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Sensors Handbook .pdf



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Mere thanks is insufficient to Dr. Tamer Wasfy for his immeasurable efforts in assisting me in developing the most advanced technologies ever known in the fields of
spectroscopy and vision: the Spect:ij. and the Inspect:ij.. Both technologies are
described in this book. Many thanks also is insufficient to North Market Street
Graphics, Lancaster, PA, for their boundless efforts in reviewing and preparing the
graphics and index for this book. This book also was made possible by the efforts of
my colleagues and friends in various universities and industries, and by the encouragement of the staff of Columbia University, New York.
Dr. Sabrie S%man
June 21, 1998

Foreword
Preface

xxxvii
xxxix

1.1
Chapter 1. Introduction
Establishing an Automation Program / 1.2
Understanding Workstations, Work Cells, and Work Centers / 1.3
Classification of Control Processes / 1.8
Open- and Closed-Loop Control Systems / 1.9
Understanding Photoelectric Sensors / 1.11
Principles of Operation / 1.11
Manufacturing Applications of Photodetectors / 1.12
Detection Methods / 1.17
Through-Beam Detection Method / 1.17
Reflex Detection Method / 1.18
ProxilI).ity Detection Method / 1.18
Proximity Sensors j 1.21
Typical Applic!ltions of Inductive Proximity Sensors / 1.21
Typical Applications of Capacitive Proximity Sensors / 1.22
Understanding Inductive Proximity Sensors / 1.23
Principles of Operation / 1.23
Inductive Proximity Sensing Range / 1.24
Sensing Distance / 1.26
Target Material and Size / 1.27
Target Shape / 1.29
Variation Between Devices / 1.30
Surrounding Conditions / 1.31
. Understanding Capacitive Proximity Sensors / 1.33
,
Principles of Operation / 1.33
Features of Capacitive Sensors / 1.35
Sensing Range / 1.35
Target Material and Size / 1.36
Surrounding Conditions / 1.36
Understanding Limit Switches / 1.37
Inductive and Capacitive Sensors in Manufacturing / 1.37
Relays / 1.39
Triac Devices / 1.39
Transistor dc Switches / 1.41
Inductive and Capacitive Control/Output Circuits / 1.42
Accessories for Sensor Circuits / 1.44
Inductive and Capacitive Switching Logic / 1.45
Inductive and Capacitive Sensor Response Time-Speed of Operation
Understanding Microwave Sensing Applications / 1.53
Characteristics of Microwave Sensors / 1.54
Principles of Operation / 1.54
vii

/ 1.49

viii

Flexibility of Fiber Optics / 2.34
Fiber-Optic Terminations / 2.34
Testing of Fiber Optics / 2.36
Test Light Sources / 2.36
Power Meters / 2.36
Dual Laser Test Sets / 2.37
Test Sets/Talk Sets / 2.38
Attenuators / 2.40
Fault Finders / 2.40
Fiber Identifiers / 2.41
Networking with Electrooptic Links / 2.42
Hybrid Wire/Fiber Network / 2.43
Daisy Chain Network / 2.44
Active Star Network / 2.44
Hybrid Fiber Network / 2.44
Fiber-Optic Sensory Link for Minicell Controller / 2.46
Versatility of Fiber Optics in Industrial Applications / 2.47
High-Clad Fiber-Optic Cables / 2.48
Fiber-Optic Ammeter / 2.50
References / 2.52

Detecting Motion with Microwave Sensors / 1.56
Detecting Presence with Microwave Sensors / 1.58
Measuring Velocity with Microwave Sensors / 1.59
Detecting Direction of Motion with Microwave Sensors / 1.59
Detecting Range with Microwave Sensors / 1.60
Microwave Technology Advancement / 1.62
Understanding Laser Sensors / 1.63
Properties of Laser Light / 1.64
Essential Laser Components / 1.64
Semiconductor Displacement Laser Sensors / 1.67
Industrial Applications of Laser Sensors / 1.68
References / 1.80

Chapter 2. Fiber Optics in Sensors and Control Systems

2.1

Introduction / 2.1
Photoelectric Sensors-Lang-Distance
Detection / 2.1
Light-Emitting Diodes / 2.2
Through-Beam Sensors / 2.3
Reflex Photoelectric Controls / 2.5
Polarized Reflex Detection / 2.5
Proximity (Diffuse-Reflection) Detection / 2.7
Automated Guided Vehicle System / 2.8
Fiber Optics / 2.9
Individual Fiber Optics / 2.10
Bifurcated Fiber Optics / 2.10
Optical Fiber Parameters / 2.12
Excess Gain / 2.12
Background Suppression / 2.14
Contrast / 2.14
Polarization / 2.14
Inductive Proximity Sensors-Noncontact
Metal Detection / 2.15
Limit Switches-Traditional Reliability / 2.16
Factors Affecting the Selection of Position Sensors / 2.17
Wavelengths of Commonly Used Light-Emitting Diodes / 2.18
Sensor Alignment Techniques / 2.18
Opposing Sensing Mode / 2.18
Retroreflective Sensing Mode / 2.18
Proximity (Diffuse) Sensing Mode / 2.19
Divergent Sensing Mode / 2.19
Convergent Sensing Mode / 2.20
Mechanical Convergence / 2.20
Fiber Optics in Industrial Communication and Control / 2.21
Principles of Fiber Optics in Communications / 2.21
Fiber-Optic Information Link / 2.22
Configurations of Fiber Optics / 2.23
Optical Power Budget / 2.23
Digital Links-Pulsed
/ 2.24
Digital Links-Carrier-Based
/ 2.25
Analog Links / 2.26
Video Links / 2.26
Data Bus Networks / 2.27
Configurations of Fiber Optics for Sensors / 2.30
Fiber-Optic Bundle / 2.30
Bundle Design Considerations / 2.32
Fiber Pairs for Remote Sensing / 2.33
Fiber-Optic Liquid Level Sensing / 2.34

ix

CONTENTS

CONTENTS

Chapter 3. Networking
in Manufacturing

\

of Sensors and Control Systems
3.1

Introduction / 3.1
Number of Products in a Flexible System / 3.2
Sensors Tracking the Mean Time Between Operator Interventions / 3.3
Sensors)'racking the Mean Time of Intervention / 3.3
Sensors Tracking Yield / 3.3
Sensors Tracking the Mean Processing Time / 3.4
Network of Sensors Detecting Machinery Faults / 3.5
Diagnostic Systems / 3.5
Resonance and Vibration Analysis / 3.6
Sensing Motor Current for Signature Analysis / 3.6
Acoustics / 3.7
Temperature / 3.7
Sensors for Diagnostic Systems / 3.7
Quantifying the Quality of a Workpiece / 3.7
Evaluation of an Existing Flexible Manufacturing Cell Using a Sensing Network / 3.8
Understanding Computer Communications and Sensors' Role / 3.14
Application Layer Communication / 3.16
Presentation Layer Communication / 3.16
Session Layer Communication / 3.17
Transport Layer Communication / 3.17
Network Layer Communication / 3.17
Data Link Layer Communication by Fiber Optics or Coaxial Cable / 3.17
Physical Layer Communication / 3.17
Adding and Removing Information in Computer Networks Based on Open System
Interconnect (OSI) / 3.18
Understanding Networks in Manufacturing / 3.19
RS-232-Based Networks / 3.20
Ethernet / 3.21
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)/Internet Protocol (IP) / 3.22
Manufacturing Automation Protocol / 3.23
Broadband System for MAP Protocol / 3.23
Carrier-Band System for MAP Protocol / 3.25
Bridges MAP Protocol / 3.25

x

CONTENTS

CONTENTS

Token System for MAP Protocol / 3.26
Multiple-Ring Digital Communication Network-AbNET
Universal Memory Network / 3.28
References / 3.30

/ 3.27

Chapter 4. The Role of Sensors and Control Technology
in Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing

4.1

Introduction / 4.1
CIM Plan / 4.2
CIM Plan in Manufacturing / 4.2
CIM Plan in Engineering and Research / 4.2
CIM Plan in Production Planning / 4.2
CIM Plan in Physical Distribution / 4.2
CIM Plan for Business Management / 4.3
CIM Plan for the Enterprise / 4.3
Manufacturing Enterprise Model / 4.3
Marketing / 4.5
Engineering and Research / 4.6
Production Planning / 4.8
Plant Operations / 4.9
Physical Distribution / 4.12
Business Management / 4.13
Design of CIM with Sensors and Control Systems / 4.14
Components of CIM with Sensors and Control Systems / 4.16
CIM with Sensors and Control Systems at the Plant Level / 4.16
Decision Support System for CIM with Sensors and Control Systems / 4.19
Computer-Integrated Manufacturing Database (CIM DB) / 4.20
Structure of Multiobjective Support Decision Systems / 4.20
Analysis and Design of CIM with Sensors and Control Systems / 4.21
Structured Analysis and Design Technique (SADT) / 4.21
A Multiobjective Approach for Selection of Sensors in Manufacturing / 4.23
Data Acquisition for Sensors and Control Systems in CIM Environment / 4.23
Real-World Phenomena / 4.24
Sensors and Actuators / 4.24
Signal Conditioning / 4.24
Data Acquisition for Sensors and Control Hardware / 4.24
Computer System / 4.27
Communication Interfaces / 4.28
Software / 4.28
Developing CIM Strategy with Emphasis on Sensors' Role in Manufacturing / 4.28
CIM and Building Blocks / 4.29
CIM Communications / 4.30
Plant Floor Communications / 4.30
Managing Data in the CIM Environment / 4.31
CIM EnvironmeQ,t Presentation / 4.32
The Requirement for Integration / 4.33
References / 4.38

Chapter 5. Advanced Sensor Technology in Precision Manufacturing
Applications
Identification of Manufactured Components / 5.1
Bar-Code Identification Systems / 5.1
Transponders / 5.3
Electromagnetic Identification of Manufactured Components

/ 5.3

xi

Surface Acoustic Waves / 5.3
Optical Character Recognition / 5.3
Digital Encoder Sensors / 5.4
Position Encoder Sensors in Manufacturing / 5.6
Fuzzy Logic for Optoelectronic Color Sensors in Manufacturing / 5.7
Sensing Principle / 5.8
Color Theory / 5.8
Units of Color Measurement / 5.10
Color Comparators and True Color Measuring Instruments / 5.10
Color Sensor Algorithms / 5.12
Design Considerations in Fuzzy Logic Color Sensors / 5.12
Fuzzy Logic Controller Flowchart / 5.13
Sensors Detecting Faults in Dynamic Machine Parts (Bearings) / 5.15
Sensors for Vibration Measurement of a Structure / 5.17
Optoelectronic Sensor Tracking Targets on a Structure / 5.18
Optoelectronic Feedback Signals for Servomotors Through Fiber Optics / 5.19
AcoustoopticallElectronic Sensor for Synthetic-Aperture Radar Using Vision
Technology / 5.20
The Use of OptoelectronicNision Associative Memory for High-Precision Image Display
and Measurement / 5.23
Sensors for Hand-Eye Coordination of Microrobotic Motion Utilizing Vision
Technology / 5.24
Force and Optical Sensors Controlling Robotic Gripper for Agriculture and Manufacturing
Applications / 5.26
Ultrasonic Stress Sensor Measuring Dynamic Changes in Materials / 5.27
Predictive Monitoring Sensors Serving CIM Strategy / 5.29
Reflective Strip Imaging Camera Sensor-Measuring
a 180°-Wide Angle / 5.30
Optical Sensor Quantifying Acidity of Solutions / 5.31
Sensors for Biomedical Technology / 5.32
Sensor for Detecting Minute Quantities of Biological Materials / 5.33
Sensors for Early Detection and Treatment of Lung Tumors / 5.33
Ultrasensitive Sensor for Single-Molecule Detection / 5.34
References / 5.36
6.1

Chapter 6. Industrial Sensors and Control
Introduction / 6.1
Sensors in Manufacturing / 6.3
Temperature Sensors in Process Control / 6.5
Semiconductor Absorption Sensors / 6.5
Semiconductor Temperature Detector Using Photoluminescence / 6.6
Temperature Detector Using Point-Contact Sensors in Process Manufacturing
Plant / 6.8
Noncontact Sensors-Pyrometers
/ 6.8
Pressure Sensors / 6.10
Piezoelectric Crystals / 6.11
Strain Gages / 6.11
Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensors / 6.12
Displacement Sensors for Robotic Applications / 6.13
Process Control Sensors Measuring and Monitoring Liquid Flow / 6.15
Flow Sensor Detecting Small Air Bubbles for Process Control in Manufacturing / 6.16
Liquid Level Sensors in Manufacturing Process Control for Petroleum and Chemical
5.1

Plants / 6.17
On-line Measuring and Monitoring of Gas by Spectroscopy / 6.20
Crack Detection Sensors for Commercial, Military, and Space Industry Use / 6.22
Control of Input/Output Speed of Continuous Web Fabrication Using Laser Doppler
Velocity Sensor / 6.24
Ultrasonic/Laser Nondestructive Evaluation Sensor / 6.25



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