Indian Figures of Speech Gerow.pdf

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to the point of making them invisible in the moonlight: "Wearing
garlands of white jasmine and clothes of linen, their limbs moist
with sandal paste, the trysting ladies are hidden in the moonljght").
(4) "Pardon, once more; if you are going to load anything more
onto that statement, you want to get a couple of lighters and tow the
rest, hecause it's drawing all the water there is in the river already:
stick to facts ... "(Mark Twain; the "weight" of the statement is
exaggerated to the point of threatening the seaworthiness of the
river packet). (5) Many types of upama are based upon exaggerations
of the common property of one sort or another; these distortions
are, however, all subservient to the end of comparison: in hyperbole
there is no end other than the.,<..,magnification of the subject itself.
Similarly, in utprek$a, an attribute is figuratively associated with a
subject, but the distortion lies in,that unlikely association, not in
the representation of the attribute~ts,eI[ In hyperbole, the attribute
in its literal form should be naturally inherent in the given subject;
it is only its unworldly (lokiitikrantagocara) or preposterous extension that makes it figurative.
Different writers have distingu,ished different characteristic exaggerations. The most common (Bhiimaha, Dal)qin, Vamana,
Udbhaj:a) is that of two objects in the presence of one another being
made indistinguishable by the property which both share (cf
adhyavasana). Dal)qin recognizes the exaggeration of size to the
point of ultimate smallness (sarrzsaya), as well as ultimate greatness
(tidhikya). Udbhala and Mammala allow the inversion of the first
type, where the same subject is considered multiple because of different qualities (cJ{manatva). In addition, three types are based upon
a figurative transference of an attribute from one subject to another
(cf sarrzbhavyamaniirtha) and are distinguishable only with great
subtlety from other figures variously defined. Lastly, there is exaggeration of a quality by attributing to it the nature of a cause in
respect of its own cause (karyakara~apaurviiparyaviparyaya).
adhyavasana, 'determination': (1) a type of atiSayakti in which one thing
is characterized as another so as to exaggerate a quality which they
in some degree share. (2) M 153. (3) kamalam anambhasi kamale ca

madrigal-to require viewing through rhyme and harmony"
(Thomas Hardy). (5) Here the speaker is describing the girl as though
she were a lotus, and in Hardy's example, the girl is described as
though she were a song. The point of "indistinguishability" seems
to cross the subtle boundary of conscious rapprochement and, as
such, intrudes upon the domain of samasakl!, an abbreviated
metaphor in which the subject is not mentioned. I think such cases
must be taken as examples of Mammala's sloppy encyclopedism.
ananyatva, 'identification': (1) a type of atiSayakti in which two qualities
or attributes, though in fact contrary, are considered indistinguishable. (2) U 2.12. (3) sa dadarMmarrz ... tapastejabsphuritayil

/ krsilm apy akrsilm eva drsyamilnam asarrzsayam

(Udbhala; though Uma is emaciated by her fasting, she appears
full blown because of the beauty which her penance imparts: "He
saw Uma ... wasted away but appearing full blown in the wealth of
beauty born ofher ascetic power"). (4) "His departure gave Catherine
the first experimental conviction that a loss may sometimes be a
gain" (Jane Austen). (5) In these examples, two qualities are
mentioned; in the Sanskrit example given under atiSayakti, two
objects are "rendered indistinguishable". It would seem that this
latter case is most typical of atiSayakti, given as it is by most of the
writers whether they allow subtypes or not (Bhamaha, Dal)qin,
Vamana, Udbhala, Mammala). This figure resembles an exaggerated
simile (cf cafu upamil), but it should be noticed that the qualities
compared here are contraries (krsatvam-alqsatvam, "loss-gain"). The
aspect of similitude is an incidental consequence of a fortiori
premises. One may ask how the present examples differ from rilpaka
(metaphor). First, there can be no metaphorical identification of
qualities; second, metaphor need not be based on the identification
of items somehow contrary.
iidhikya, 'superabundance': (1) a type of atiSay6kti in which a quality or
attribute is quantitatively exaggerated out of all proportion. (2)
D 2.219. (3) aho viSMarrz bhilpMa bhuvanatritayiidaram / mati milium
asakyo'pi yasorilSir yad atra te (Dal)qin: "The extent of your fame,
itself measureless, comprehends, 0 King, the prosperity of the three
worlds"). (4) "I will not deceive you; he told me such a monstrous
lie once that it swelled my left ear up, and spread it so that I was
actually not able to see around it; it remained so for months, and
people came miles to see me fan myself with it" (Mark Twain).
(5) Cf sa,!lsaya, where the attribute is minimized out of all propor-

kuvalaye tani kanakalatikayam / sa ca sukumiirasubhagety utpataparampara keyam (Mammala: "A lotus grows where no water is;

on this lotus are two buds; and the lotus with its buds grows on a
golden vine: Who can she be, this concatenation of wonders? Call
her fortunate and lovely"). (4) "She seemed to belong rightly to a