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New name for Central Europaean oak
formerly labelled as Quercus dalechampii

Peter Kučera

Botany, Zoology and Cellular and
Molecular Biology
ISSN 0006-3088
Volume 73
Number 4
Biologia (2018) 73:313-317
DOI 10.2478/s11756-018-0048-z

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Author's personal copy
Biologia (2018) 73:313–317


New name for Central Europaean oak formerly labelled
as Quercus dalechampii
Peter Kučera 1
Received: 18 May 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published online: 7 May 2018
# Plant Science and Biodiversity Centre, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2018

Quercus dalechampii Ten. is an oak species recognised by numerous authors, but it has an inconsistent taxonomical use
depending on any particular author’s concept. Typification of Q. dalechampii in 2012 made this name inapplicable for Central
European populations traditionally treated as Q. dalechampii. A new name, Q. banatus, based on Quercus aurea Wierzb. ex
Kotschy, is here designated for a taxon equivalent to the present use of BQ. dalechampii^ in Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary
and other countries (at least in part) belonging to the Central European region. Notes on selected oak names related to Q. aurea
Wierzb. ex Kotschy are appended.
Keywords Central Europe . Nomenclature . Oak . Quercus dalechampii . Q. petraea agg

Quercus dalechampii Ten. has been recognized as a separate
oak species of Q. petraea agg. in the literature concerning the
Central European flora for the last five decades. This is also
reflected in the more or less recent national floras or keys to
flora (Ivchenko 1987; Ciocîrlan 1988; Dostál 1989, 1991;
Koblížek 1990, 2002; Simon 2000; Didukh et al. 2004;
Magic 2006; Kojić 2007; Sârbu et al. 2013; cf. also older
works of Beldie 1952 [Beldie (1977) treated the taxon in the
rank of subspecies]; Janković 1970; Soó 1970).
Q. dalechampii Ten. is also present in Poland according to
Požgaj (Požgaj and Horváthová 1986, p. 19), although this
species is not listed in Poland flora (Szafer et al. 1976;
Mirek et al. 2002). However, Szafer (1921, p. 22) mentioned
a separate variety of Q. petraea, i.e. Q. sessilis var. aurea
Schur, treated as a synonym of Q. dalechampii Ten. (see the
following text for explanation).
In Austria and Croatia, Q. dalechampii Ten. is either (1)
regarded as a separate taxon at the species rank (Aeschimann
et al. 2004; Nikolić et al. 2004) or (2) it is not recognized or its
occurrence is considered questionable (Adler et al. 1994;

Fischer et al. 2008; Domac 1989, 1994). Only in Slovenia
Q. dalechampii Ten. is not mentioned (cf. Martinčič 1969,
1984, 2007). The taxon is listed in the Flora Europaea
(Schwarz 1964, 2010) in the rank of species.
On the other hand, the name Q. dalechampii Ten. has been
applied to different taxa in the past: a short review on
this case has been published by Di Pietro et al. (2012).
These authors finally solved the problem of an inconsistent application of the name Q. dalechampii Ten. by
designating a lectotype which explicitly belongs to the
pubescent oak type (group of Q. pubescens Willd.).
After this decision, the name Q. dalechampii Ten. is
no longer applicable for the Central European populations
previously classified as Q. dalechampii Ten. having mature
twigs glabrous and fruits sub−/sessile yet differing to
Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and Q. polycarpa Schur (see above
The aim of this paper is to publish a replacement name for
the oak taxon which was considered as Q. dalechampii Ten. in
the Central European literature.

Material and methods
* Peter Kučera

Comenius University in Bratislava, Botanical Garden, Workplace
Blatnica, Blatnica 315, SK-038 15 Blatnica pri Martine, Slovakia

Nomenclatural rules are applied according to the International
Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (Melbourne
Code) (McNeill et al. 2012), which is referred to as BICN^ in
the following text.

Author's personal copy

Results and discussion
Schwarz (1936, p. 12: BQ. Dalechampii Ten. (= Q. aurea
Wierzb.)^; cf. Schwarz 1937, p. 82) identified Q. dalechampii
Ten. with an oak type which P. P. Wierzbicki collected and
referred to as BQ. aurea^ (see below). Later Mátyás (1970)
treated Q. aurea of P. P. Wierzbicki as one of three varieties of
Q. dalechampii Ten.
Conversely, Camus (1939, p. 210, 303) treated
Q. dalechampii Ten. as a subspecies of Q. lanuginosa Lam.
and Q. aurea of P. P. Wierzbicki as a variety under Q. sessilis
Ehrh. This approach was not followed by Central European
authors who largely relied on Schwarz (1964, cf. 2010).
Therefore, the treatment of Schwarz (1936) was taken into
account and Q. aurea of P. P. Wierzbicki is here considered as the relevant substitute for a BCentral European
Q. dalechampii^. Considering the diversity of author citations
accompanying Q. aurea of P. P. Wierzbicki, nomenclatural
evaluation of particular cases is given.
Remarks on names based on Q. aurea of P. P. Wierzbicki
(1) The epithet Baurea^ for a Central European oak taxon
was to my knowledge first published by Rochel (1838, p. 73)
who differentiated it within Q. robur under the name:
BQuercus robur L. β aurea Wrzbk.^. Rochel specified explicitly that Wierzbicki was among those scholars who studied
flora of the region of Banat and also participated in Rochel’s
field excursions. This publication of Q. robur var. aurea does
not fulfil the requirements of the ICN for valid publication as it
was not accompanied by a description or by a reference to a
previously and effectively published description: Rochel published a nomen nudum:
Q. robur var. aurea Wierzb. ex Rochel, nomen nudum (Art.
(2) Q. aurea of P. P. Wierzbicki was published on the
printed label of the specimen of the exsiccate series Flora
germanica exsiccata issued by [H. G.] L. Reichenbach
(number 1514 of the Centuria XVI; Reichenbach 1839, p.
37). Because of the missing original diagnosis, this is a nomen
nudum and therefore not validly published (Art. 38.1): B1514.
Quercus aurea. Wierzb. Bannat. Dr. Wierzbicki.^. This nomen
nudum is here directly ascribed to Wierzbicki (cf. Art. 46):
Q. aurea Wierzb. ex Rchb., nomen nudum (Art. 38.1).
Later in Icones (Reichenbach 1850, p. 8), Q. aurea was
introduced as BQ. aurea Kit. Wirzb. Fl. germ. exsicc. 1514^
[sic!], i.e. with a direct reference to Flora germanica exsiccata
but with an altered [and duplicated] authorship. The name is
here listed merely as a synonym to Q. conglomerata Pers. (cf.
Art. 36.1). The corresponding illustrations (Reichenbach 1850,
table DCXLV) contain Q. conglomerata Pers. (see explanation
by Reichenbach 1850, p. 8, lines 3–6) and an unnumbered (i.e.
not recognized as a separate taxon in the rank of species, cf.

Biologia (2018) 73:313–317

table DCXXX) illustration Baurea Kit.^. The name Q. aurea
Wierzb. remained unaccepted by Reichenbach (1850).
(3) Q. aurea was published by P. P. Wierzbicki (*1794 –
†1847) himself in the rank of species (Wierzbicki 1840, p.
365, 367); Mátyás (1970, p. 338) had already documented that
Wierzbicki designated his own herbarium specimens by this
species name. Introduction of the new name by Wierzbicki
(1840) was not accompanied by a morphological description,
thus Wierzbicki’s name publication is also nomen nudum:
Q. aurea Wierzb., nomen nudum (Art. 38.1).
(4) Govaerts and Frodin (1998, p. 237) present three other
nomenclatural synonyms corresponding to BQ. aurea
Wierzb.^ in addition to Q. robur var. aurea Wierzb. ex
Rochel 1838 in the list of synonyms of Q. dalechampii Ten.:
(A) Q. sessilis var. aurea (Wierzb. ex Rochel) Schur, 1857;
(B) Q. aurea (Wierzb. ex Rochel) Kotschy 1858; (C)
Q. sessiliflora var. aurea (Wierzb. ex Rochel) A. DC. in A.
P. de Candolle 1864. The last three names are, probably mistakenly, repeated by Govaerts and Frodin (1998, p. 284) as
synonyms also under the name Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl.
subsp. petraea.
(4A) Q. sessilis var. aurea (Wierzb. ex Rochel) Schur
Schur (1857a) mentioned the surname BRochel^ in the first
sentence on page 417 but with an indefinite reference to a
previous publication [of A. Rochel] dated Baround 25 years
ago^ [i.e. ± 1832] and without the association of Rochel with
BQ. aurea^. In the second part of his series (Schur 1857b, p.
10), the author referred to Rochel’s work, but different to
BRochel 1838^ (see above), i.e. BPlantae Banatus rariores,
iconibus et descriptionibus illustratae, 1828^. Schur
(1857c, p. 17) ascribed the epithet Baurea^ directly and exclusively to Wierzbicki:
B[Quercus sessilis Ehrh]# d) aurea Wierzb. fol. junioribus
glab. nervis aureis notatis vix var.?^ (# = see Schur 1857b,
p. 10).
This is a valid publication of the new name; however, according to the current ICN Art. 46.4 the correct author citation
should comprise only Schur’s name:
Q. sessilis var. aurea Schur.
The author citation including Rochel B(Wierzb. ex Rochel)
Schur^ (cf. Govaerts and Frodin 1998, p. 237) should be considered as incorrect (ICN, Art. 46).
(4B) Q. aurea (Wierzb. ex Rochel) Kotschy
Kotschy (1862: section IV [two pages], Tab. IV) published
in the year 1858 (see the explanation below) an extensive
description of BQuercus aurea Wierzb.^ This is a valid publication of the new name, with the possibility of preserving of
Wierzbicki’s name within the author citation (Art. 46.5):
Quercus aurea Wierzb. ex Kotschy.

Author's personal copy
Biologia (2018) 73:313–317

In the place of publication, no reference to Rochel is made:
inclusion of Rochel into the author citation (cf. Govaerts and
Frodin 1998, p. 237) is not applicable (see above).
The title page of Kotschy’s monograph contains only the
year B1862^ printed. However, the Österreichisches
Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950 (1967, p. 160) gives a
time range B1859–62^ for the relevant publication. In addition, Stafleu and Cowan (1979, p. 656) indicated years of
publication as B[1858–] 1862^ and wrote that copy of
Kotschy’s publication stored in G [Genève: Conservatoire et
Jardin botaniques] Bis in original covers (with year dates)^ and
they specified that the corresponding plates 1–5 [i.e. those
with the description and illustrations of Q. aurea] are dated
with the year 1858.
The original of Kotschy’s work in Genève (documentation
sent by M. Callmander and J.-Ph. Chassot, in e-mail) contains
a handwritten annotation by de Candolle himself (M.
Callmander, in e-mail) in French on the back of the first page,
which contains the dates of publication of the different parts of
this book (except for the 6th issue) counting eight numbered
issues. There, it is also specified that the last parts of the
monograph (the title and the Einleitung) were published in
1864 only.
In total, 10 issues are mentioned in the BProspectus^, while
in the small printed ticket (both of them are placed between
German and French titles within the original in Genève), issues 7 and 8 are designated as Bthe end of the work^. It seems
that BEinleitung/Avant-propos^ and BIndex^ could constitute
Bissues 9–10^ and they were distributed also separately (see
de Candolle’s note above): the original of Kotschy’s work
stored in Berlin (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer
Kulturbesitz) does not contain either BEinleitung^ or
BIndex^ (J. Schöffel, in e-mail). I suggest that the time span
of publication of Kotschy’s Eichen should be given as 1858–
(4C) Q. sessiliflora var. aurea (Wierzb. ex Rochel) A. DC.
De Candolle (1864, p. 9) published a shorter description of
Bvar. aurea^ with a direct association to the invalidly published name BQ. aurea Wierzbicki^. Similarly, as in section
4B above, no reference to Rochel is made there. On the other
hand, the name was placed under the species Q. robur L. and
not under Q. sessiliflora (cf. Govaerts and Frodin 1998, p.
237). In relation to Art. 46.4, the full name should be referred
to as follows:
Q. robur subsp. sessiliflora var. aurea A. DC.
Among the above-cited examples of validly published
BQ. aurea^ names for specific Central European oak populations, only Kotschy (1862; i.e. 1858–1864) evaluated the
matching taxon in the rank of species which corresponds to
the current evalution of BQ. dalechampii^ in the Central
European literature. However, the name Quercus aurea


Wierzb. ex Kotschy 1858 is a nomen illegitimum, as it is the
later homonym of Quercus aurea Raf. 1838, which itself is the
later synonym of Q. falcata Michx. 1801 (WCSP 2016).
Finally, there exists another Q. aurea homonym: Q. aurea
K. Koch 1873, and this name is evaluated as the synonym of
Q. robur L. subsp. robur (Govaerts and Frodin 1998, WCSP
n the need for a name for the Central European oak previously classified as Quercus dalechampii (see Introduction), a
new name in the rank of species is formally established here:
Quercus banatus P. Kučera, nomen novum
Replaced name: Quercus aurea Wierzb. ex Kotschy, nom.
illeg.; Kotschy 1858, Eich. Eur. Orient., section IV.
Lectotype of Quercus aurea Wierzb. ex Kotschy (designated here): Quercus aurea Wierzbicki, Banat (southwestern
Romania), forests near Oraviţa [BIn Waeldern bey Orawicza
in Banat^], P. P. Wierzbicki, s. n. [s. d.]; Naturhistorisches
Museum Wien (W), coll. W 1966–0022803 [digital image!],
the top right branchlet on the herbarium sheet, with the abaxial
surface of leaves turned upwards. – image: http://herbarium.
–BQ. dalechampii sensu auct. medioeur. non Ten.^.
The species epithet stems from the Latin name Banatus,
-ūs, which belongs to the geographical and historical region Banat being a part of the Austrian Empire in the
times of field research of P. P. Wierzbicki (later AustriaHungary). After World War I, Banat was divided to
Romania, Serbia and Hungary.
Acknowledgements I would like to thank to J. Kochjarová (Zvolen), P.
Mereďa (Bratislava), M. Janišová (Banská Bystrica), U. Šilc (Ljubljana),
N. Rajčević (Belgrade) and the workers of the Slovak National Library
(Martin) for their valuable help with literature sources. I am especially
grateful for willingness to help from M. Callmander and J.-Ph. Chassot
(Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Genève) and J. Schöffel
(Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin) with the
originals of Kotschy’s Eichen. To anonymous reviewers, I am indebted
for ideas to the first manuscript version revision, special thanks belong to
K. Marhold (Bratislava) for help and advices which substantially improved the paper, both in content and form. I would also like to thank
Proof-Reading-Service.com for improving my English.

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