UN Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights lao pdr end of mission statement.pdf
Statement by Professor Philip Alston, United Nations Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and
human rights on his visit to Lao PDR, 18-28 March 2019
Vientiane, 28 March 2019
On paper, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic has made great progress in poverty reduction over
recent decades. And after more than twenty years of striving to graduate from “least developed country”
(LDC) status, and maintaining GDP growth above 6.5 percent since 2005,1 the country is set to graduate
in 2024.2 This impressive growth has been achieved in large part through encouraging foreign investment,
particularly in mining, hydropower, and agriculture.
However, behind this apparent success story lies a more complicated and problematic reality. Unlike in
many countries, Lao PDR’s rapid economic growth has not led to a commensurate reduction in poverty.
The Government’s single-minded focus on large infrastructure projects (such as dams and railways), land
acquisition, resource extraction, and foreign investment has created all too few jobs for Lao people,
generated very large debt repayment obligations, and disproportionately benefited wealthy elites. Those
living in poverty, ethnic minorities, and people in rural areas have seen very few of the benefits of the
A recent official publication perfectly captures these trends:
“While many entrepreneurs and well-connected business people have managed to benefit from
recent economic growth, creating a small but very wealthy elite and a well off middle class, a
large number of poor have lost land and access to important natural resources, which has resulted
in increasing wealth disparities throughout the country. Indeed the ongoing transfer of land from
private households to companies is a major driver of new forms of poverty in rural areas,
effectively creating an emerging class of landless poor.”3
As illegal logging slows and the country’s two large mines close by 2021,4 the economy will depend
much more heavily on manufacturing and services, but it is widely acknowledged that the skilled
workforce required for such a transition is badly lacking. This reflects a failure to invest adequately in
health, education, children’s well-being, rural areas, and poverty alleviation.
Far from providing an answer to poverty, Lao PDR’s economic growth strategies have too often
destroyed livelihoods, created or exacerbated vulnerability, and lead to impoverishment for many groups.
Some approaches to poverty alleviation have instead prejudiced the human rights of poor and
marginalized people. Meanwhile, the country has not developed a strong social protection system to
support the many people left behind by the transitioning economy. By emphasizing aggregate economic
growth over poverty reduction, social protection, job creation, and socioeconomic mobility, the
government has achieved impressive GDP numbers but at times has failed to make meaningful changes in
the lives of a very large number of people in poverty.
Deep structural barriers prevent the full realization of human rights by people in poverty. Poor women
must navigate highly patriarchal beliefs and institutions, are routinely shut out of decision-making
World Bank, “GDP growth (annual %) Lao PDR,” https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG?locations=LA.
United Nations Development Programme, “Lao PDR’s eligibility for graduation from LDC status confirmed,” March 2018,
3 Lao Statistics Bureau, Centre for Development and Environment, and University of Bern, “Social Economic Atlas of the Lao PDR: Patterns and Trends
from 2005-2015," 2018, p. 116.
4 Meeting with Ministry of Energy and Mines, March 27, 2019.