BenFares Nolay.pdf

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Borjas   (2003)   criticize   this   approach.   He   explains   that   the   problem   of   these   studies   is  
that   they   ignore   “the   strong   economics   currents   that   tend   to   equalize   economic  
conditions  across  cities  and  regions”1.  He  proposes  a  new  approach  based  on  the  Human  
Capital   theory.   He   argues   that:   “by   paying   closer   attention   to   the   characteristics   that  
define   a   skill   group   one   can   make   substantial   progress   in   determining   whether  
immigration  influences  the  employment  and  earnings  opportunities  of  native  workers”2.  
Borjas   (2003)   used   an   approach   focusing   on   correlations   across   skill   groups   (using  
education  and  labor  market  as  indicators  of  skills)  and  with  this  approach,  Borjas  (2003)  
found  that  a  10%  increase  in  a  skill  group  lowers  that  wage  of  that  group  by  2  to  3%.  
Nevertheless,   during   the   last   decade,   a   big   number   of   immigrants   have   arrived   to  
Europe;  As  a  result,  many  European  countries  have  received  immigrants  coming  from  all  
over   the   world,   (especially   from   North   Africa   for   France   and   Spain).   Thus,   the   need   of  
studies   analyzing   the   impact   of   immigration   on   wages   of   natives’   workers   in   many  
European  countries  has  notably  increased.  
The  empirical  analysis  uses  the  data  of  the  annual  “Enquête  Emploi”  conducted  in  2012  
by  l’INSEE  (Institut  National  de  la  Statistique  ET  des  Etudes  Economiques).