Citropolis77 78 Citroen 5HP ENG .pdf



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“ Citroen 5HP 1922- 1926 “ by Bernard Laurent (
Citropolis No 77 & 78 ) Translated from

https://mon-partage.fr/f/BTcrcy5V/

P 1&2__________________________________________________________________________________________

P 3_________________________________________________________________________________
After the success of his 10 HP Type A, and then the B2 launched in July 1921, André Citroën presented a brand new
model at the Paris Motor Show in October 1921: the 5HP. He thus broke with the principle of the single model that
he had defined in 1919. He created, without his knowing it, the emblematic model of the automobile construction of
the twenties...
In this article - I offer you some new information on the 5 HP collected in the commercial registers of the factory.
Documents that were thought to be definitively lost and recently found at the Citroën factory.
These documents finally allow us to know the precise figures of all the models produced and marketed by Citroën
from 14 June 1919 to 31 December 1933, by type of vehicle and detailing, to the nearest unit, all the types of
bodywork used.
They give the dates of appearance and withdrawal from the market of each model of vehicle and each bodywork, all
things that it had been impossible to do with precision until now because they were approximate and often
contradicted by various and divergent sources...
These precious documents are now kept in the archives of the Citroën Conservatory and are an essential
complement to the current records.
I would like to thank Automobiles Citroën-PSA, and particularly Mr. Denis Huille, Director of the Conservatoire
, for having allowed me to do my research work and then to be able to publish in Citropolis the first of the data that
I was able to collect in the factory's commercial registers,
To begin, let's set the scene and go back in time to 1918...

1919, The first Citroën...
In November 1918, André Citroën converted the shell factory he had created for the First World War on the Quai de
Javel in Paris. From then on, more peaceful products, in this case cars, would be manufactured there.
He opted, like his example, the American Henri Ford, and like his Ford T, for the "unique model" improved year after
year. Two cars were studied during the war: a luxury 18 HP and a mass-market 8 HP. It was the "10 HP Type A"
mid-range car that was chosen.
Citroen opted for the popular one and for obvious reasons: you don't make luxury cars on the assembly line and in
large series... Quite simply.
Moreover, no one still makes cars on an assembly line in France and, in Europe, only the Ford T is made in this way
in England and even then, in a primitive way...
The first mass-produced French car was launched in June 1919 and the first Citroën was sold on 7 July (see
Citropolis n° 75).
France is bled dry...
In these difficult times at the dawn of the twenties, France was struggling to recover from the conflict that had
ruined and bled Europe.
Frustrated during these terrible years of deprivation, the French want to turn the page and make up for lost time.
consumption frenzy is immense... The demand for second-hand cars and especially new cars is considerable, but
everything has to be built and rebuilt.
The car industry, which for four years had been devoted to the war industry, was slow to restructure and to resume
civilian production.
The pre-war manufacturers are struggling to meet the demand and most of them are content to take over those
they built individually before 1914, with a few modifications.
These vehicles, while initially satisfying customers, soon proved to be obsolete. The new models began to appear
slowly during 1920 and their regular production will only become normalized around 1921/1922.

One of the first 5 HP prototypes. At its wheel, the imposing chief tester of the factory, Mr. Robin.
The windscreen attachment is special. The side support for the spare wheel is placed lower than on the following
prototypes, which led to the creation of a recess in the running board.
The radiator has a moulding in the manner of the 10 HP Type A.
The registration in the Paris district dates from 1920/1921.

André who?
It is in this context that the modern 10 HP Type A shakes up the rules of the game. If its qualities are high and
superior to anything, the new Citroën suffers from an image deficit since nobody knows André Citroën as a car
manufacturer.
To sell, not only do you have to be known, but you also need a network of distributors - which does not yet exist!
It takes time to set it up... At the beginning of its commercialisation, sales were clearly lower than the objective that
the boss had set himself in 1918, to reach the insane figure for the time, of manufacturing “ 100 cars per day.”..
…and to sell them, of course!
But Citroën was lucid, as he would later say that nobody had taken him seriously... So wasn't it a superb advertising
ploy to make a mark, even if it meant making this "industrial promise" later?
It's quite possible! And this is what happened, but for the 1922-1923 season with a relative average of 120 cars/day
(based on 300 working days).
During 1919 only 2,810 cars were sold and 12,244 in 1920. The initial objective was therefore not achieved when
the Type A was replaced around July 1921 by the Type B2, a more luxurious and more powerful evolution of the first
Citroën, even though Citroën had taken the lead in French construction in two years!
10,933 cars were built in 1921 (1,300 less than in 1920) due to the hard strikes and numerous social movements
throughout France and 21,025 in 1922.
FOR A GOOD UNDERSTANDING OF THE TEXT:
The Type C and C3 are referred to by usage as Type C.
The Type C3 and its respective chassis are referred to as Type C.2 and Type C3.
These are not spelling mistakes. The characteristics of the Citroën 5 HP cars and chassis described hereafter will
allow the reader to better distinguish the precise use of these different terms,
The word Torpedo, even if it is often written in the masculine gender, has not changed its sex, I know it is
fashionable, but it is of the feminine gender and has been since 1910 (cf. Petit Larousse dictionary ).
In order to avoid confusion in the use of terms and to be in accordance with the documents of the time, the
expression of the different powers is made with the units and terms in force in France between 1919 and 1926:
Real power: HP (horse power) then CV (cheval vapeur, from the end of 1925) for the power developed by the
engine.
Nominal or administrative power: CV (carte grise)
Fiscal power: hp (fiscal horsepower, for taxes)

P4__________________________________________________________________________________________

Paris Salon 1921. General view of the stand. The 5 HP is presented to the public for the first time.
The photo was most likely taken before the opening of the Salon, while the stand was being set up, judging by
the presence of rubbish in the aisle.

1921, Birth of the 5 HP
While customer demand for a medium-sized car was strong, there was also a niche for a smaller, more economical
but comfortable car.
And Citroën wanted to get into it and occupy it.... He left the top of the range to the many small manufacturers who
were fighting for a top of the range clientele that was not worth anything in terms of quantity.
André Citroën therefore departed from his one-model rule and commissioned Jules Salomon, the father of the 10 HP,
to study a new car in the 5 CV tax category.
The latter turned to the engineer Edmond Moyet* to make the project a reality
Recently hired and transferred from the young Amilcar brand** Edmond Moyet was inspired by the Amilcar CC that
he had just designed for it
Because of its resemblance to the 10 HP, due to the classic design of a 1921 car, the 5HP was for a long time
attributed to Jules Salomon. However, it was actually designed by Edmond Moyet and the Amilcar CC and the 5HP
were presented together for the first time at the Paris Motor Show in October 1921.
The commercial name of the new car is "5 HP" and its fiscal power 5 CV.
Its administrative name will be in the logical order of Citroën: the Type C...5HP
Notes :

* : Salomon and Moyet used to work together at Le Zebre before the war .

**: Moyet was one of the founders of Amilcar with Lamy, Akar and Morel

Rare rear view of a 5hp torpedo 2 seater late 1922 or early 1923

P 5_________________________________________________________________________________

1922/23. Type C.2 short chassis fitted to 5 HP Type C cars

5HP or 5 CV?
These are the commercial names of the car (as there will later be the names 7,9,11, 22, 15 for the Traction avant,
then DS, ID, GS, CX, XM, C5, etc.) which encompass under a generic name, all the models in the series whatever
the bodywork (Saloon, Coupé, Cabriolet, Estate, etc.) or the different engines (petrol or diesel, 1.6 1, 2.0 1, GTI,
HDI, etc.).
The 5 HP designation appears on all chassis plates with the word " chevaux". It is also found on all catalogues, order
forms, factory documents, etc., until the end of 1925. It is the generic name of the series as there is in parallel the
10 HP series (which, for the record, is only 8 for the Type A and 9 for the B2, B10 and B12!)
The name 5 HP appears on all the catalogues and documents of the factory in December 1925 when the method of
calculating the power of the engines changes. Horse Power is not calculated like " chevaux" and the whole French
car industry will have to adopt the “ chevaux “ system. The same will be true for the models of the 10 HP range.
In spite of this major modification of the regulations, the chassis plates will keep until 1926 the mention... 5 HP
About the terms used...
For a long time now, in many books and articles about the Citroën brand, there has been a lack of clarity about the
designations of the 5HP.
We often see the names or symbols Type C, C.2 or C3 and it is very difficult for a non-initiated person to know
precisely what they correspond to for the Citroën brand in the 1920s.
To find out, it is not as simple as it seems. It must be said that between the symbols of the chassis, those of the
bodywork, and the designation symbols for the Service des Mines,( Type approval body ) a confusion can easily be
made because the same word is always used : “ Type So-and-So” to designate either the car or the chassis...
Type C and Type C3
These are the administrative names of the cars marketed. They can only be found on the minutes of the “Mines”
type approval which are delivered when the car is sold to the first owner. These reports are used to issue the
first registration document. These names are never found on advertising catalogues, order forms or in press
advertisements.
The 5 HP Type C
On the “PV des Mines”, reference AC. 62 of 21 November 1921, the vehicle approved is n° 9, equipped with engine
n° 9. This vehicle is given the name Type C.
It is indeed this designation that is found on the chassis plates of the vehicles that are put into production from
March 1922.
The Type C designation corresponds to the 5 HP cars equipped with the Type C.2 short chassis with a wheelbase of
2.25m, produced from March 1922 to about September 1923.

The 5 HP Type C3
In 1923 the “PV des Mines” of the Type C is modified by extension into Type C 3 without a new homologation and is
referenced as AC. 65. The date mentioned is still 29 November 1921, but with some modifications: the weight goes
from 518 to 580 kg and the diameter of the wheels from 650 to 700 mm.
On 26 October 1925, a new presentation to the “Mines” took place. The vehicle approved was No. 68 104, equipped
with engine No. A 72 193. The reference AC. 65 of the PV is maintained.
This presentation of the Type C3 car corresponded to the date of the adoption of the new method of calculating
engine power at the end of 1925. Indeed, the obligation to to calculate engine power in “ chevaux “ (CV) instead of
horsepower (HP), risked changing the tax category of the car. For this reason alone, the factory was forced to rehomologate the car!
The Type C3 was retained as the administrative name. It was no longer an extension of the type but a new car.
It was no longer called 5 HP but 5 CV. However, it remained technically identical to the previous models.
The name Type C3 thus corresponds to the 5 HP and 5 CV cars equipped with the Type C3 long chassis with a
wheelbase of 2.35 m produced from about September 1923 until the end of production in 1926.

La 5 HP Type C with châssis Type C.2 (march 1922 -september 1923)
The industrialization of the production of the 5 HP took place during the winter of 1921-1922 and the first production
cars were assembled and marketed in March.
The Type C was equipped with a 2.25 m wheelbase chassis with side rails ending at the rear where the elliptical
springs are attached.
This chassis has the reference symbol in the spare parts catalogues: Type C.2 with a dot between the C and the 2,
which differentiates it from the commercial name Type C.
At the beginning, only 2-seater Torpedos were produced. On the first 500 the windscreen is slightly wider and the
attachment of the windscreen pillars to the canopy is inclined at 45°. From then on , they were fixed straight until
the end of the series.
After only six months of production, in September 1922, more profound changes were made:
The bonnet, which initially had 3 slots, now had 16 slots for improved engine cooling.
The coil and distributor ignition is replaced by a high voltage magneto ignition,* which requires
modifications to the timing case, camshaft and ignition control gears, dynamo and cranking system.
- The steering system is fitted with a modified control rod/coupling rod assembly.
Note * : following reliability issues

Section of the engine/gearbox assembly (magneto ignition)

At the end of 1922, a new body was announced: the 2-seater Cabriolet which will be marketed regularly around May
1923.
This new bodywork, more elaborate and with a richer finish, made it possible to drive the car with the top down or
fully closed with a single operation of the hood, which was not possible with the other car.
This is not the case with the 2-seater Torpedo, for which it is necessary to add, in bad weather, impractical
removable side curtains with a random waterproofness.
The Type C.2 chassis did not evolve until September 1923 when the new Type C.3 chassis was introduced.
Main features 5 HP Type C
Chassis :

The

-

Wheelbase: 2.25m, track 1.18m.
Length 3.20 m, width 1.40 m, height 1.55 m.
Front and rear suspension by simple elliptical springs, no shock absorbers.
Rigid front and rear axles.
Irreversible steering with screw and sector,
Weight 543 kg.
Maximum speed 60 km/h.

Bodywork :
- 2-seat torpedo (the only body available from March 1922 to March 1923).
- 2-seat convertible (from March 1923).
Features:
- 3-slot bonnet and radiator welded into the radiator grille until approx.September 1922, then 16-slot bonnet and
radiator in the radiator grille with separate radiator core.
- Spare wheel on the side opposite the door (left or right depending on driving on all models).
-700 x 80mm high pressure beaded tyres and 100
mm (distance between rims according to diameter)
P6_________________________________________________________________________________

Type C Cabriolet from 1923 with custom 2-tone paint. This car was retrofitted with 715 x115 wheels and tyres.
Mechanicals :
- 856 cm (55 x 90 mm) in-line 4-cylinder engine, 11 hp real at 2,100 rpmwithout water pump (circulation by
thermo-siphon), no fan.
- Ignition by distributor (battery 6 volts 45 A/h) then by magneto on 1923 models.
- Side valves and Solex horizontal carburettor
- 3-speed non-synchronised gearbox.
- Mechanical brakes: secondary foot brake acting on a drum on gearbox and main hand brake acting on the drums
of the rear wheels on the 1924/1925 models; no front brakes.
- Banjo type rear axle, incorporating a herringbone cut bevel gear.

DEMYSTIFICATION (Type C2 car with a short reinforced chassis )
Many books on Citroën mention, wrongly, the marketing for a few months of a 5 HP Type C2 car with a short
reinforced chassis of 2.25 m wheelbase.
If this chassis did exist and at least some of them were made (we have seen pictures of this short reinforced
chassis in catalogues), it was never put in regular production and no car equipped with this chassis was ever built.
and no car equipped with this chassis has been presented to the Mines, and consequently marketed.
The 5 HP Type C2 car (second chronological extension of the type) has therefore no legal existence.
The name Type C2 could however be the one intended for the car equipped with the reinforced 2.25m wheelbase
chassis if it had been marketed, which seems rational as the car that replaced the Type C would be the 5 HP Type
C3. No such chassis is known today out of the more than 1,000 5 HPs still in existence

P7 ________________________________________________________________________________

Type C Torpedo 2-seater from 1923 with all-weather equipment

Chassis Type C.3 from March 1924 to end of production, with 715 x 115 tyres
The 5 HP Type C3 with Type C.3 chassis, September 1923 to July 1926
The Type C.2 chassis, sufficient for a 2-seater Torpedo Cabriolet, proved too weak to support the new 3-seater
Torpedo and Delivery Car bodies planned for the 1924 model year.
Initially, the factory planned to strengthen it by fitting it without increasing the wheelbase. This modification gave
rise to the study of the Type C.2 chassis, a reinforced chassis with a wheelbase of 2.25 m that was never marketed
(see boxed text 'de mystification').
In order to gain in available space, volume and load, the need to lengthen and reinforce the chassis was obvious.
For the sake of standardisation and, simplicitly, cost price, the factory decided to fit the entire 5 HP 1924 range with
this new chassis. The Torpedo and Cabriolet 2-seater coaches were kept and only underwent the modifications
necessary to adapt them to the new chassis.
The presentation of the two new models and the reworked old models took place at the Paris Motor Show in October
1923.
Main characteristics of the 5 HP Type C3:
Chassis :
-Wheelbase 2.35 m, track 1.18 m.
-Length 3.30 m, width 1.40 m, height 1.55 m.
-Front and rear suspension with single elliptical springs. Modified front and rear leaf spring attachments to the
chassis. No shock absorbers at the front, friction dampers at the rear only on Cabriolet models from October 1924.
-Rigid front and rear axles.
-Irreversible screw and sector steering box .
-Weight 590 kg. Maximum speed 60 km/h.

Type C3 Torpedo 2-seater from 1924 or 1925
P8_________________________________________________________________________________

Very relaxed pose for these two friends next to a 5HP Type C3 Cabriolet 2-seater of mid-24 or 25 registered in
the Seine in 1930.
This car has a lot of accessories: fender lights, canopy vents, additional central headlight, external fuel level
indicator.

Type C3 125 kg delivery car for the Hanoi postal service in French Indochina
Bodyworks :
- Torpedo 2-seater (discontinued in October),
- 125 kg payload delivery vehicle (discontinued in October 1925).
- 3-seater Torpedo (discontinued in October 1924)
- Torpedo 3-seater cloverleaf (replaced the Torpedo 3-seater offset in October 1924)
2-seat convertible (retained with the 'cloverleaf' in the catalogue until production ended in July 1926).
Features:
-16-slot engine bonnet.
-Spare wheel on the side opposite the door (left or right depending on the driving position) on the 2-seater Torpedo,
the Véhicule de Livraison the Torpedo 2-seater, the Delivery Vehicle, the Cabriolet, the Torpedo 3-seater staggered
and, at the rear on the Torpedo 3-seater - cloverleaf.
-700 x 80mm high pressure beaded edge tyres and 100mm narrow gauge wheels
(distance between rims according to diameter) then, in March 1924, Michelin beaded tyres type
Comfort tyres, size 715x115 with 100 mm or 130 mm wheel gauge with central reinforcement.
- Flat wings for the 1924 and 1925 vintages, then round wings in the style of the B 10 for the 1926 model year.
P 9 _______________________________________________________________________________

A roadside stop for this couple in their 1924 Type C3 Torpedo 3-seater offset, registered in the Poitiers district
before 1928

Mechanicals :
- 856 cm (55 x 90 mm) in-line 4-cylinder engine, 11 hp real at 2,100 rpm
without water pump (thermosiphon circulation) with fan, initially only on the Cabriolet models and later on all
models from chassis no. 58 517 onwards.
-Magneto ignition.
-Battery 6 volts 45 A/h.
-Side valves and horizontal Solex carburettor.
- Non-synchronised 3-speed gearbox.
- Brakes with mechanical controls: secondary foot brake acting on a drum at the gearbox
and main hand brake acting on the rear wheel drums on 1924/1925 models. No front brakes.
-On the last 1926 models: main foot brake with mixed mechanical control acting simultaneously on the rear brakes
and the gearbox output brake.
- Banjo type rear axle, adopting a 10 cm longer reaction tube and, in October 1924 a more reliable and quieter
Gleason helical bevel gear.**
** Note :According to Willy Schafroth an helical-cut, easier to produce, and more robust became available, as replacement
parts,only in 1928 when the “ herringbone “ machines were discarded
Figures
In the following table, the final figures for the marketing of the 5 HP with details of the production of each body.
There are two surprising Conduite Intérieure and a Normande. These are either prototype bodies or special
constructions made by the factory. These bodies have never appeared in a catalogue and nothing is known about
their use.

P 10________________________________________________________________________________

The vicar takes his young parishioners for a ride in his Type C3 Torpedo 3-seater in 1926 cloverleaf

P 11 & 12________________________________________________________________________

1924 a 2-seater Torpedo used as a liaison vehicle for the Compagnie de Taxis Citroen

After a slow start, the 5HP became a success from the end of 1923. For two and a half years it was a
best seller, but in 1926, its cost price being too high, it was sacrificed to the B14, with which Citroen
returned to the single model.

The manufacture of the 5HP
The first 5 HP were manufactured in the factories on the Quai de Javel.
In 1922, a space problem arose due to the need to build two types of cars in parallel with increasingly diverse
bodywork
In addition to this, the production rate increased, the spare parts department was enlarged for old cars and tracked
cars were manufactured.
These problems inevitably lead to an expansion of the factory. The production of 5 HP cars was therefore
transferred to Levallois in 1922 to the former Clément-Bayard factory. These factories, initially rented (the purchase
was not made until 1929), were refurbished in a few months and the 5 HP was regularly manufactured there until
April 1926.
Since 1923, the 5 and 10 HP gearboxes are machined and assembled in the new Saint-Charles factory located in the
15th arrondissement, near Javel.

P 13_______________________________________________________________________________

In a 2-seater Torpedo from 1923, the driver and her passenger are very elegantes... This brings us back to the
faded notion that owning a car in the 1920s was still a luxury unaffordable for the vast majority of people.

Serial numbers
Among the documents that made it possible to draw up the following table,some give precise annual figures, others
round up to the nearest hundred. Fortunately, a certain consistency links them all. They can therefore be used with
confidence.
The 1919/1928 General Spare Parts Catalogue lists the last car as No. 80,000.
This figure is slightly higher than the reality.
A 5 HP with the highest known serial number 78,813 has been identified.
However, if we add this number to the 4,232 cars sold on credit, we obtain a figure higher than the number of cars
sold: 80,759.
This anomaly is due to the fact that there are gaps in the numbers recorded on the logs. This is due to the fact that
some models are no longer being manufactured. This kind of anomaly is found several times on the10 HP logs. As
the 5 HP logs no longer exist, it is easy to assume that the same was true.
Orders placed before 4 March, the date of the decision to stop production of the 5 HP, were honoured.
Production continued until about the end of June 1926 and deliveries until August
To determine the last serial number empirically, we can use the largest known serial r among the 700 cars
recorded, i.e. N° 78 813 (there are 15 cars cars between N° 76 557 and 78 813).
This number has been rounded up to the nearest 100, i.e. 78,900, assuming that 78,813 is not the number of the
last car produced.
The margin of error in this case would be 1 per thousand on the total figure (+ 87 cars)
The chassis plates contain only the letter "C" for the "Type" designation.
It is never specified whether it is a Type "C" or Type "C3" car or a "Type C.2" or "Type C.3" chassis (see the article
in Citropolis nº 77 pages 20 to 28).
Chassis serial numbers are assigned chronologically, one after the other without distinction of the type of chassis or
the body model,

Chronology of the different models
In the previous article on the 5 HP, we have seen the different 5 HP models and their evolutions. The table below
summarises these evolutions.
- A first advertisement was made in several newspapers at the end of November 1921.
Thereafter, the 5 HP is only mentioned in the press in March 1922.
- The 2-seater Torpedo is the only model in the 1922 programme. It went into production in March 1922 with 32
cars built, then 228 in April to reach 756 in December. Regular production was discontinued in the spring of 1925.
- The Cabriolet was advertised in Tariff No. 1 on 4 October 1922 and the first advertisements appeared in the press
in December 1922.
P 14_______________________________________________________________________________
Its production started in December 1922 (6 cars) and it was only marketed in March 1923. (It remained in
production until the series was discontinued in spring 1926.
- The Delivery Car, announced in October 1923, appears in the tariff n° 1 of 1" October 1923. Production began in
September 1923 (2 cars). Production was discontinued in 1925.
-The Torpedo 3-seater with folding seat, announced in October 1923 as a new model for 1924, appears in price list
no. 1 of 1 October 1923. Production started in October 1923 (43 cars) and was discontinued around October 1924.
- The Torpedo 3-seater cloverleaf, announced in October 1924, appears in tariff no. 2 of 15 December 1924. It
remained in production until the series was discontinued in spring 1926.

Chronology of the different models and modifications
1921
1922

oct

Presentation of the prototype at the Paris Motor Show

nov

Presentation of the Type "C" to the mines on 21/11

mars

Series production begins

mai

The first cars are marketed (2-seater torpedo only))

sept/ oct

Appearance of the 16-slot bonnet
Replacement of the coil and distributor igniter by a magneto

1923

1924

1925

dec

Announcement of the cabriolet and start of production

mars

Convertible goes on sale

oct

New long chassis. The 3-seater torpedo with folding seat and the delivery vehicle are introduced.
The car becomes the Type "C" 3 long-chassis "Type C.3" with a wheelbase of 2.35m.C.3". de 2,35m
d'empatte

mars

Introduction of Michelin 715x115 "Comfort" tyres across the range

sept/ oct

Change in the size of the rear axle sprockets. The helicoidal cut replaces the "chevrons"

oct

Introduction of the 3-seater torpedo in "cloverleaf"

jan

Presentation to the mines of the Type "C" 4 with brakes before 16/01 (this model will never be marketed)

avr/ mai

Withdrawal of the 2-seater torpedo from production

mai/juin

Withdrawal from production of the delivery car

oct

Presentation to the mines of the Type "C" 3 on 26/10 (new car always Type "C" 3)
New round fenders introduced throughout the range

1926

fev/mars

Introduction of new combined braking system (box brakes/rear wheel brakes)

mars

Decision to stop production of the model on 04/03

juin

End of production of the 5HP

aout

End of delivery of the last cars

Popular in the 1920s and 1930s, flower corsos and carnivals were an opportunity to showcase the decorative skills
of car owners, as well as to pose as a group, as few people had a camera.

Voiture de livraison publicitaire pour une maison de confection et tissus, le jour du mardi-gras
Tastes and colours
The colours of the bodywork evolved during the career of the 5 HP. The best known of these is yellow, which
unfortunately, when restored, often does not match the body type or the date of the car's release. This colour
should not be applied to just any car.
It should indeed be reserved for the 2-seater Torpedo with short chassis and the very first Cabriolet models with
short chassis.
It should never be found on a 3-seater Torpedo, let alone on a cloverleaf or a delivery car.or a Delivery Car.
Furthermore, the yellow used on the first 5 HP models is not a "lemon yellow",but rather a less garish grapefruit
yellow.

P 15____________________________________________________________________________________

This carnival photo was taken in the 1950's. The status of the 5 HP had changed from luxury object to object of
derision.
Note that the rear of the body of this Cabriolet has been modified and has a shape in the style of the early 1930s.
Only the outer sheet metal part of the body and the bonnet are painted in the different colours offered in the
catalogues.
The inner sheet metal part of the body, including the woodwork, is painted satin black, as is the interior and exterior
of the canopy.
The tank supports, tank and engine protection plates are also painted satin black.
The fenders, headlight bowls, mud flaps, front number plate support plate are "stove-enamelled black".
The running boards are black, but the ribs are polished at the top.
The following tables are based on original Citroën price lists and documents and are only an extract of what has
been published.
Type C Torpedo 2-seater
Colour yellow
Cabriolet 2-seater
Colour yellow
Extract of the tariff N°1 of October 04, 1922 (season 1923) no reference AC.
Type C Type C 2-seater Torpedo
Colour yellow
Cabriolet 2 seats
Colour Yellow or havana colour
Extract from tariff N°4 of 23 March 1923 (1923 season) Reference AC.79.
These indications are very precious: yellow for the 2-seater torpedo and yellow or havana for the cabriolet.
So, contrary to what has always been claimed, the cabriolet was indeed painted yellow like the torpedo, at least at the
beginning, since in the price list below this colour is no longer offered.
Type C3 Torpedo 2-seater
Colour gun blue, havana, excelsior red
Cabriolet 2-seater
Colour gun blue, havana, excelsior red
Torpedo 3-seater
Colour gun blue, havana, excelsior red
These three models are delivered with matching upholstery for the havana and excelsior red, black upholstery for the
blue
Extract from tariff N°1 of 01 October 1923 (1924 season) Reference AC.122
Type C3 Torpedo 2 seats
Colour gun blue, havana, excelsior red
2-seater convertible
Colour gun blue, havana, excelsior red
Torpedo 3 seats offset
Colour gun blue, havana, excelsior red
These three models are delivered with matching upholstery for the havana and excelsior red, black upholstery for the
blue
Type C3 Delivery car
Havana colour
Extract from tariff N°2 of 20 June 1924 (1924 season) No AC reference.
Type C3 Torpedo 2-seater
Colour bleu canon, havane, rouge excelsior
Cabriolet 2 seats
Colour gun blue, havana, excelsior red
Torpedo 3 seats in cloverleaf
Colour gun blue, havana, excelsior red
Extract from the tariff N°2 of 15 December 1924 (1925 season) Reference AC. 170.
Type C3 Torpedo 3 seats in cloverleaf
Colour not mentioned
Cabriolet 2 seats
Colours not mentioned
Extract from the general tariff N°1 of 1st August 1925 (1925 season) Reference AC. 214

P 16______________________________________________________________________________________

The pride of this 1924/25 Cabriolet owner can be seen in the care he takes in examining his car.
The two ladies and the child pose for the photo. Their attitudes are different depending on the position they
occupy. The lady at the wheel is pretending to drive, while her passenger and the child are less concerned and
adopt more relaxed attitudes

A classic conversion of an obsolete car: the transformation into a small utility vehicle.
The 1923 Torpedo 2-seater was given a handmade Normande body.

Advertising
André Citroën was the forerunner in Europe of what was then called "reclame ".
He used the media to promote the merits of his cars. Radio, or rather the TSF, was practically non-existent and
cinema was still in its infancy.
It was therefore in the press that most of the information was concentrated.
As early as January 1919, he published advertisements for his first Type A model in several newspapers, while no
car had yet left the Javel assembly lines. This was, let's face it, quite risky because apart from his successful
experience as manager at Mors since 1908 and his contribution to the war effort, he is unknown to the general
public as a car manufacturer. He must have great confidence in the quality of the cars he wanted to make to dare
such a gamble... A bet that he would win, and that is thhe mark of the advertising genius is already there.
His greatest media coup was the illumination of the Eiffel Tower in July 1925 for the Decorative Arts show , but
before that, he used more conventional means to promote the merits of the 5 HP.
From the 1921 Motor Show onwards, advertisements, each one more beautiful than the last, regularly appeared in
all the written media to match the manufacturer's ambitions.
Another great idea of André Citroen is the creation of advertising caravans. From January 1924 onwards, they crisscrossed France to distribute documentation and allow people to try out his cars.
Instead of making the general public come to him to promote his cars, André Citroën went out to meet them by
presenting almost all the vehicles in the 5 and 10 CV ranges in their various body styles.
At the beginning of 1924, in order to cover the whole of France, three caravans travelled simultaneously. Each day
they exhibited in one or two different towns and did not fail to cause a sensation in the towns they passed through
and visited...
Around May-June 1924, Algeria and Tunisia also experienced the magic of the show brought by the caravan (about
fifteen cars) to such an extent that nearly one hundred cars were sold in the Oran sector and many orders were
taken by the dealers. Other countries such as Morocco, Belgium, Denmark, Holland, Italy, etc. followed.

Une caravane Citroën s'arrêtant à Marmande en janvier 1924.
A Citroen caravan stopping at Marmande in January 1924.

P17 ______________________________________________________________________________

“Monsieur le Curé” left the steering wheel to one of his parish protégés for the time of the photo...
The car is a Torpedo 2-seater plus folding seat from 1924.

A 3-seater Torpedo “ cloverleaf” from late 1925 or 1926.
Since October 1925, the so-called "round" wings have replaced the so-called "flat" wings.
The car is obviously new or recent.
Note the position of the rear light outside the number plate and the canopy lights, the accessory level indicator
and the small flag with MMF written on it.

Torpedo 3-seater in cloverleaf. It has its own side curtains which come as standard with the car.
Unfortunately, these are missing on most surviving cars due to the extreme fragility of the soft windows.
The number plate has been replaced and moved to the left wing.

Reconversion of a re-bodied 5 HP into a small 2-door saloon.
One can doubt the aestheticism of the bodywork design, but in those difficult post-war times, practicality was
more important than pleasure.
The front wings are probably from a pre-war car and the angular body is made of wood and plywood.

Catalogue 5HP Delivery Car
P 18_________________________________________________________________________________

The abrupt end of a huge popular success
On 4 March 1926, André Citroën decided to stop production of the 5 HP to prepare for the birth of the B14 and
return to the single model. He took this decision alone despite the contrary opinion of all his colleagues and agents,
as the 5 HP was still selling very well.
In 1924 and 1925, nearly two thirds of the total production was sold, that is to say nearly 55,000 cars.
Despite these excellent results, which would have pleased many other manufacturers, he did not give up.
For him, the small car has had its day, at least under this concept. He judged that he could not make money with
this model and decided to stop manufacturing it. Industrially he was right, financially too. Commercially, the gamble
was very daring and he was the only one to believe in it and also the only one not to make a mistake.
He had enormous difficulties in convincing his colleagues and the network of agents, but they all followed him and
did not complain about it.
The main reason that pushed him to take this important and difficult decision is that the production of the "AllSteel" bodies produced since 1924 with the B 10 and then, in 1925 with the B 12, required enormous and costly
technical means. Andre Citroen expected to produce 300,000 cars a year and, by stopping the production of the 5
HP, he was handicapping the present in order to prepare for the future. He knows that the day he achieves the
production rates he dreams of, the cost prices will drop significantly and he will then be the master of the market.

Type C 4 aborted... and B 14!
A study for the manufacture of a new 5 HP All-Steel car known as the Type C4 was made in 1924 and presented to
the Mines on 16 January 1925. Almost nothing is known about this car, except that it would have been a scaled
down B 14. The manufacturing costs were so high that they were close to the cost price of a 10 HP car and in order
not to fall into the same trap as the 5 HP, the decision was finally taken to abandon the project.
It was not until 1949 and the 2 CV that a replacement for the 5 HP was found. By then, techniques and industrial
means had changed and it was finally possible to manufacture even cheaper cars and offer several ranges.
In 1927 and 1928, the B 14, which succeeded the 10 HP Type B 12, was also a great commercial and industrial
success.

Javel plant. Engine test line. These are short Type C 2 chassis. The assembly of the 5 HP will be transferred to
Levallois in 1923, following Citroën's purchase of the former Adolphe Clément factories.

.

Usine de Javel en 1922 : ligne d'assemblage des châssis. Au premier plan, des châssis courts Type C 2.
Javel factory in 1922: chassis assembly line. In the foreground, short Type C 2 chassis.

A Usine de Javel : étuves de séchage des caisses.
Javel factory: drying ovens for bodywoirks.

Advertising for the 5HP and 10 HP Caddy at Christmas time
One of the rare advertisements of the period with three drawings by Pierre Louys

The End


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