of CO2
• Rising atmospheric CO2 and human nutrition: toward globally imbalanced plant
stoichiometry?
• I.Loladze, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 2002

Effet d’un
doublement de la
concentration de
CO2

Feuille
Graine

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Direct effect of CO2
• CO2 increase will also impact ecosystems in other ways e.g.:

– differential effect on C3 & C4 plants.
– reduced transpiration

– Removed CO2 limitation

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Verspagen et al. 2014
13
PLoS ONE

CO2 in water
• 3 different forms of CO2 in
water:
– CO2/H2CO3
– HCO3– CO32-

www.michw.com/2013/02/what-is-oceanacidification-a-really-brief-summary/

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CO2 in water
• 3 different forms of CO2 in
water:
– CO2
– HCO3– CO32-

http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/pubs/outstand/feel2331/feel2331.shtml
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CO2 in water
• 3 different forms of CO2 in
water:
– CO2
– HCO3– CO32-

www.michw.com/2013/02/what-is-oceanacidification-a-really-brief-summary/

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CO2 in water
• 3 different forms of CO2 in
water:
– CO2
– HCO3– CO32-

www.michw.com/2013/02/what-is-oceanacidification-a-really-brief-summary/

-

CO2 + H2O  H2CO3 HCO3 + H+  acidification

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CO2 in water
• 3 different forms of CO2 in
water:
– CO2
– HCO3– CO32-

www.michw.com/2013/02/what-is-oceanacidification-a-really-brief-summary/

-

CO2 + H2O  H2CO3 HCO3 + H+  acidification
CO2 + H2O +
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2CO3 

2

HCO3

 Carbonate ion consumption

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Case study: Ocean acidification
Estimated change in sea water pH caused by human created CO2 between the 1700s and the
1990s, from the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) and the World Ocean Atlas

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_acidification
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Acidification
Aragonite et calcite:
• 2 formes stables du CaCO3, surtout produites par les organismes
vivants tels que:

Calcite: les coccolithophoridés (algues) et foraminifères
(protozoaire)
Aragonite: Organismes coralliens (cnidaires) et mollusques.
• Le degré de dissolution augmente quand l’état de saturation du
CaC03 dans le milieu diminue (équilibres chimiques).
Pour en savoir plus, Feely et al. 2004 Science

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Ocean acidification…

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Orr et al. 2005 Nature

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Ocean acidification…

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Orr et al. 2005 Nature

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Ocean acidification…

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Orr et al. 2005 Nature

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Ocean acidification…

Aragonite saturation & CO2 content in oceans
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For global changes, new emblematic species?
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The marine enigmatic species…
• The pteropod, or “sea butterfly”, is a tiny sea creature about the size of a small pea.
Pteropods are eaten by organisms ranging in size from tiny krill to whales and are a
major food source for North Pacific juvenile salmon.
• The photos below show what happens to a pteropod’s shell when placed in sea water
with pH and carbonate levels projected for the year 2100. The shell slowly dissolves
after 45 days.
Photo credit: David Liittschwager/National Geographic Stock. Used with permission.
All rights reserved. National Geographic Images.

www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/story/What+is+Ocean+Acidification%3F
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Phytoplankton bloom off Cornwall, England.
The light blue is caused by billions of white
coccolithophorid skeletons of Emiliana
huxleyi.
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Intact and acid-damaged
coccolithophorid skeletons

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Ocean phytoplankton = climate regulation
• Marine phytoplankton, among them the
coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi,
produce DMSP (Dimethylsulfonioproprionate) – a climate active gas

• DMS (Dimethylsulfide) is liberated to
the atmosphere and thus a major
source of sulfur – responsible for
nucleation effects and cloud formation
– thus reducing solar impact on earth‘
heat budget.

www.co2.ulg.ac.be/peace/intro.htm
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Sulfur cycle
• The sulfur biogeochemical cycle is
strongly influenced by marine algae
and bacteria

• DMS and DMSO are important climate
gases as they increase cloud formation
and precipitation
• DMSP released from algae, degraded
by complex physical and microbial
processes to DMS, which is volatilized
to the atmosphere, where it is oxidized
to DMSO, sulfite and sulfate.
• Sulfur in terrestrial systems originates
from rocks or atmospheric deposition

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Ocean phytoplankton = Carbon sink

Phytoplankton bloom off Cornwall, England. The light blue is
caused by billions of white coccolithophorid skeletons of
Emiliana
huxleyi.
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http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coccolith#mediaview
er/File:Coccolithophore_bloom.jpg

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Phytoplankton affected by acidification ?

Orr et al. 2005 Nature

• May not be as susceptible to acidification as aragonitic organisms

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Phytoplankton affected by acidification ?

Lefebvre et al. 2012, Global Change Biology.
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Phytoplankton affected by acidification ?

Lefebvre et al. 2012, Global Change Biology.
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Phytoplankton affected by acidification ?
• ↗ NH4+ :

– Increased anthropogenic N deposition
– Increased N2 fixation by cyanobacteria (warmer and more
stratified oceans)
– Decreased rates of nitrification due to acidification.

Lefebvre et al. 2012, Global Change Biology.
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Phytoplankton affected by acidification ?

Lefebvre et al. 2012, Global Change Biology.
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Phytoplankton affected by acidification ?

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Phytoplankton affected by acidification ?

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Phytoplankton affected by acidification ?

• ! Strong intraspecific variability
of sensibility to acidification

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Effect of pH/pCO2 on limitation

Shi et al. 2010, Science
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Effect of pH/pCO2 on limitation

Short-term Fe uptake by iron-limited Thalassiosira weissflogii (centric diatom)

Shi et al. 2010, Science
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Acidification in freshwater ?

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CO2 in FW mostly depends on DOC inputs

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CO2 in FW mostly depends on DOC inputs

pCO2 is not in equilibrium with [CO2]atm

Verspagen et al. 2014
PLoS ONE

High pH variability

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A conclusion ?
• Synergetic effect of multiple stressors

 CO2 impacts ecosystems in different ways (temperature, acidification...).
 Interaction with other stressors (eutrophication...).
 Need for ‘safe operating space’ definition

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(Rockstrom et al. 2009 – A safe operating system for humanity)

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