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e origins of 2019-nCoV coronavirus
DF Available) · February 2020 with 547 Reads
40/RG.2.2.21799.29601
s publication

a Botao Xiao
21.93 · South China University of Technology

Lei Xiao

19-nCoV has caused an epidemic of 28,060 laboratory-confirmed infections in human including 564 deaths in China by February 6, 2020.
escriptions of the virus published on Nature this week indicated that the genome sequences from patients were almost identical to the Bat
C45 coronavirus. It was critical to study where the pathogen came from and how it passed onto human. An article published on The Lancet
ed that 27 of 41 infected patients were found to have contact with the Huanan Seafood Market in Wuhan. We noted two laboratories
cting research on bat coronavirus in Wuhan, one of which was only 280 meters from the seafood market. We briefly examined the histories
aboratories and proposed that the coronavirus probably originated from a laboratory. Our proposal provided an alternative origin of the
virus in addition to natural recombination and intermediate host.

ver the world's research

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The possible origins of 2019-nCoV coronavirus
Botao Xiao1,2* and Lei Xiao3

1

Joint International Research Laboratory of Synthetic Biology and Medicine, School

of Biology and Biological Engineering, South China University of Technology,
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University of Science and Technology, Wuhan

430074, China
3 Tian

You Hospital, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430064,

China

* Corresponding author: xiaob@scut.edu.cn
Tel / Fax: 86-20-3938-0631

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The 2019-nCoV coronavirus has caused an epidemic of 28,060 laboratory-confirmed
infections in human including 564 deaths in China by February 6, 2020. Two descriptions
of the virus published on Nature this week indicated that the genome sequences from
patients were 96% or 89% identical to the Bat CoV ZC45 coronavirus originally found in
Rhinolophus affinis 1,2. It was critical to study where the pathogen came from and how it
passed onto human.
An article published on The Lancet reported that 41 people in Wuhan were found to
have the acute respiratory syndrome and 27 of them had contact with Huanan Seafood
Market 3. The 2019-nCoV was found in 33 out of 585 samples collected in the market after
the outbreak. The market was suspicious to be the origin of the epidemic, and was shut
down according to the rule of quarantine the source during an epidemic.
The bats carrying CoV ZC45 were originally found in Yunnan or Zhejiang province,
both of which were more than 900 kilometers away from the seafood market. Bats were
normally found to live in caves and trees. But the seafood market is in a densely-populated
district of Wuhan, a metropolitan of ~15 million people. The probability was very low for the
bats to fly to the market. According to municipal reports and the testimonies of 31 residents
and 28 visitors, the bat was never a food source in the city, and no bat was traded in the
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market. There was possible natural recombination or intermediate host of the coronavirus,
little proof iOS
hasApp
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Was there any other possible pathway? We screened the area around the seafood

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market and identified two laboratories
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conducting research on bat coronavirus. Within ~280
meters from the market, there was the Wuhan Center for Disease Control & Prevention
(WHCDC) (Figure 1, from Baidu and Google maps). WHCDC hosted animals in laboratories
for research purpose, one of which was specialized in pathogens collection and identification 4. In one of their studies, 155 bats including Rhinolophus affinis were captured in Hubei

6

province, and other 450 bats were captured in Zhejiang province 4. The expert in collection

was noted in the Author Contributions (JHT). Moreover, he was broadcasted for collecting
viruses on nation-wide newspapers and websites in 2017 and 2019 7,8. He described that
he was once by attacked by bats and the blood of a bat shot on his skin. He knew the
extreme danger of the infection so he quarantined himself for 14 days 7. In another accident,
he quarantined himself again because bats peed on him. He was once thrilled for capturing
a bat carrying a live tick 8.
Surgery was performed on the caged animals and the tissue samples were collected for
DNA and RNA extraction and sequencing 4, 5. The tissue samples and contaminated trashes
were source of pathogens. They were only ~280 meters from the seafood market. The
WHCDC was also adjacent to the Union Hospital (Figure 1, bottom) where the first group
of doctors were infected during this epidemic. It is plausible that the virus leaked around
and some of them contaminated the initial patients in this epidemic, though solid proofs
are needed in future study.
The second laboratory was ~12 kilometers from the seafood market and belonged to
Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences 1, 9, 10. This laboratory
reported that the Chinese horseshoe bats were natural reservoirs for the severe acute
respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) which caused the 2002-3 pandemic 9.
The principle investigator participated in a project which generated a chimeric virus using

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the SARS-CoV reverse genetics system, and reported the potential for human
emergence 10. A direct speculation was that SARS-CoV or its derivative might leak from
the laboratory.
In summary, somebody was entangled with the evolution of 2019-nCoV coronavirus.
In addition to origins of natural recombination and intermediate host, the killer coronavirus
probably originated from a laboratory in Wuhan. Safety level may need to be reinforced in
high risk biohazardous laboratories. Regulations may be taken to relocate these
laboratories far away from city center and other densely populated places.

Contributors
BX designed the comment and performed literature search. All authors performed data
acquisition and analysis, collected documents, draw the figure, and wrote the papers.
Acknowledgements
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11772133,
11372116).
Declaration of interests
All authors declare no competing interests.

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References
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339070128_The_possible_origins_of_2019-nCoV_coronavirus
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X-G, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new

of and
probable
Keep coronavirus
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more bat origin. Nature 2020. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7.
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in China. Nature 2020. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3.
3.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel

coronavirus

in

Wuhan,

China.

The

Lancet

2019.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-

6736(20)30183-5.
4.

Guo WP, Lin XD, Wang W, et al. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats,

insectivores, and rodents. PLoS pathogens 2013; 9(2): e1003159.
5.

Lu M, Tian JH, Yu B, Guo WP, Holmes EC, Zhang YZ. Extensive diversity of rickettsiales

bacteria in ticks from Wuhan, China. Ticks and tick-borne diseases 2017; 8(4): 574-80.
6.

Shi M, Lin XD, Chen X, et al. The evolutionary history of vertebrate RNA viruses. Nature

2018; 556(7700): 197-202.
7.

Tao P. Expert in Wuhan collected ten thousands animals: capture bats in mountain at night.

Changjiang Times 2017.
8.

Li QX, Zhanyao. Playing with elephant dung, fishing for sea bottom mud: the work that will

change China's future. thepaper 2019.
9.

Ge XY, Li JL, Yang XL, et al. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus

that uses the ACE2 receptor. Nature 2013; 503(7477): 535-8.
10. Menachery VD, Yount BL, Jr., Debbink K, et al. A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat
coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence. Nature medicine 2015; 21(12): 1508-13.

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Figure 1. The Huanan Seafood Market is close to the WHCDC (from Baidu and Google
maps).

ns (0)

References (10)

ures of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet

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Wang
· X Li
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ang2 Y,
Li X, et al. Clinical
featuresiOS
of patients
infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet 2019.
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uhan collected
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bats in mountain at night. Changjiang Times

rt in Wuhan collected ten thousands animals: capture bats in mountain at night. Changjiang Times 2017.
h elephant dung, fishing for sea bottom mud: the work that will change China's future

yao. Playing with elephant dung, fishing for sea bottom mud: the work that will change China's future. thepaper 2019.
a outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin
Full-text available
NATURE
ou ·

Xinglou Yang · Xian-Guang Wang

ow abstract
navirus associated with human respiratory disease in China
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NATURE
Zhao ·

Bin Yu ·

Yong-Zhen Zhang

ow abstract
onary history of vertebrate RNA viruses
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hi · Xian-Dan Lin · Xiao Chen ·

Yong-Zhen Zhang

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un-Hua Tian ·
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ow abstract
e cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence
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Menachery · Boyd Yount ·

Kari Debbink ·

Ralph S Baric

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d characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor
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e · Jia-Lu Li ·

Xinglou Yang ·

Zhengli Shi

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and Origins of Hantaviruses Harbored by Bats, Insectivores, and Rodents
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uo · Xian-Dan Lin ·

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Project
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A recent study provides a platform for generating infectious coronavirus genomes using sequence data, examining their capabilities of replicating
in human cells and causing diseases in animal models, and evaluating therapeutics and vaccines. Similar approaches could be used to assess
the potential of human emergence and pathogenicity for other viruses.

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Article

Full-text available

Evaluation of MICRO-CHEM PLUS as a Disinfehctant for Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory in China
March 2018
Huajun Zhang · Chen Peng · Bobo Liu · [...] · Zhengli Shi
MICRO-CHEM PLUS Detergent Disinfectant Cleaner (MCP) is a commonly used disinfectant at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories where
research activities involving the most dangerous pathogens must be conducted. Using bat severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)–like
coronavirus (CoV) WIV1 as a surrogate pathogen, we extensively evaluated the disinfection efficacy of 5% MCP in the first BSL-4 ... [Show full
abstract]

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Isolation and characterization
of a novel bat coronavirus closely related to the direct progenitor o...

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December 2015 · Journal of Virology
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Xinglou Yang ·
Ben Hu ·
Zhengli Shi · [...] · Bo Wang

Wereport the isolation and characterization of a novel bat coronavirus which is much closer to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus
(SARS-CoV) in genomic sequence than others previously reported, particularly in its S gene. Cell entry and susceptibility studies indicated that
this virus can use ACE2 as a receptor and infect animal and human cell lines. Our results provide further ... [Show full abstract]

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Article
Longitudinal surveillance of SARS-like coronaviruses in bats by quantitative real-time PCR
February 2016 · Virologica Sinica
Meiniang Wang ·

Wei Zhang · Yu-Tao Gao · [...] · Zheng-Li Shi

[Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2016, Wuhan Institute of Virology, CAS and Springer Science+Business Media Singapore.

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