Access of the local residents of Carrefour feuilles (Port au Prince) to water and sanitation services .pdf
Nom original: Access of the local residents of Carrefour-feuilles (Port-au-Prince) to water and sanitation services.pdf
Auteur: Evens Emmanuel
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Access of the local residents of Carrefour-feuilles (Port-au-Prince) to water
and sanitation services: Crossing Viewpoints on the formal and informal
Anie Bras, Anne-Laurence Verret, Osnick Joseph
Dr Anie BRAS is professor at Université Quisqueya (UniQ). She is the director of the Center for
Research and Support of Urban Policies (CRAPU). She leads jointly with the director of CODEV of
the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), the research team of UniQ involved in the
European project in the field of the urban. She is urban specialist in Environment/Urban
cleanliness and author of several articles on this issue. Dr BRAS is a regular member of the
Haitian Association «Women, Science and Technology». Dr BRAS is the Coordinator of the
doctoral program in Urban Studies of the Université Quisqueya.
Anne-Laurence VERRET is Architect, graduated from the Université Quisqueya (uniQ). She holds
a Master 2 in Urban and Regional of the National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA) in Lyon
and a DPEA in Earthquake-resistant Constructions of the graduate school of Architecture (ENSA)
of Marseille. Miss VERRET is a PhD student in Urban Studies in the Graduate School Society and
Environment of uniQ. The thesis of Miss VERRET, conducted within the Réseau d’Excellence des
Sciences de l’Ingénieur de la Francophonie (RESCIF), takes place alternately between the Centre
for Research and Support of Urban Policies (CRAPU) of uniQ and Cooperation & Development
Center (CODEV) of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). She is managed by
Professors Jean-Claude BOLAY (EPFL) and Evens EMMANUEL (uniQ). She is a regular member of
the Haitian Association «Women, Science and Technology».
To Carrefour-Feuille, vast grouping of neighborhoods of the municipality of Port-auPrince, the formal public service has difficulty in feeding the population with water and
sanitation. On average, the households buy 121.8 liters of water a day and the cost of
the supply represents 15 to 20 % of the consumer basket. In the light of the
quantitative and qualitative surveys, this article aims to analyze the operation and the
interactions between these two systems, formal and informal.
In Haiti, the supply of basic public services is carried out in a context of strong
population growth juxtaposed with the alarming conditions of socio-economic poverty
and urban. Less than 50% of the population has access to drinking water and
sanitation; this is one of the lowest rates of access in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Indeed, far from improving, the access to sanitation is decreasing year by year in
relative terms from 19% in 1990 to around 10% in 2008 for rural areas, and 44% to
24 % for urban areas for the same period1.
After the earthquake of 12 January 2010, the sanitation infrastructure, already very
insufficient, found themselves destroyed or often not functional, amplifying the coup
challenges in this subsector. In Carrefour-Feuille, a vast grouping of neighborhoods of
the municipality of Port-au-Prince with a population of over 200,000 inhabitants, the
formal public service has difficulty in supplying the population in water and sanitation.
This affects the nature and continuity of services provided and results in an unequal
distribution of public services - where they exist - very low coverage to the needs .
The population is so brought to find other sources of supply, in particular with an
One might wonder why this offer is it described as informal and of what does it consist?
To what extent the offer of informal service allows to compensate for the deficit of the
formal system in Carrefour Feuille?
Apart from the analysis of existing literature, this research is based on exploratory
conversations with certain actors of both systems; a field survey conducted using a
questionnaire  which was administered to a sample of about 285 heads of
households. The field of study is both large and heterogeneous; it was divided into
three blocks / areas.
2. Results and Discussion
3.1 The cost of Water in Carrefour-feuille
The results of the interviews and the investigation by questionnaire showed that the
households buy on average 121.8 liters of water a day and the cost of the water supply
can represent between 15 to 20 % of the consumer basket. The average price per
bucket 18.9 liters especially in dry periods can vary between 10 to 38 gourdes in the
informal economy. It is important to notice that within a radius of 50 meters, 56.57 %
of the households find a private individual where they can buy some water. In this way,
the informal offer is not more accessible financially to 'all', but the demand meeting this
offer comes from an arbitration “purchase power-distance” or a choice guided by the
need to satisfy a present consumption at higher cost than waiting for future
consumption at a lower cost.
3.2 Service in the field of the water: part of the formal and the informal
Overall, the formal offer is insufficient to meet the demand of the population, this gap is
filled by the informal offer of service, particularly by the private individuals who resell
the water by bucket (bokit or by drum). Indeed, 51 % of the questioned households
(Voir : http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Metadata.aspx)
have access to the formal public service offer (direct or indirect), 39 % of them have a
private connection. On the contrary, 49 % of the questioned households have only the
choice of the informal service.
However, it is necessary to underline the fact that a lot of those who have access to the
formal public service, especially in dry season, are also call the informal system. If the
formal offer knows regularly variations in the frequency of distribution, it introduces an
uncertainty about the time it will be necessary to wait for this offer; in such a case any
urgent need becomes automatically a request to be satisfied by the offer of informal
service. 23.2% of surveyed households report using only the formal system. It is
usually about owner having a tank and a private connection. With respect to service
offerings versus the residential area, the results showed that, in the center of Carrefour
feuille, 65.3% of households have access to the supply of direct or indirect formal
services (private connection or kiosks), while this proportion is below 50% in outlying
3.3 The sector of sanitation at Carrefour feuille a market to take
In the area of sanitation, specifically regarding evacuation of solid wastes, 82% of
heads of households surveyed discharge their waste in "any place" (ravine, vacant lots,
public highway ...). This reflects that the supply of solid waste collection services
whether formal or informal is quasi-non-existent. With respect to pit (including septic
tank) emptying, there are actors evolving in the informal who offer this service and, in
this particular case, 7.7 % of the respondents say they have used this service.
In the light of the collected data, it appears that the water requirements of the
population of Carrefour feuille are met through to the complementary or the
overlapping of both services, the formal but also and especially the informal. We so
note that less than 30 % of the population living in Carrefour feuille subscribed to the
formal service of water supply (public sector). This result brings to question the losses
in terms of revenue for the public administration but also the distributed water quality
versus water-borne diseases in this portion of the territory, since the proportion of the
market beyond the control of State represents approximately 70%, especially as the
existence of this situation is bound to a context strong deficiency of sanitation service.
The authors would like to thank the European Union (Research Program in the urban
field: Université Paris 8/EPFL/UEH/uniQ – Grant contract: FED/2014/338-974), for
financing this study.
. Bras, A., Kern, A. L., Lucien, G. E., & Emmanuel, E. (2016). Poor Neighbourhood
and Natural Disaster: The Environmental Situation of the Cité l’Eternel in Port-au-Prince,
Haiti. In Learning from the Slums for the Development of Emerging Cities (pp. 81-91).
Springer International Publishing.
 OUELLET G., Méthodes quantitatives en Sciences humaines, Ed. Les Griff. D’Arg.,
Québec, 1989,308 p.