UN Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights lao pdr end of mission statement.pdf
without a toilet has fallen by half. Net secondary school enrollment increased 23 percent, reaching 50
percent in 2012/13.11 The government has established a Poverty Reduction Fund, focused on developing
the poorest villages, and backed by $186 million since 2003, 91 percent of which is from foreign
In general, too much emphasis is given to ticking boxes and improving numbers rather than ensuring
meaningful changes to the lives of Lao people. In what has been described as “policy-making by
aspirational statement,” government officials were eager to share ambitious targets and the creation of
new committees, but were only rarely able to provide evidence that their policies had benefited people in
the real world, or concrete plans for how these targets would be met. In one district I visited where 25
percent of households are in poverty, the deputy governor told me they planned to reduce poverty to 4
percent by 2024, but that the district did not have any special plan to accelerate poverty reduction in order
to do so. Too many officials with whom I spoke seemed disinterested in auditing the effectiveness of
policies to tackle poverty, and often could not provide basic numbers about program budgets, the number
of people who had been reached, or what concrete steps had been achieved. The government has not
provided me with evidence of progressive attempts to improve revenue collection or bolster social
protection, and the Ministry of Finance told me it did not consider inequality in its approach to taxation
and budgeting.13 One minister told me, “For me, poverty is natural, a force of nature, not a man made
Very limited data and a lack of transparency around what data does exist make it difficult to accurately
assess the current state of poverty in Lao PDR, and mean that programs and responses are being designed
around information that may not reflect the actual situation. The most recent available figures are several
years out of date, and the Ministry of Finance told me they could only release budget information up to
2016.14 Meanwhile, independent organizations have raised concerns about the reliability of official data,
saying that it does not correspond with their own findings but that the government is not interested in
addressing discrepancies. I saw this myself in one district, where officials told me that 100 percent of
villages had electricity but I then visited a village in the district without electricity. The head of the village
told me that a total of five villages in the area were still waiting to be connected to the electrical grid.
3. The Failure of Economic Growth to Alleviate Poverty
Lao PDR has pursued a top-down approach to economic growth and poverty alleviation that is all too
often counterproductive, leading to impoverishment and risking the rights of the poor and marginalized.
LDC graduation and GDP growth have been prioritized, while providing economic security and
employment opportunities to poor people has not. Strategies for achieving economic growth, such as
“Turning Land Into Capital” and development partner-backed projects in the hydropower sector, have too
often had significant negative impacts and have actually made some people poorer by depriving them of
access to land, livelihoods, and resources.
Land is central to poor people’s livelihoods, yet land security is often tenuous and large-scale land
acquisitions have been carried out in ways that threaten the rights of people in poverty. While estimates
World Bank, “Lao PDR Poverty Policy Notes: Drivers of Poverty Reduction in Lao PDR,” October 2015,
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/590861467722637341/pdf/101567-REPLACENENT-PUBLIC-Lao-PDR-Poverty-Policy-Notes-Drivers-ofPoverty-Reduction-in-Lao-PDR.pdf p. 9.
12 Meeting with Poverty Reduction Fund, March 25, 2019.
13 Meeting with Ministry of Finance, March 25, 2019.
14 Meeting with Ministry of Finance, March 25, 2019.