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CITROEN 10HP
History, Evolution, Passenger cars and Commercial vehicles
By Bernard LAURENT

INTRODUCTION
Before 1914, there were many car manufacturers and they were operating in workshops unsuited to mass production.
‘Mass production’, it must be emphasised, was still an abstract concept at the beginning of the twentieth century. In
1919, the heroic age of the automobile was still very near and " the automobile industry “itself had not yet been born in
Europe. The industrial and rational construction of automobiles was not yet the norm and only Ford in the United States
had created it and succeeded.
The car adventure shaped by the hand of André Citroën could only be different from that of other manufacturers. It was
in the last phase of his industrial adventure that he would shine the brightest. Initially completely unknown to the general
public as a manufacturer, he succeeded to become number one in Europe in the early 1920s. In order to achieve this
result, he had a long history as a captain of industry. The greatest of all his qualities was that he was an outstanding
organizer and an enlightened visionary.
At the end of the First World War, the war efforts had completely disorganised the car industry. Everything had to be
redone. André Citroën understood before anyone else that the future laid with the bold and that only mass production
would rebuild the National Industry". To this end, he initiated a sensational programme for the time: to build in large
series a unique model, entirely equipped with five tyres, electric lighting, and electric start. This concept was
revolutionary in 1919, because at that time no manufacturer delivered a car that was ready to drive straight out of the
factory. It took two years to achieve the objective, but the daring gamble succeeded and the name of André Citroën
became the best-known French name in the world.
Before tackling the technical study of the "Citroën 10HP", this book will provide a small introduction to André Citroën's
beginnings in the industry. First, engineering with manufacture of gears, then the automobile industry with the company
“Usines Mors”, of which he became president, and then war production. He subsequently returned to the car industry but,
this time, the vehicles he manufactured would bear his name.
Whilst writing this book, I had many difficulties before me because, despite the size of the "Usines Citroën", there is very
little documentation of the factory. Indeed, a very large part of the archives from the period 1918-1926 was destroyed
when the Seine flooded at “Javel”and during the bombing of Levallois during the Second World War. To this day, no
records have been found of the beginning of 1922 to July 1926. Only a few rare photographic and technical documents
remain from the archives of the “Javel”factory, which I had the privilege of accessing, in particular the register of the
commercial department, which has recently been found.
This register is an addition to the current files and was, above all, the production ledger. It was a list, month by month,
chassis by chassis of all the vehicles produced and marketed by the factory (prototypes excluded). It made it possible to
calculate the exact number of each type of chassis and bodywork, which I had not been able to do with such precision in
the first book, the “Citroën 5HP “, and above all to be able to affirm the particularities of special technical assemblies on
certain vehicles such as taxis in particular. It confirms the existence of vehicles of which we had heard without ever
having found trace of them. Unfortunately, it provides almost nothing on their technicalities but at least it gives them a
civil status and removes the doubt on their manufacture even if no photo exists.
Citroën 10HP enthusiasts will find in this book technical and photographic documentation never before assembled in a
single document, including more than two thirds of previously unpublished documents. They will be able to have a very
precise idea of what their 10HP was like and discover the industrial power that the Citroën factories represented in the
1920s.
Their knowledge can also be- supplemented by reading the book I have published on the "Citroën 5HP" (1922-1926).
Bernard LAURENT

6

■ In front of Grignan castle

7

CONTENTS :
CHAPTER 1: CITROËN BEFORE 1918
André Citroën, the man

:
p10

Gears........

p14

Mors......

p18

The war effort.

p23

CHAPTER 2: PROTOTYPES, SHOWS AND EXHIBITIONS
The prototypes.........

p33

The 10 HP at the Paris Salons from 1919 to 1924.......

p37

1925: Exhibition in Paris and shows in London and Brussels.

p43

CHAPTER 3: THE DIFFERENT 10HP
Legal units and abbreviations ......

p44

Designation and naming of car types
Type A...........

p45
p45

Type B5.......

p48

Type B2.........

p49

Type B9........

p50

Type B10..........

p52

Type B2 1000 kg..

p52

Type B12..........

p54

CHAPTER 4: PRODUCTION VEHICLES
Type A model year 1919 and 1920

p58

Type A model year 1921...........

p61

B2 model year 1922..........

p62

B2 model year 1923........

p65

B2 model year 1924........

p74

B2 and B10 “Tout Acier” " vintage 1925 ...

p78

B12 vintage 1926.........

p84

B5 vintage 1921-1922

p89

Agricultural tractor 10HP.........

p92

CHAPTER 5: TAXIS
The origin of the " Taxis-Citroën “ (in French)

p94

The Taxi-Citroën Type A with Type II chassis

p96

The Taxi-Citroën B5 Type Scotland Yard....

p98

The Taxi-Citroën B2 with Type B2 chassis......

p99

The Taxi-Citroën B2 with Type VI (or Type 6) chassis ......

p100

The Taxi-Citroën B12 with B12 chassis.

p101

CHAPTER 6: CHASSIS AND MECHANICAL PARTS
Chassis Type A.........

p102

Chassis Type B2........

p104

Chassis Type B10........

p105

Chassis Type B12........

p106

Engine Type A and B5

p107

Engine Type B2 & B10.

p108

Engine Type B12.

p109

Gearbox and clutches

p112

Carburettors.........

p113

8

Electrical system and ignition.

114

Front axles.....

p115

Steering box

p116

Brakes .....

p117

Rear axle.

p119

Suspension.

p121

CHAPTER 7: ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT, PERIOD ACCESSORIES,
IMPROVEMENTS
Original equipment

p123

Accessories and bodywork equipment

p128

Replacement headlights

p133

Adaptable mechanical parts...
Front and rear braking systems and suspension improvements

p135

Special wheels.......

p139

Special tools...

p140

Driving assistance accessories

p141

Performance enhancing accessories....

p145

Engine conversions and improvements....

p147

CHAPTER 8: STANDARD FINISHES
Body, accessory and chassis painting .....

p151

Body colours.......

p152

CHAPTER 9: 10HP MANUFACTURING
The manufacture of the 10HP.

p154

CHAPTER 10: CHRONOLOGY AND IDENTIFICATION OF MODELS
Release dates of various models...

p162

Production figures, serial numbers......

p164

Body code and production figures per model

p166

Chronology of different models and modifications

p167

Tariff

p169

CHAPTER 11: SALES
Advertising.....

p170

Catalogues....

p175

Other advertising media...

p178

Wall advertising......

p179

The Eiffel Tower...........

p183

Citroën Toys.

p184

Sales

p186

Citroën caravans.......

p190

CHAPTER 12: 10HP IN THE WORLD
Great Britain.....

p194

Spain.

p197

Japan.....

p199

Australia...

p200

Maghreb

p201

Other countries.

p202

CHAPTER 13: THE 10HP'S SPORTING CAREER
Sporting events...

p204

CHAPTER 14: PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTION
Photo gallery........

p212

9

CHAPTER 1

CITROEN BEFORE 1918

ANDRÉ CITROËN, THE MAN
André Citroën was born on 5 February 1878 in Paris. He was the son of Masza Amalia Kleinmann of Polish
origin and Lévie Citroën from a Dutch family known in the diamond business, and settled in Paris. He was the
last in a line of five children. The oldest was Jeanne, followed by Hugues, Fernande and Bernard.
■ André Citroën in 1900.

Orphaned by his father at the age of six, he excelled at school, first at the Lycée Condorcet and then at Louis Le Grand.
He was fascinated by the novels of Jules Verne and fascinated by the Eiffel Tower, which he saw growing up. He thought
that technical progress would bring happiness to mankind. Therefore, he chose to take up a technical career.

In 1898, he passed the entrance exam to the École polytechnical school, ranking 62nd out of 201 candidates admitted,
with good marks (16/20) in the three mathematics, chemistry, and German (then a compulsory language). In physical
ability, not having athletic body, he received his lowest mark with 8/20. Thanks to his sense of humour and liveliness of
mind, he quickly acquired a solid popularity among his classmates.
He suffered an emotional shock in his first year at school when his mother died at age of 46, on 25 May 1899. He was
ranked 159th that year. Continuing his education without too much effort, he was already thinking about what he would
do after school. His ambition was not to best in his class but to acquire the knowledge necessary for the man of action he
wanted to become.

The period 1900/1914
A great affection united Jeanne with her youngest brother and she sensed from their correspondence that
André had not coped well with the death of their mother.
During the Easter holidays of 1900, his elder sister invited him to join her for eight days in Warsaw, where she had
married a rich banker, Bronislas Goldefer. During this holiday in Poland, with his brother-in-law, he discovered a gearcutting process for herringbone-shaped gear. His keen mind grasped the potential of such an idea and he bought the
licence.
He graduated from Polytechnique on 1 August 1900 with a low ranking of 162 out of 192 and joined, with the rank of
second lieutenant, the “École d’Application d’ Artillerie “, an engineering school in Fontainebleau. He was then posted to
the 31st artillery regiment in Le Mans. Released from his military obligations in 1902, André Citroën worked at Jacques
Hinstin in Corbeil.

10

CHAPTER 1

CITROEN BEFORE 1918

■ André Citroën at the wheel of his Mors. © ACC
In 1904, Jacques Hinstin closed his factory and advised Citroen to offer his gear cutting patent to the car manufacturer
Mors, who declined the offer. He then set up his own workshop in 1905. Ironically, Mors went into difficulty in 1908.André
Citroën, who was one of the shareholders, took over the reins and turned the company around, increasing production
fourfold in five years.
In parallel with the industrial life from 1905 onwards, André Citroën led the life of a playboy. He shared a boys' flat with
his brother Bernard at 25 rue d'Aumale and went out a lot. He often went to the “Opéra-Comique”, and to the theatre
and frequented the fashionable club “Le Sans souci” that his brother Bernard had opened. It was the first "thé dansant”
(tea dance) in Paris. He also frequented “Maxim’s” where “L’Omnibus” became his headquarters. On 27 May 1914, he
married the love of his life, Georgina Bingen, daughter of an Italian banker. They had four children.
On 28 June 1914, in Sarajevo, the heir to the Austrian-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was shot by a
Serbian nationalist. This event ignited the powder keg that Europe had become. A month later, on 28 July, AustriaHungary declared war on Serbia. On 1 August, it was Germany's turn to declare war on Russia and on 3 August on
France. All the major European nations entered the conflict with the idea that it would be short. The war lasted four years
and resulted in 8 million deaths. The "Belle Époque" came to an end. A world disappeared.

The period 1914-1918
Like his two brothers, André Citroën was mobilised to the front at the start of hostilities, in the artillery with
the rank of captain.
He was assigned to the 2nd heavy artillery regiment of the 4th army. He quickly noticed the shortage of ammunition.
During a leave, he met General Baquet, director of artillery at the Ministry of War, and proposed to him to quickly
manufacture 10,000 shells per day. This was practically the daily production of all the arsenals in France.
Despite his doubts, General Baquet did not resist André Citroën's powers of persuasion for long and put him on probation
as head of industry in January 1915. His mission was not to manage the Mors or gear factories, but to build and operate
the “Javel” war factory. With an order from the State, he built a factory in a few months, modelled on the principles of
the "Scientific Organisation of Work” by the American Taylor. It was a model of organisation and modernism. The
production of shells quickly reached 10,000 pieces per day, then 20,000, and up to 55,000 in 1918.
1919. Car mass production
With peace restored, André Citroën faced a new challenge: what would he do with his factory on the “Quai de Javel “?
He had already been asking himself this question for two years and had secretly prepared two prototype cars: an 18HP
luxury car and a mid-range 10HP car. He chose to produce the 10HP and, in four months, converted his factory and
founded his …

11

CHAPTER 1

CITROEN BEFORE 1918

■ Georgina and André Citroën at the races in Deauville. © ACC
(He chose to produce the 10HP and, in four months, converted his factory and founded his …) ... own brand. He adapted
Taylor's principles to the production of cars in order to reduce manufacturing costs and also the principle of the "single
model" as done in the United States by Henri Ford, of whom he was an ardent admirer.
After a slow start, the first car to bear the name "CITROËN" came out in June 1919. It was called the "Type A". It was the
first car in Europe to be delivered, "bodied, ready to drive with, five wheels fitted, electric starting and lighting".
With its innovative concept, its lower price than the competition, and the social upheaval it heralded, the “CITROËN 10HP
Type A " ushered in the era of the modern, economical automobile of which it was the archetype. It evolved from 1921
into the "B2", "B10" and then the "B12". However, contrary to André Citroën's original principle, it did not remain alone
for long. From 1922, a new concept of “voiturette “joined it. This was to be the mythical 5HP, whose daily production
would be equal to that of the 10HP. Other models whose names are still remembered followed: “B14", "C4 and C6",
Rosalie, Traction...
From the outset, André Citroën planned to manufacture 100 cars per day, a figure unthinkable in Europe in 1919. It took
him two years to achieve this and he was already planning to reach 1,000 per day thanks to the “Tout Acier” construction
that he launched with the B10 in 1924. This bold gamble put the brand in trouble, but once again he was right and the
future would prove it a few years later.

Conquering the market
Making cars is a great achievement, but they still need to be sold...
André Citroën took advantage of a general need at the end of the war, but that was not enough. His Type A car was a
success and satisfied buyers. The real secret of his success was that he was the first in Europe to understand that the
customer had to be sought out and followed up after his purchase. Therefore, he set up an unprecedented sales
organisation. Very early on, at the “Quai de Javel “, teams of first-rate salesmen created from scratch, under his
direction, a spirit, a doctrine, and sales techniques. In 1919, they waited for the customer and, as soon as he entered the
shop, they worked him, talked to him about mechanics and performance, had him try the car out quickly and closed the
deal. This technique was sufficient when production was low, as it was before 1914.
The public was not used to buying a car in the way André Citroën conceived it; for him, it was not just an object to be
sold but a package including the car and the service. To this end, he invented the concept of the "car trade" and created
the first major distribution and assistance network with 1,400 outlets in France in 1923. He also developed the first spare
parts catalogue (1921), the repair dictionary and the repair catalogue guaranteeing the same price everywhere (1925),
the one-year warranty with the first free service, the standard exchange, and the Citroën Service. A forerunner in
everything, in 1922 he introduced "credit sales" and founded the first consumer credit organisation, which became
SOVAC. In 1922, he also created the first car rental agency…

12

CHAPTER 1

CITROEN BEFORE 1918

(In 1922, he also created the first car rental agency…)…then in 1924, the Compagnie des Taxis Citroën. Finally, he
opened subsidiaries abroad and set up assembly lines in England, Germany, Poland, Italy and Belgium.
The genius of communication
André Citroën was uniquely able to seize opportunities, create events and stir the imagination.
To promote his cars, he used advertising in all its forms. He planted more than 100,000 signposts with the double
chevron all over the country (thus continuing the signposting policy he had started before 1914 with the Mors signposts).
He created the event by spectacular exploits such as, in 1922, when he launched his half-track propelled vehicles in the
crossing of the Sahara, followed in 1924 by the crossing of Africa, from north to south. He repeated the feat in 1931 with
the Yellow Cruise. The media coverage of these resounding events established the reputation of his cars. He organised
other events, such as a visit to the factory by aviator Charles Lindbergh, a series of endurance records and the opening of
the world's largest car shop at “Place de l’Europe” in Paris. André Citroën was also the first to use the press
systematically. It was the most important medium at the time and he made extensive use of it, taking out a full-page
advert in the hundred largest French newspapers from 1928 onwards.
By launching his “caravans” (travelling car shows) on the roads of the world at the beginning of 1924, he went to meet
the buyer by offering him a travelling car show almost at home. He also provided the public with leaflets, brochures, and
catalogues. He was the originator of the first "prospecting file" which made it possible to know potential customers. They
receive circulars, letters, and leaflets at home. His abundance of ideas led him to exploit the manufacture of "Citroën
Toys" which, in addition to selling well, should encourage young children to buy a "real Citroën" later.
There were model cars, exact replicas of the production models, but also boxes of cubes, books, cut-outs, and the famous
Citroënnettes “5HP then C6.
He was the greatest communicator of his time and, of the children he was particularly fond of, he liked to say that their
first words should be “Dad, Mum, and Citroën!".
He was the first to take advantage of the major annual event that was the "Salon de l'Auto”. During the first fifteen years
of the brand, he was undoubtedly the great animator, offering, from 1919 onwards, 50 cars for test drive (later it would
be 100). Each year, there was an attraction such as, in 1922, the writing of his name in the sky in letters of smoke
stretching over five kilometres, or in 1924, the first cutaway car, etc. Advertising was really his hobby. It amused him
and relieved him of his industrial concerns. As a result, he was practically the real head of the department, even if he
brought in the best people in the field. His greatest media coup came in July 1925 with the illumination of the Eiffel Tower
where the name “C.I.T.R.O.Ë.N.” shone in letters of light.
Automobile racing was an area where his opinion was reserved. He considered that it did not bring anything to a
manufacturer of mass-produced cars. He made a few attempts with the Type A Sport and the B2 Caddy, but this was not
followed up. In addition to classic advertising, he even created a jury of songwriters and awarded a prize for the best
song about him. The first prize was obviously a Citroën. A gambler, he was noticed for his spectacular bets at the casino
in Deauville, where he spent most of his holidays in a villa he rented. During his “bancos”, he left the staff a voucher for a
5HP as a tip!
By the early 1930s, André Citroën had achieved most of his dreams as a great industrial conqueror. With his modern
methods of work organisation, his immediate discernment of a good idea, his overflowing imagination, and an intelligence
of anticipation above that of his competitors, he upset the way cars were made and sold. The whirlwind of his industrial
life came to a tragic end. The setbacks in the development of the “Traction Avant “put a strain on his cash flow. Pressured
by a small and impatient supplier, he had to meet his obligations in November 1934. This led him to file for bankruptcy.
He withdrew and handed over all his shares to Michelin, his main creditor. Ill for a long time, he was operated on in
January 1935 for cancer and died on 3 July. He left his contemporaries with the image of a talented, daring and
profoundly humanist man, whose mark will remain engraved in the memory of men.

13

CHAPTER 1

CITROEN BEFORE 1918

GEARS

After completing his military service, André Citroën was hired in 1902 by a friend of his brother's, Jacques
Hinstin, who made parts for steam engines.
André Citroën began manufacturing gears in the workshops of Jacques Hinstin (also the son of a diamond merchant) in
Essonnes, near Corbeil. He created with him the "Société Citroën, Hinstin et Compagnie. The Corbeil-Essonnes workshop
soon proved too small and the company was transferred to Paris, rue Saint-Denis.
In 1904, Jacques Hinstin closed his factories. He advised André Citroën to offer the "Usines d'Automobiles Mors" the use
of the patent on gear cutting machines which he had bought the licence for. Mors was not interested in this offer and in
1905, at the age of 27, André Citroën founded the limited partnership “André Citroën et Cie " with its registered office at
202, rue du Faubourg Saint-Denis.
In 1908, a group of machines capable of cutting gears up to 5 metres in diameter was installed. In 1912, new workshops
with a surface area of 4,800 m² were built at 31 rue de Grenelle, in order to be able to machine wheels up to 9 metres in
diameter and gear trains for rolling mills up to three metres in tooth length. The factory was built on the site of the
former "Établissements Cail" and extended over forty metres wide and one hundred and twenty metres long. The
workshop occupied most of the site and had three large parallel bays equipped with electric overhead cranes, one of 16
metres and two of 10 metres, each 100 metres long. The front part was occupied by the courtyard, the offices and a 200
HP power house. In the large hall, which was mainly used for the manufacture of large gears and the assembly of speed
reducers, there were twelve powerful cutting machines, lathes, boring machines, milling machines and planning
machines, which were used for the machining of large gears

■ Mining winch. ©
■ Citroën double herringbone wheel in five pieces (weight: 10 tons).
■ Citroën cylindrical wheel, with cut chevrons in cast steel
in two pieces (weight 17 tons) © ACC

14

CHAPTER 1

CITROEN BEFORE 1918

■Main hall of the Grenelle factory. On the left, the cutting machines. © ACC

■ Citroën gears for spinning and weaving mills. Transmitted power: 300 HP.
■ Citroën bevel gears for driving an alternator by steam engine.
Transmitted power 120HP (speed 80 & 540 rpm). © ACC

15

CHAPTER 1

CITROEN BEFORE 1918

■ A grease box “Citroën gears ", an object that would certainly please more than one collector today.

André Citroën wanted to ensure that his staff would be stable by providing them with every possible comfort in the new
factory: well-ventilated changing rooms, hot and cold-water sinks, steam heating in winter and sufficient ventilation in
summer. This benevolence towards its staff was, it must be emphasised, very rare at the time.
In 1913, the company was transformed into "Société des Engrenages Citroën”. The capital was increased to 3 million
francs by the entry into the company of Jacques Hinstin and J. Schwob d'Héricourt. The latter was appointed as President
of the SA ( Societe Anonyme ) , assisted by two directors: André Citroën and André Boas. At the end of 1913, the SA
recorded a gross profit of 660,000 francs. That same year, André Citroën and Georges-Marie Haardt founded another
company at 13, “Quai de Javel “ to exploit the SM carburettor patent.

As “Société des Engrenages Citroën” continued to grow, regional agencies were set up in Lille, Nancy, Nantes, Lyon,
Épinal and Rouen. Thanks to this commercial organisation, business in France grew rapidly, and the company became a
supplier to the Ministries of the Navy, the War Department and major government departments, Abroad, an independent
office was created in London in 1906 with its engineers and eight agencies in England, then another in Brussels in 1907
with an agency in Holland and then in Italy, in Turin. A "Société Russe des Engrenages Citroën" was founded in 1911 in
order to reduce transport and customs costs while lowering the cost price. Its shareholders were the main Russian
customers. A factory of the same size and with the same production capacity as the French factory was set up in Moscow
and began operating in March 1912.
■ Two-speed gearbox. © ACC
■ Another application of Citroën gears that would later make the brand successful: a
herringbone rear axle mounted on a 1914 Mors car.© ACC

A special Citroën gear factory also existed for Austria and Germany, but instead of being set up by an independent
company, it was the "Société des Usines Skoda" in Pilsen, Czechoslovakia which was responsible for manufacturing under
licence for Citroën (Skoda employed more than 9,000 people in 1912).
War broke out and André Citroën was mobilised in August 1914. After two months of unemployment, the “Société des
Engrenages Citroën” obtained an order from the Ministry of War to manufacture 7,500 empty 75 mm shells. Subsequent
orders were smaller, but the largest market came from orders for hydraulic and electrical equipment placed by... André
Citroën, a manufacturer in “Javel”.
By the end of the war, the gear factory had considerably increased its facilities and was expanding rapidly.

16

CHAPTER 1

CITROEN BEFORE 1918

Advantages of herringbone gears:
Cylindrical and bevel gears with single, double and multiple chevrons (extract from the brochure published in 1913 by the
"Société des Engrenages Citroën"

“HERRINGBONE GEARS CUT ON AUTOMATIC MACHINES: The advantages of herringbone gears have long
been recognised by all engineers. These advantages can be immediately deduced from the theory of gear
operation in general.
It is known that one of the principal disadvantages of straight-toothed gears, even when cut with the
greatest precision, lies in the fact that it is technically impossible to ensure that the gearing constantly
engages the same number of teeth; it follows that a considerable part of the force transmitted or pressure on
the teeth is suddenly applied over the whole length of a tooth at the beginning of the gearing, and that at the
end of the gearing it is also suddenly subtracted from it.
The periodic and sudden variations in pressure on the straight teeth necessarily lead to bending and shocks
which force the gearing to leave some play. Straight-toothed gears cannot, therefore, be truly backlash-free
and, consequently, cannot be silent, unless they were made of non-resonant materials, such as wood or
green leather, which have very low breaking strength. When helical teeth were substituted for straight
teeth, the gear behaves like a group of spur gears of infinitely small thickness and infinitely large number,
and the tangential force is applied continuously and progressively to each tooth, which is also progressively
subtracted from it at the end of the mesh; there is no abruptness in the application of the force. These
conditions explain the silent operation of helical gears. However, simple helical gears also have the wellknown disadvantage of giving rise to thrusts in the direction of the axis which cannot be accepted for
transmissions of any importance. In order to avoid this disadvantage, herringbone gears have been
substituted, whose teeth were formed by two inversely inclined portions; The resulting thrusts cancel each
other out, leaving only the tangential force itself. Up to now, due to the lack of special machines for cutting
herringbone gears, they were either made as castings or cut into two separate rings and then assembled. In
the first case, the difficulties of moulding did not allow the gears to be made without play and forced the
substitution of a straight line with a small inclination of the teeth (25° at the most) for the rigorously helical
line. In the second case, the angle also had to remain quite small, because of the milling cutters used, and
the assembly was very difficult to execute with all the necessary precision, and did not have the necessary
precision to assemble the two wings of a chevron. The Citroën machine does not use standard milling
cutters, but tools set up for each tooth: it can therefore cut any module; moreover, it is also suitable for
cutting bevel gears. The inclination of the teeth can be chosen at will without modifying the machine, but it is
generally 45° for cylindrical gears and 52°1/2 for bevel gears. Its special arrangement allows these angles
to be achieved without altering the profile of the teeth. The choice of the angle is the most important one for
herringbone gears, as it influences the strength of the teeth and the efficiency.
Since the helical teeth were drawn on a circle with a larger diameter than the pitch, and since the actual
modulus used for this drawing is smaller than the apparent modulus, it follows that a helical gear will have a
larger diameter than the pitch.
It follows that a herringbone wheel is equivalent to a straight-toothed wheel which would have:
- 1.32 times more teeth for the 25° angle.;
- 2.828 times more teeth for the 45 angle ..
As a consequence of this plot, we come to the conclusion that the metal fatigue being represented by 1 for
the cut straight teeth, its value becomes for the other gears: ...
-...for the raw spur teeth:2
-...for raw 25° herringbone teeth: 0.958
-...for cut straight teeth: : 1.
-... for 25° herringbone teeth, cut: : 0,479 .
-... for 45° herringbone teeth: 0868 ...
The above figures relating only to metal fatigue were not sufficient to give an exact idea of the comparative
qualities of the different types of gears, and it is necessary to include the work lost through friction (which is
proportional to wear) and the efficiency.”

17

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MORS

Origins
1851: A certain Mr Mirand was manufacturing artificial flowers and developed a machine to roll up the flowers. He soon
transformed it into a machine for insulating electrical wires and began to manufacture various products. The factory was
bought by Louis Mors in 1874.It then had interests in the electrical signals of the Parisian tramways and Louis Mors' two
sons, Louis and Émile, graduates of the École Centrale, took over the management.
Automobiles
1885: Émile Mors designed a steam tricycle equipped with a boiler, heated with oil, from one of his canoes. This
achievement earned him a bronze medal at the 1889 Universal Exhibition. His tricycle thus preceded those of the Marquis
De Dion and Amédée Bollée.
1885: Émile Mors designed a steam tricycle equipped with a boiler, heated with oil, from one of his boats. This
1892: Louis Mors bought one of the first Panhard & Levassor automobiles. This purchase triggered in him the desire to
build automobiles.
1895: Richard Brasier was commissioned by the Mors brothers to design the first Mors car.
1896: The two brothers produced the car designed by Richard Brasier, a four-cylinder in-line engine with mixed cooling,
water for the cylinder head with a finned radiator, and air for the cylinders. The engine was equipped with an improved
ignition system, patented by Mors. Two hundred or so cars were produced in two years.
1898 Following the success of their first car, the Mors brothers tried other engines: single-cylinder and four-cylinder V
engines.
It was finally a twin-cylinder engine that was adopted on the new 4HP and 8HP chassis. At the beginning of 1898,
production was at ten cars per month with... 200 workers.
. In 1898 new victories were added in Italy in Brescia, then Paris-Amsterdam. Émile Mors, who did not hesitate to take
the wheel himself, was involved in an accident during the Paris-Bordeaux race. He broke his collarbone and from then on
it was the house drivers, Levegh and Hourgières, who took part in the races and brought the laurels to Mors.
1899 A four-cylinder 16HP engine appeared on a new touring chassis. The engine was successfully tested on various
racing cars, forging a solid reputation for Mors by winning the Paris-Dieppe and Paris-Trouville races in 1897, on its first
participation in a sporting event.
Mors intensified his participation in competition, taking part mainly in city-to-city races and in 1899 won Paris-Ostend,
Paris-Biarritz, Paris-Saint-Michel, and Paris-Montreal. Paris-Biarritz, Paris-Saint-Malo, Bordeaux-Périgueux, etc. As the
brand's sporting achievements grew, sales increased and the order books continued to fill up. The 8HP and 16HP cars
were a huge success. At the end of 1899, ten 16HP chassis were produced each month in the workshops in the rue du
Théâtre, in addition to the 4HP and 8HP.The company name changed to "Société d'Électricité et des Automobiles Mors".
The railway signalling and electrical installation departments were retained but relegated to the background. Automobile
production becomes the company's main activity.

■1909. Front of the Mors factory, 48 rue du Théâtre, Paris XV © ACC

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■ 1912. Exhibition hall of the Mors factory. © ACC
■ 1913. Convertible on 10/12HP chassis. © ACC
1900: This year was similar to the previous ones. The victories followed one another. The Mors won the Esterel, Gaillon
and Nice-La Turbie hill-climbs. They also became more enduring and a 24HP won the Paris-Toulouse-Paris race (1,300
km).
A gold medal at the Paris Universal Exhibition rewarded the two Mors brothers who brought out their first car equipped
with a steering wheel.
1901: A new 10HP appeared. It was the first French touring car with a low voltage magneto ignition.
That year Henri Fournier won the Paris-Berlin race in a car powered by a 10,807cc V-twin. Mors also won the ParisBordeaux race and the New York meeting before setting out to break the pure speed record. Several drivers followed in
quick succession; first the American billionaire Van Der Bilt , then the Englishman Charles Steward Rolls, future founder
of the famous Rolls-Royce brand, before the Frenchman Henri Fournier broke the record several times with 123.249
km/h, then 124.102 km/h, at the wheel of a four-cylinder car of 60HP and 9.2 litres of displacement.
1902: Mors adopted shock absorbers on his cars, which became even more comfortable. In addition to numerous race
victories, the brand was awarded a gold medal at the Paris Motor Show.
1903: This was the year of the infamous Paris-Madrid race, the major event of the year. Ferdinand Gabriel, at the wheel
of a streamlined 70HP, finished first in the stage finish in Bordeaux after overtaking 163 competitors. The race was
interrupted there, as many fatal accidents occurred during the event. This was the end of the city-to-city races. Mors was
to distinguish himself again on the circuits.
1904: At the end of the year, the Mors brothers took a strange decision to suspend their participation in competitions.
They considered that with such eloquent results they had nothing more to prove. Their cars had reached maturity. They
decided to take their company in a new direction and started to manufacture trucks with a payload of 1,500 kg and 4,000
kg.
1905: The passenger car range includes four chassis of 10HP, 17HP, 28HP and 45HP.

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■ 1912. 50/60HP 6 cyl. chain driven. © ACC
The new vans adopted the chassis of the 17HP and 28HP passenger cars, whose qualities of manufacture and robustness
were no longer in question. The success was once again there and the Mors trucks lived up to the reputation of their
designers. The utility range included small omnibuses, fire and transport vehicles and buses, some of which were
double-deckers.
1906: Still the same range but an innovation appeared on the four chassis. This year, they adopted a new one-piece
engine and a metal band clutch.
Although the company seemed to be in good shape, serious cash flow problems were felt. They had begun in 1903 and
were mainly due to a lack of rigour in management and organisation.
1907: Year after year, the deficit increased and a national financial crisis combined with a range of models that had
become technically inferior to that of other manufacturers amplified the problem.
The director L. Bellan proposed liquidation. Paul Haarbleicher, one of the firm's major shareholders and creditors,
opposed this. His son Lucien Haarbleicher was then the commercial director of Mors and his daughter Suzanne had
married Hugues Citroën in 1900. The latter had taken over the family gemstone brokerage business. Paul Haarbleicher
brought his son-in-law's brother André Citroën into the business.
André Citroën was initially a consultant and made a diagnosis. His findings were alarming, although the Mors firm was not
beyond repair. The potential was there, but the organisation of production and the range were outdated. Production was
falling sharply.
Less than 300 Mors of all models were produced that year.
At the December shareholders' meeting, André Citroën, who was the spokesman for the shareholders who wanted to
keep the company afloat, succeeded in having the decision to liquidate postponed.

1908: On 24 February, while most of the board was in favour of liquidation, André Citroën presented his point of view
and won the decision not to liquidate. The board resigned and was replaced by a group led by André Citroën and the Mors
family. In 1908, sales are flat and losses amounted to 600,000 francs.
1909: The production was 319 cars and the losses were only 50 000 F. The main reason for this deficit was that André
Citroën had to invest a lot of money….
■1909. Driver's coupé on a 28HP chain-driven chassis. © ACC

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■ 1912. Chassis assembly shop. © ACC
(The main reason for this deficit was that André Citroën had to invest a lot of money…) ... to modernise the tooling and to
hire skilled labour. However, the Mors cars once again enjoy a reputation worthy of their past with the expansion of the
range, its modernisation through numerous modifications and the adoption of the "Vinet" removable rims. The vans
performed brilliantly in competitions organised by the Automobile Club de France. Vans, ambulances, and fire pumps
were added to the old small trucks and omnibuses, which also received improvements.
1910: This year saw production double to 647 cars and the finances come out of the red for the first time in four years.
1911: The upturn was short-lived and André Citroën was forced to announce another loss of 1.3 million francs. He
believed that these losses were due to poor organisation of production and promised a reorganisation, a promise he made
every year.
1912: In the middle of the year, the banks lost patience and looked for a way to stop the losses. The debts had not been
cleared and new ones had been added. An intruder, the builder Théophile Schneider, tried to take over Mors. Based in
Besançon, he had been trying for several years to set up in Paris. To thwart him, André Citroën was once again
persuasive and, at a special meeting held on 5 August 1912, he brought out a last-minute trump card: Atanik Eknayan, a
wealthy Armenian diamond merchant and lover of race horses and Mors cars. The latter offered to advance two thirds of
the debt if this could save the company; this was done (the same Eknayan would advance in 1912 part of the funds for
the construction of the “Javel”war factory in 1915).
The company seemed to be seeing the light at the end of the tunnel and further modernised its range. The engineer
Fauchier designed a new model that proved to be quite successful, although it suffered from an underpowered engine.
André Citroën then called on his cousin David Citroën, director of the Belgian firm Minerva, to supply Mors with 38 hp
valveless engines under the American Knight licence. André Citroën was convinced by the power, flexibility and silence of
the Minerva engines and decided to equip the entire range with them. Named SSS (“Sans Soupapes Sport”) to
differentiate them from the SS cars of Panhard & Levassor, the long-time rival. The range of new Mors consisted of a
small 10/12HP, a 14/20HP, a 20/30HP and a larger 28/35HP with a displacement of 2120cc, 308cc, 4395cc and 7245cc
respectively. A few cars with valve engines were retained, but the valve-less range made up the bulk of sales. Mors
gained interest again and at the same time became one of the leading French car brands. Production increased to 800
cars.
■ 1912. Valveless Mors/Minerva engine. © ACC
■ 1913. 10/12HP chassis. © ACC

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■ 1912. Fire truck. © ACC

■ Landon on Mors at the 1908 ACF Grand-Prix. BL

At this point, Mors was a large company with 1,000 employees and André Citroën gained industrial and social experience.
1913: The company with a capital of 3 million was still in a difficult situation on 30 September. Despite gross profits of
1,396,600 francs, its balance sheet showed a debit balance of 1,293,000 francs. Production was reduced to 1,200 cars.
1914: The financial problems persisted and in August, the declaration of war cut
Mors. The factory was requisitioned and the production of cars was stopped.

short any speculation on the future of

1915: Thanks to André Citroën, who had obtained important contracts from the War Administration to produce artillery
shells for his factory in “Javel”, the same scenario as for the gears was repeated. The "Société d'Automobiles Mors
“received considerable orders for tools from the armament factory thanks to the chairman of its board of directors...
André Citroën.
1916: The Mors factory finally had a positive financial balance sheet at the end of 1916. Not only was it remunerated "
by a large payment" for tooling supplies, but André Citroën also paid it a royalty per projectile on 3 million of the shells
manufactured at “Javel”. For the last three years, the turnover in sales of chassis, spare parts and repairs amounted to
11,400,000 francs, in ammunition to 1,742,000 francs, and in tooling for the manufacture of shells to 3,814,000 francs.
1917: Louis Mors, who was no longer on the board of directors, died.
1918: The management of Mors, having chosen to retain only the production of cars with valveless engines supplied by
Minerva from before the outbreak of the Great War, could not resume production at the end of 1918. The Belgian firm
was bombed and it would take more than a year before it could supply engines. It was at this point that Mors became
part of Citroën, although it retained its independence.
1920: Only the 14/20 HP of 3,561 cm³ came off the production line, as it still corresponded to the current tastes of the
clientele, which had its chassis dressed with the most beautiful bodywork. Unfortunately, it was quickly overtaken
technically by other manufacturers who offered more modern cars and orders quickly become scarce.
In 1923 Mors decided to resume the production of its old pre-war 10 HP, which was brought up to date However, the
new car, which became a 12/16 HP, was the swan song of the brand in the rue du Théâtre. Despite the creation of a body
shop on site to produce complete cars and the introduction of optional front brakes in 1925, the company was doomed.
1925: Car production ceased and only the spare parts department was maintained.
Since 1918, Citroën had been using the Mors premises to build some of its cars and set up its design office and test
centre. After the Mors production stopped, Citroën took over the premises for good.

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THE WAR EFFORT
The Citroën factory
In order to be able to produce 50,000 shells per day, as he had announced, André Citroën built a huge
factory on the land he had acquired, “Quai de Javel", in Paris in the 15th arrondissement, not far from where
the “Usines du Comte d'Artois" once stood.
Before the war, this area was largely occupied by the factories of the” Aciéries de France”, and to a lesser extent by
vacant lots, decrepit hovels and market gardening. In 1918, the buildings covered eight hectares of land out of the twelve
that lay within their walls. Almost all of them were built by the factory's architectural and construction department. It is
surprising to see that most of them only had a ground floor and only 7% of the covered area, i.e., 5,800 m² out of
80,000, had floors. The reason for this is simple, and André Citroën was very keen on this principle: it was difficult to
move machines around according to the needs of production, and even more difficult and dangerous to house tools,
impact equipment and machines. Furthermore, ground floors provided better lighting and ventilation. Finally, it allows for
faster construction and, in this period of war, time was of the essence.
■ The “Javel” grounds during construction. © ACC
■ Portion of the large workshop during construction. ©
ACC

■ Assembly of the workshops' framework in June 1915 © ACC
■ The “Javel “grounds in 1915 © ACC

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■ Map of Citroen factories in 1915

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■ View of the courtyard, Porte de “Javel”. © ACC
■ Assembly of the ovens in June 1915 © ACC
■ Machines awaiting assembly. © ACC
The first workshop, built in just two months, covered 18,000 m² and various materials were used for these buildings.
Wooden round beams assembled with gussets of pressed sheet metal made it possible to obtain high and wide frames.
Metal frames were used to house ovens and workshops where they must support overhead cranes and transmissions.
Brick was used for the infill, reinforced cement for the long-span beams, concrete, and creosote-treated wood for the
floors of the workshops and courtyards, and a variety of materials: slate tiles, corrugated iron for the roof.
In the basements of these buildings were located the many auxiliary organs of the factory: pipes, distribution systems,
some engines, silos, ovens... a whole underground life, invisible and active. Twelve lifts, with a capacity of 40 kg to 3
tonnes, twenty-five main staircases and numerous ramps link the basements to the buildings, as well as the workshops
built on different levels.
The factory had a railway junction and a river port.

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The staff
There were ten different nationalities and the majority were women.
"The work force was very mixed: white, black and yellow, from many different countries; there were more women than
men, and civilians no less than soldiers on probation. “(¹)There were ten different nationalities and the majority are
women.
The Ministry of Armaments controlled the military workforce, checked the situation of the mobilized and made sure that
they were employed according to their speciality. The factory always kept a recruitment office open.
Workers were hired after passing a professional examination and employees were subject to a character check. The
working day was 10 hours long and there were two shifts per day, alternating between two weeks of days and nights.
The day shifts arrived at 7.30am and passed through the clocking-in pavilion where 60 clocks clocked in. Daytime work
was interrupted at midday for lunch and resumed at 1.30 pm. At night, the break was only half an hour and was paid
without prejudice to the 10% bonus that night work entailed.
Six thousand workers were clocked in and out per shift and four thousand individual changing rooms were installed. The
workers left their clothes there and put on their work clothes: blue overalls and trousers for the specialists, black for the
labourers, khaki lab coat for the foremen, white blouse with a cap of various colours depending on the workshop, for the
women. ,
The latter, who were in the majority, carried out almost all the work. They were at the controls of the machine tools,
presses, electric handling buses, overhead cranes, checking and assembling shells.
In the workshops, for a group of four or five machines, a controller recorded the production of the workers and the
teams. All wages, whatever their basis, included bonuses. The pay was paid four days after the fortnight due. In order to
settle it quickly, only round sums in fractions of 10 francs were paid. The remainder was credited to the person
concerned.
(1) Extract from a text in the brochure published in 1918:” Une visite aux Usines Citroën”

■ The canteen. © ACC
■ The main entrance to the factory. © ACC
■ The clocking pavilion at the Porte de Javel. © ACC

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■ One of the doors of the factory at the time of exit
■ Administration Office
■ Entrance of the administration on the “Quai de Javel “
■ Central hall of the main building with the libraries

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■The nursery. © ACC

CITROEN BEFORE 1918

■ The cooperative store. © ACC

The factory's social services
In order to protect his staff, most of whom were women, André Citroën provided his factory with exceptional
resources. He was very paternalistic and considered that the workforce should be stable, which was why he
surrounded it with a degree of benevolence that was not yet common in other French companies. In this
respect, he was far ahead of his time.
The factory restaurant
To provide meals for the 12,000 workers, a vast 3,000 m² restaurant with a capacity of 3,500 people per shift was
installed in the heart of the factory.
The same menu was served to everyone in the 1,000 m² kitchen. At each service, a signal was given and the meal was
served in thirty or forty minutes.
The cooperative store
It was located a few minutes from the workshops and offers everything related to food: bakery, butchery, grocery shop,
creamery, wine shop. Household goods, haberdashery, clothes and pharmacy can also be found there.
The nursery
It had a consultation room for women in childbirth, numerous dormitories, isolation rooms, changing and breastfeeding
rooms. The nursery was not located in the factory, but in Ballard Street.
■ The nursery on rue Balard in the 15th arrondissement. © ACC
■ Operating room of the dental department. © ACC

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■ The laboratory. © ACC

■ Laboratory analysis room. © ACC

■ A real port served the factory in Paris itself. © ACC
■The loading platforms and covered hall of one of the factory's
stations. © ACC
Land and waterway connections
A station platform was installed and the factory had a special branch line, which was served twice a day.
On the 1500 m of internal tracks, a daily movement of ninety wagons and 600 tons of finished products was
accomplished.
A river port was also installed and the steel and fuel arriving by water were unloaded by cranes capable of moving 120
tonnes of steel or 150 tonnes of fuel per day.
Fifteen trucks transported the goods inside the factory and delivered them to the departments concerned in loads of 1 to
5 tonnes.
Delivery men from the city also were bringing in supplies on their own.
The laboratory
A large, elegant building housed the offices and laboratories for chemistry, physics, and mechanics.

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■ Contents of a shrapnel shell. © ACC
■ Overview of the large machine shop. © ACC
■ The production of the last 24 hours, duly controlled, is ready to be shipped. © ACC

Wartime production and the factory's resources
The factory manufactured exclusively medium calibre shells the shrapnel, the French, Russian, Romanian
and Italian explosive and special and special shells. All were made according to the same process.
The shell consisted of a body and certain elements added during assembly. It took no less than thirty-nine operations,
eighteen of which were carried out on the body and twenty-one on seven other elements to complete the manufacture of
the projectile. A few months were enough to reach the initial objective and the production of the 50,000 shells per day
announced.
To achieve this result, an enormous industrial tool was needed and the factory had it. All the driving forces: water, air,
gas, electricity. The latter was supplied by the “Compagnie Parisienne de Distribution d'Électricité”. The electrical stationsupplied 1,200 motors with a combined power of 12,000 HP. The gas was supplied by the City of Paris and was used to
heat the resin stoves, water for washing shells, tanks for lead ingots, etc. The compressed air came from seven
compressors divided into four groups. They supplied compressed air to a large number of machines in the various
workshops, especially in the assembly and rolling mill.
Four hydraulic stations supplied water to the presses. The largest of these consisted of fourteen pumps that supplied the
stamping presses. Another station with two pumps supplied the cutting workshop. The last two pumps were used for the
ogival operations. The water needed for the presses, hardening, washing, boiler feed and various other uses was supplied
by the City of Paris.
To heat the foundry furnaces, the Citroën factory consumed all kinds of coal: all-round, anthracite, forge coal and
charcoal, at a rate of 30 tonnes per day. It also burnt 70 tonnes of ordinary or metallurgical coke. More than a thousand
machines were installed and the factory made its own high-speed steel tools in a workshop attached to the main
workshops. High speed steel was a steel mixed with other metals such as chromium tungsten and vanadium. It was
produced in the factory in crucibles heated to over 1,500°C and then heat treated and tempered at high temperatures.
Finally, the tools were cut and sharpened.

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At the beginning, the consumption of tools was enormous due to the inexperience of the staff and was about three times
the normal consumption. Work on the machines was rationalised and the Taylor system was applied. André Citroën
organised it in a methodical and simple way, eliminating the transport of parts during the manufacturing process.
The machines (the most modern of the time) as well as the electric handling trolleys and monorail transporters came
from the United States.
They were positioned so that a cut-off steel ingot follows what was called a slice. There it was stamped, machined,
checked, to become a shell. This preceded the chains that Citroën was going to be the first to use in Europe. The wide
tracks surrounding the machine groups already show the outline of the future of the car factories: forge, stamping
machine, etc.
The forge, stamping, hardening, foundries, tool-making workshop, and laboratories necessary for the production of
automobiles were already in place.

■ Female workers operating machining equipment. © ACC
■ Overview of the press shop. © ACC

11 November 1918, a new era begins at Citroën.

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PROTOTYPES, SHOWS AND EXHIBITIONS

FOREWORD
During the war, André Citroën had two prototype cars studied: the first with a fiscal power of 18HP, by the
engineers Louis Artault and Dufresne, and the second with a fiscal power of 10HP by Jules Salomon.

■ The 18HP during tests in the Alps in September 1918. Dominique Lamberjack at the wheel, Louis Artault and Dufresne
at the back. Ⓒ FS.

Editor's note: The steering wheel was on the right-hand side of the 18HP. On the cars of the cars of the 20s
and 30s it was a sign of distinction and this style is often found on luxury cars driven by a “chauffeur “. The
rear seats, which were the seats of honour, were more luxuriously finished than the front seats. On more
popular cars, the steering was usually on the left.

André Citroën soon realised that after the war he would have to convert the large amount of equipment he had bought
for his shell factory. He considered several solutions and thought of making bicycles, metal cabinets, cars or something
else. Interviewed in September 1916 by a monthly magazine that was conducting a survey of war factories, André
Citroën replied that he was not yet sure what he would do after the war. In fact, none of the French car manufacturers
who had been converted to the arms industry complained that their equipment would be unusable to produce cars in
peacetime. They all thought that they could easily convert it.
André Citroën's projects included cars. For this purpose, he hired talented engineers, many of them from the car industry,
and had two different models studied One was to be a luxury car, the other a popular car for the masses. When it came
time to choose, he opted for the mass-market car. On the model of Ford in the United States, he wanted a single model
improved every year to keep all competitors at bay. He held this view for only two years because, at the 1921 show, he
presented a second car to expand his range, the 5HP. At the end of 1926, he returned to the single model with the B14,
then the C4/C6 and the Rosalie.
At the end of 1934, after the setbacks of the first Traction-Avant cars, he once again broke with his rule, but this time it
was for reasons of economy and reluctance. Indeed, some of the clientele, disoriented by the excessive modernity of the
Traction-Avant, preferred the classicism of the Rosalie, which he improved by adapting the overhead valve engine of the
Traction-Avant.

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THE PROTOTYPES
In order to study the 18HP and 10HP prototypes, I could only find very few documents and a few miraculously preserved
photos.
The 18HP
The aircraft manufacturers of the First World War knew, like André Citroën, that once the war was over, they
would have to find other outlets.
The Morane brothers, who had been aviators from the start, had founded their business in 1910. Robert Morane was
concerned only with the interests of the company, while his brother Léon preferred to fly and look for outlets for
conversion. In 1916, Léon Morane met Louis Artault, who owned the licence to operate the Knight valveless engines, and
Dufresne, who had just been refused a Knight engine project by Panhard et Levassor. Artault and Dufresne agreed to find
a new sponsor, an industrialist with whom they can develop their car and perhaps see it built in numbers. Otherwise, they
will sell it “ready to be manufactured to a factory without a design office as will be the case with many industrialists after
the war. “Léon Morane was very rich and crazy about fast cars. He agreed to act as a financial backer and went into
partnership with the two men. His brother Robert did not approve of this project and their disagreement forced Léon
Morane to find a new partner.
He called on his friend André Citroën, who had not yet decided on the type of cars he would make. André Citroën gave
the two engineers a home so that they could continue their project. He was more interested since Léon Morane was
paying for the Morane project out of his own pocket. The car had a valveless engine that André Citroën particularly liked.
He found it powerful, flexible, and silent and had already had it fitted to the Mors cars before the war. Six prototypes
were built under the code name “M1“but they were never presented to the "“Mines Office “".
Shortly before the end of the war, tragedy struck: Léon Morane was killed in an air battle and Robert Morane, still hostile
to the project, refused to continue financing it. In the meantime, André Citroën had made his choice and was no longer
interested in the 18HP.
He opted to build a popular car. It was Dominique Lamberjack who, having heard about the project, proposed it to his
friend Gabriel Voisin. He told him that people would need cars and he persuaded him to see this as an industry of the
future.
Gabriel Voisin immediately contacted André Citroën who provided him with several prototypes in September 1918. The
tests took place in the Alps and proved to be a success. The 18HP was well born, it had great road qualities and Gabriel
Voisin bought the patents and plans. At the same time, he took Artault and Dufresne who would work for him after the
war.
The car underwent numerous modifications to the chassis but not to the engine. Presented to the press at the beginning
of 1919, it was produced by Voisin under the name of " Voisin M1 “.
The 10HP:
Studied a little later than the 18HP, the 10HP is the result of the studies of the engineer Jules Salomon.
Jules Salomon
Born in Cahors on February 1, 1873, he came from a modest family; his father was a café owner. He studied well at the
lycée in Brive-la-Gaillarde but, before embarking on a technical career, he was attracted to music. His mother's influence
made him change his mind and he entered the School of Commerce and Industry in Bordeaux.
While working at "Établissements Rouart Frères “where he was a draughtsman, he met in 1891 the famous engineer
Alphonse Beau de Rochas who, in 1862, had formalised the cycle of transformation of thermal energy into mechanical
energy called the four-stroke cycle. This meeting made him want to put this theory into practice and he began to study
internal combustion engines.
Jules Salomon worked for several car manufacturers, notably “Delaunay-Belleville “with whom he had a brief spell, then
at “Bardon “, in Puteaux, which closed its doors in 1902. The premises were taken over by "Georges Richard" of whom he
became one of the employees. The latter-built cars there under the name “Georges-Richard “, then under the name “Unic

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In 1908, Jules Salomon, while still working at “Unic “, built a prototype of a small car for his personal use, in which he
saw the possibility of many customers having access to the automobile.
Financed by Jacques Bizet, son of the famous composer with whom he shared a taste for music, he built small cars
directly from his prototype from 1908 onwards, initially at his employer Georges Richard's and under the brand name
“Bizet ".
In 1909, as the order books were full, he resigned from “Unic “and joined forces with Jacques Bizet. They both moved to
Paris. Jules Salomon would have liked his creations to bear his name but Jacques Bizet refused and, by mutual
agreement, they called their cars "Le Zèbre". This name was inspired by the nickname given to one of the employees at
“Unic “, who was always running!
In 1911, the company's name became “Société Anonyme des Automobiles Le Zèbre “. Two new people were to be
associated l: Émile Akar and Joseph Lamy, who bought “Le Zèbre” in 1919 and founded Amilcar in 1921. The head office
and factories moved several times before settling in Suresnes in 1914.

Jules Salomon was a man of strong character and independence. During the 1914/1918 war, and following a
disagreement with Jacques Bizet and certain shareholders, he resigned. On the advice of Mr Nieder (representative of the
Jacob Holtzer steelworks), he met André Citroën and submitted a project to him in June 1917. For more than a month,
Jules Salomon commuted between the Charron factory, where he had been working since leaving “Le Zèbre”, and “Javel”.
André Citroën liked his project and hired him on 14 July 1917 to create the 10HP for him. Later, in 1925, Jules Salomon
left Citroën for Peugeot (1926 to 1928), then went to Rosengart (1928 to 1939) where he worked on the small cars that
he particularly liked. After the Second World War, he did not resume his professional activities despite numerous offers
from French manufacturers. He died in Suresnes on 31 December 1963 at the age of 90.
■ Jules Salomon.
The studies of the 10HP
At first Jules Salomon thought of making a two-seater car in the style of the small “Le Zèbre” cars that had made the
brand successful. The difficulty of building a commercial variant on this chassis led the studies towards a larger vehicle
without being imposing. It had to be light, robust, easy to build and economical. The specifications were both simple and
complex, as not all the constraints were always compatible. Jules Salomon used his talent to design a car that met all the
criteria. A prototype was built and it ran in the summer of 1918.

At that time, André Citroën was in Roanne to restructure the arsenal, and Jules Salomon joined him from Paris with his
prototype. The car's bodywork was hastily adapted to the chassis, but it worked well and André Citroën was enthusiastic.
The final decision to build the 10HP was made.
According to the technical criteria common at the time, two chassis with different wheelbases were designed. Each of
them would receive its own bodywork.

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■ 1918. The 10HP prototype in the factory yard. Note the resemblance of the front grill with the 18HP. This was the car
that was presented to the ““Mines Office “” on 18 November. The first advertisements published at the beginning of 1919,
which only show drawings of the car, with its prominent headlights and the short door. © ACC
Reconversion
The conflict ended on 11 November. The same day, André Citroën, speaking about his shell factory that had become
useless, triumphantly announced: “Where visitors had seen shells being made, they would soon see cars being built. The
equipment will be different, but it will, like the previous one, be kept to the highest degree of perfection and productivity;
the working methods will continue to be scientific; the life of the workers will still be marked by the concern for physical
and moral well-being in its arrangement. After having contributed with all its efforts to the victory of the French army, the
Citroën factory will use all its means to contribute to the economic greatness of France. “
Beginning of construction:
André Citroën had already planned everything at the end of 1918 and had catalogues printed and
advertisements published in the press from 11 January 1919.
The tools had been ordered during the war from powerful American factories, the only ones able to supply the necessary
equipment. However, the start of his car factory was slower than expected. He soon ran into financial difficulties because
he had not completely closed his factory, keeping 3,000 of the 10,000 employees. What is more, in January 1919, the
banker Eknayan demanded that he repay the huge loans he had taken out to set up his shell factory. André Citroën had
to use all his talent to make him wait. Production was slow to start and the first cars were not produced until May 1919.
The official presentation took place on 4 June in Paris, in Fernand Charron's shop on the Champs-Élysées.
On 7 July, a certain Mr Testemolle from Beaulieu-sur-Dordogne took delivery of car No. 1, a grey 4-seater Torpédo, which
was bought back by the factory ten years later after having travelled 300,000 km.
■ 1919. The last version of the prototype, the car was almost final. The windscreen had sharp lower corners like the very
first “Type A “. See page 123 the car N°43 which already had a windscreen with rounded lower corners. © ACC
■ 1919. Prototype short chassis with 6-point wheel attachment and 765 x 105 tyres © ACC

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■ 1919. Prototype of the 3-seater Torpédo on a short chassis photographed in the courtyard of the “Javel” factory in
1918. © ACC
■ 1919. Prototype Delivery van. The first examples together with a
tarpaulin-covered pickup designed in parallel, roll off the production line in
September. © ACC

■ 1920. Prototype saloon car on Type A chassis with rounded door bottoms (instead of right angles) © ACC

■ Second official photo of the 10HP chassis published in the newspaper “La Vie au grand air” of 15 May 1919 when the
first production cars were just coming out. The radiator does not yet bear the enamelled "Citroën" badge.
■ First official photo of the 10HP chassis in the newspaper “La Vie au
grand air” of 15 March 1919, three months before the first production car.
Note the artillery type rims which will never be fitted in series.

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■ On the Champs-Élysées, the long line of 50 Type A cars awaits visitors. Ⓒ FS.

■ Voucher for future customers to test the cars

“ SALON DE L’ AUTOMOBILE “- PARIS MOTOR SHOW OF OCTOBER 1919
After having been held in several locations: the Jardin des Tuileries in 1898 and 899, the International Motor
Show was held in the Grand Palais from 1901 onwards.
In 1904, the trucks were exhibited on the esplanade des Invalides (1904 and 1905) and then along the greenhouses of
the Cours La Reine (1906, 1907, 1908, 1913).
The International Automobile Exhibition was interrupted several times: in 1900 (Universal Exhibition), 1909
(organisational crisis between the ACF and the “Chambre syndicale”), 1911, then from 1914 to 1918 for war reasons and
in 1920. In 1925, there was no show because of the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts.
From 1923 onwards, the show was held in two sessions, first with automobiles and then, a fortnight later, with industrial
vehicles.
In 1919, the International Automobile Exhibition became the "Salon de l'Automobile" and returned to the same date as
before the war, in October, just before the London Show.
The 1919 Paris Motor Show (9 to 19 October) was Citroën's first appearance as a manufacturer. Amid 664 exhibitors, he
created a sensation by presenting his 10HP Type A, at a price which, despite the increases, was very attractive compared
to the competition. In order to test his car, he made fifty cars available to future buyers for trial. This yet unprecedented
formula was a considerable success. The press gave it a favourable report, which was the best publicity for this young
manufacturer.

■ Citroen advertisement at the Paris show © ACC

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■ A bird's eye view of the Citroën stand. Ⓒ reserved
■The new B2 chassis © ACC

■ October 1921, first appearance of the 5HP. Only one body available until March 1923: the 2-seater Torpédo. © ACC

“SALON DE L’ AUTOMOBILE “- PARIS MOTOR SHOW OF OCTOBER 1921
After a year without a show, the 1921 show (from 5 to 16 October) ushered in a new era in the history of the
automobile, confronted by the economic crisis that was sweeping Europe.
Many manufacturers introduced new medium-sized cars in the 10HP category and, above all, cyclecars subject to very
low road tax.
At Citroën, the star of the show was the brand new 5HP, which was being previewed. It was not available until May 1922.
Another novelty on the stand was the 10HP "Type B2", which was an evolution of the "Type A".
This year, the organisers decided to abolish invitations and "free entries”. Everyone had to pay an entrance fee of 3
francs and can come with the new taxis that Citroën had just put on the market.

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■ A large crowd around the 10HP B2 and the Caddy (top corner of the central aisle) Ⓒ reserved
■ Poster for the 16th Paris Motor Show in 1921. Ⓒ reserved
■ 4 October 1922: a plane writes the name Citroën in giant letters. © ACC

"Where will the luxury of automobile taxis end? What a rapid and disconcerting evolution! Already last year, some lowslung, elegant and comfortable cars had replaced the unfortunate, dusty, noisy taxis whose bodywork already seemed
antediluvian. All Parisians will be grateful to these daring industrialists who also proved to be profound psychologists,"
wrote a journalist.

“SALON DE L’ AUTOMOBILE “- PARIS MOTOR SHOW OF OCTOBER 1922

The 1922 Salon (1st series from October 4 to 14) was a "Grand Salon" where all attendance records were
broken. .
The motorist became a connoisseur and the cars became better and better. All voices were raised to lower the taxes and
other levies on cars. Cars had evolved and visitors thought that this show was "the ultimate refinement of the classic car
and that it is truly the definitive model of the post-war car, the one that fulfils all our current needs while waiting for the
car of tomorrow. “
On the Citroën stand, no great novelty apart from the magnificent sports bodywork “Caddy ", but a big surprise awaited
the Parisians. For the first time in the world, a plane drew a name in the sky, in letters of smoke stretching for five
kilometres: Citroën.

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INDUSTRIAL VEHICLE SHOW IN PARIS, OCTOBER 1923
There are no known photos of the Citroën 10HP at this 1923 show (4-14 October).
On the other hand, several photos of the "Salon du véhicule industriel" (24 October to 2 November) do exist.
They show the diversity of the bodywork models offered by the factory and their many applications.

■ 23 October 1923: André Citroën welcomes President Millerand. © ACC

■ Two views of the Citroën stand. © ACC

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“SALON DE L’ AUTOMOBILE “- PARIS MOTOR SHOW OF OCTOBER 1924
After having presented a 5HP in 1923, it was this year a 10HP “Tout Acier” (All Steel) B10 which had the
honours of the Citroën stand.
The "Tout Acier" was the major event of the show because it was the first time that an entirely metallic car was proposed.
A large advertising campaign was organised around this event and posters extolling the merits of the “Tout Acier” were
seen all over France.
The new Michelin “Comfort " tyres have been fitted to all Citroën cars since March.
■ Citroën stand: in the foreground a 5HP “Cabriolet” (Convertible).
© ACC
■ The Citroën stand was very busy. The new “Tout Acier” was very well attended, as was the new 5HP "3-seater
cloverleaf", which was being presented for the first time. © ACC

■ Close-up of the 10HP “Tout Acier” in cross-section, on the
Citroën stand. © ACC
■ October 1924: the Parisians discover the “Tout Acier” thanks to immense posters posted
here and there in the capital. © ACC

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INDUSTRIAL VEHICLE SHOW IN PARIS IN PARIS IN OCTOBER 1924
Second series of the show (from October 22 to 31).
Amongst the range of commercial vehicles, there are many half-track vehicles. The exploits of these machines in the
crossing of the Sahara and Africa have contributed to the success of the brand.
However, sales of the tracked vehicles did not benefit from this. Only 68 were produced in 1924, compared to 317 in
1923.
■ Delivery van in the colours of “Jouets Citroën”. Coloured red it was
reproduced in 1/10th scale as a toy. © ACC

■ Overview of the Citroën stand. Many tracked vehicles were presented. © ACC

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1925: EXHIBITION IN PARIS - LONDON AND BRUSSELS SHOWS
There was no Motor Show at the Grand Palais because of the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts.
To celebrate this event, André Citroën had the Eiffel Tower illuminated on 4 July 1925.
In October, in the absence of the usual Paris Motor Show, the new B12, was presented at the garage Saint-Didier (one of
the largest in France and also a Citroën agent) which organised a mini show in its premises, rue des Sablons in Paris. It
was then presented in December at the London and Bruxelles shows.
Another novelty was also appearing for the end of the year: the Citroënnette 5HP, which made a wonderful Christmas
present and was present at all the brand's events.

■ October 1925: Exhibition at the Saint-Didier garage. © ACC

■July 4, 1925: Parisians were amazed to discover the illuminations of the Eiffel Tower. Ⓒ reserved

■ London show in December 1925 (top left), Glasgow show (top right),
Brussels Show 7-17 December (two stands, bottom left and right). © ACC

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FOREWORD
The first car to bear the name “Citroën “was definitively given the commercial name “10HP “shortly after the
presentation to the “Mines Office “ (¹) of the prototype “Type 8 Chevaux " on 20 November 1918. It was
André Citroën who took this decision and sent to the “Mines Office “a letter on 11 December 1918.
Throughout this book, the Citroën Type A car is referred to as " La (voiture) Type A" and its chassis as “Le
(chassis) Type A ". The same applies to the other 10 HP and 10 CV models. These were not spelling mistakes.
Originally, the 10HP Type A was to be called "Type 8 HP" which corresponded to its real power but André
Citroën chose to name the car "10HP", which was its fiscal power.
This choice was more flattering as it made the car seem more powerful than it was. This was a consequence of the
aberration of the tax system of the time, which taxed cars according to a different scale from that of the ““Mines Office ““.
A “nominal “or “administrative “power and also a “fiscal “power were assigned to automobiles.
This gave rise to bizarre and incomprehensible differences in power ratings.
The 10HP “Type A " was a nominal "8 CV" but a fiscal "10 ch".
The 10HP types B2 and B10 were nominal "9 CV" but were still fiscal “10 ch".
The 5HP was a nominal "5 CV" and remained a fiscal "5 ch".
As for the B14 in 1927, it was a nominal "10 HP" and.... a fiscal "9 ch"!
André Citroën's decision was therefore more commercial than technical.
The name "10HP" also corresponded to a category of medium-sized cars very popular before the 1914/1918 conflict.
This name sounded better to the ears of future customers.

LEGAL UNITS AND ABBREVIATIONS
In order not to confuse the use of the terms used and to be consistent with the documents, the powers
defined below correspond to the legal units and terms in force between 1919 and 1926.

The legal units for calculating power have changed several times between 1919 and the present day. For a
proper understanding of the different units of power and their abbreviations in this book, it is necessary to
give their exact meaning
Real power: power developed by the engine and expressed in HP and then in CV.
Nominal or administrative power: power expressed in HP and then in CV and granted by the “Mines Office “ to classify
a car. It was this power that was recorded on the logbook.

(¹)Note:” The “Mines office” (Service des Mines ) is the equivalent of “VCA”, the Vehicle Certification Agency in UK
providing the "type approval" of any motor vehicle before it is put on the road by the manufacturers.
The “PV” or “Proces Verbal des Mines” were the type approval reports by the “Mines office.
In the 18th century, the “Mines office” was in charge of controlling the safety in terms of rolling stock which was an
imperative in coal mining; in the 19th century, it naturally extended to the railways, using similar techniques, and then,
from the beginning of the 20th century, to other rolling stock.

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THE DIFFERENT 10HP

Fiscal power: power expressed in “ch” and granted by the administration for the taxation of a car.
HP: "Horse Power". English unit of power calculation and worth 75.9 kilograms/metre per second.
The "HP" had been used in France for several decades to calculate the real and nominal power of engines. From 1923,
several car and aircraft manufacturers abandoned it.
CV: “Cheval Vapeur” (steam horse). French unit of power calculation worth 75 kilograms/metre per second (this was the
power required to raise a 75-kilogram weight to a height of one metre in one second).
The "CV", whose calculation was slightly different from that of the “HP”, replaced it definitively in 1925 for the calculation
of real and nominal powers.
ch: "cheval”. (horse): Unit of calculation of the fiscal power used by the French administration to tax cars according to
their power.

The unit ch: (fiscal horsepower) had a different calculation from the HP and CV (nominal power) of the “Mines Office “. As
a result, there were cars with a nominal power rating different from the fiscal rating.
In order to differentiate between the different types of horsepower, it was customary at the time to write “CV “for the
nominal or administrative power and "ch" the fiscal power.
Manufacturers were obliged to use the legal unit on the prescribed date to calculate real and nominal horsepower. This
meant that all types of cars in production on that date had to be tested again at the “Mines Office “and their names
changed.
As far as Citroën was concerned, the 5HP became the 5CV on 26 October 1925.
The B2 and B10 (year1925), being discontinued in October 1925, were not affected.
The B12 (year1926) born "10HP" on 1 September 1925 became "10CV" on 15 December 1925, the day from which
Citroën used the term “CV" instead of “HP “.

DESIGNATION AND TYPE NAME OF THE CARS
The characteristics of the cars described below are taken from the original PV (¹) with the terms in use at the time.
The Type A
Its commercial name was “10HP “and its administrative name “Type A ".
The origin of the name " Type A" comes from the tradition that almost all manufacturers observed in naming their first
model as such. Before 1928, more than thirty French manufacturers were known to have done so. For internal use, the
“Type A " was called in its short chassis version " Type I " and in its long chassis version “Type II “.
Both names appear in the first spare parts catalogue of 1920 dedicated solely to the "Type A".
After the release of the B2 in 1921 …,

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THE DIFFERENT 10HP

(After the release of the B2 in 1921) ... only the name “Type II " remained. It then referred to both chassis, short and
long, which had 95% of the mechanical parts in common.
Administrative file:
Application for inspection: 20 November 1918. Presentation to the “Mines Office” and acceptance: 20 November 1918.
Tested vehicle: N°1, with engine: N°1.
Technical characteristics:
Category:
Commercial name: “10HP".
Administrative classification: car.
Engine 4 cylinders:
Administrative power (nominal): 8 HP. Effective power: 18 hp at 2 100 rpm.
Nature: Type 4-stroke spark ignition, petrol, petroleum, benzol, carburetted alcohol or alcohol.
Bore: 65 mm. Stroke 100 mm. Displacement: 1 327 cm³.
Electric ignition: by high voltage magneto activated by the engine. Battery 6 Volts with a capacity of 60 A/h. Dynamo
with cut-out switch. Fixed advance.
Cooling: by water circulation, with finned radiator acting as thermosiphon.
Exhaust: 130 mm diameter and 400 mm long. The diameter of the outlet tube was 28 x 30 mm.
Clutch and gearbox: The clutch was a single flat disc type. The gearbox was of the direct drive, sliding gear type, with
three forward gears and one reverse gear. The shifters were operated by a ball lever on the gearbox cover.
Number of gear teeth: 16 x 30 for 1st gear; 22 x 24 for 2nd gear, 17 x 29 for reverse (note: 16 x 30 means that 16 teeth
command 30 teeth for 1st gear, and so on).
Transmission of the movement to the wheels: This was done by a longitudinal shaft with a cardan joint at each end.
The joint next to the rear axle was sliding.
■ This small piece of paper from a notebook is the official birth certificate of the
Citroën 8HP Type A (8 nominal or administrative HP). It was reproduced above at
its exact size of 107 x 155 mm.
Rear axle: Bevel gears had 14 and 63 teeth. The connection of the axle to the chassis was as follows: on each side of
the chassis. Two semi-suspension springs were arranged on each side of the chassis at a certain distance from each
other. These springs had one end clamped by bolts firmly attached to the frame. The ends of the springs had an eye that
received the pin for attachment to the axle. The axle was thus attached to the suspension springs by four joints. The
whole assembly formed an articulated parallelogram ……………

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THE DIFFERENT 10HP

(The whole assembly formed an articulated parallelogram …) … which allowed the axle to move in relation to the chassis.
The four springs resisted the reaction torque and provided the thrust. The differential was with bevel satellite gears. The
wheels were mounted on the cone-shaped ends of the differential shafts.
.
Editor's note: On the “Mines Office” approval report (PV), the bevel gear was a 14 x 63. In production it was
10 x 44.
Braking:
Braking acting on the differential was placed on the shaft at the output of the gearbox. Controlled by a pedal placed in
front of the driver's right foot. The drum has a diameter of 225 mm. Two extendable inner segments of 40 mm width
were covered with a special lining. Lever arm ratio 26:1.
Brakes on the rear wheels, same type, and dimensions as the previous one. They were operated by a hand lever on the
gearbox cover. A lock engaging in the notches of a toothed sector can hold the brakes tightly. Lever arm ratio 56:1. Both
brakes apply in both reverse and forward motion.
Steering:
The steering was controlled by a steering wheel with an inclined axis and was of the worm gear type which operates a
toothed sector, the movement of this sector causing the wheels to move by means of levers and connecting rods. The
steering wheel moving through 315° produces a wheel movement of 38° for the one-way turn. The steering was on the
left of the vehicle and the gear and brake levers were in the middle.
Weight and wheels:
Weight without water and petrol: 650 kg (3-seater Torpédo) Weight with passengers: 870 kg (380 kg on front axle, 490
kg on rear axle). Diameter of the driving wheels 710 mm.
Speeds: For 2000 rpm:
Speeds achieved: 1st .........18.50 km/h; 2nd: 31,50 km/h; 3rd: .........58,50 h km/h; Reverse gear Unknown

■ Letter sent by André Citroën to the mining engineer on 18 December
1918. It makes official the administrative name “Type A " of the Citroën
8HP (its commercial name 10HP comes from its fiscal power). He wrote:
"I have the advantage of informing you that the 8 HP, 4-cylinder, 65/100
automobile, which I am building, will bear the reference "Type A". Please
accept, Sir, the assurance of my best wishes. A Citroen "

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THE DIFFERENT 10HP
■ 1921 B5 Tarpaulin pickup © ACC

Type B5
The Type B5 was a utility vehicle with a payload of 500 kg, with a chassis based on the Type A and reinforced
Its internal name was “Type VI " or " Type 6 ". It was never referred to in a factory document as anything other than
"10HP" or "Transport Car" or "Closed Car" or "10HP Utility Car"
Administrative record:
Application for inspection: 31 December 1920. Presentation to the Mining Department and acceptance: 29 January 1921.
Tested vehicle: N°1, with engine: N°13 628.
Technical characteristics:
Category:
Commercial name " 10HP “.
Administrative classification: car.
Engine 4 cylinders:
Administrative power (nominal): 9HP. Effective power: 20 hp at 2 100 rpm. Type: 4-stroke petrol, oil, benzol, carburetted
alcohol or alcohol.
Bore: 68 mm. Stroke: 100 mm. Displacement: 1 452 cm³.
Electric ignition: by high voltage magneto operated by the engine. Battery 6 Volts with a capacity of 45 A/h. Dynamo with
cut out switch. Fixed advance.
Water cooling: by water circulation, with finned radiator acting as thermosiphon.
Exhaust: 130 mm diameter and 400 mm long.in length. The diameter of the outlet tube was 28 x 30 mm.
Clutch and gearbox:
The clutch is a single flat disc type. The gearbox was of the direct drive, sliding gear type., with three forward gears and
one reverse gear. The first shifter gives the reverse gear and the first gear. The second shifter gives second gear and
high gear in direct drive. These two shifters were operated by a ball-and-socket lever on the gearbox cover.
Gearbox ratios: number of gear teeth
gearwheels: 16 x 30 for the 1st; 22 x 24 for the 2nd; 17 x 29 for the 2nd; 17 x 29 for the transmission.
Transmission of the movement to the wheels: This was done by shaft with a cardan joint at each end. This joint was
of the flexible disc type.
Rear axle:
Bevel gears had 9 and 50 teeth. The connection of the axle to the chassis was as follows: on each side of the chassis.
Two semi-suspension springs were arranged on each side of the chassis at a certain distance from each other. These
springs had one end clamped by bolts firmly attached to the frame. The ends of the springs had an eye that received the
pin for attachment to the axle. The axle was thus attached to the suspension springs by four joints. The whole assembly
formed an articulated parallelogram which allowed the axle to move in relation to the chassis. The four springs resisted
the reaction torque and provided the thrust. The differential was with bevel satellite gears. The wheels were mounted on
the cone-shaped ends of the differential shafts.
Braking:
1.
2.

Braking acting on the differential was placed on the shaft at the output of the gearbox. Controlled by a pedal
placed in front of the driver's right foot... The drum had a diameter of 225 mm. Two extendable inner segments
of 40 mm width were covered with a special lining. Lever arm ratio 26:1.
Brakes on the rear wheels, same type, and dimensions as the previous one. They were controlled ….

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THE DIFFERENT 10HP

(They were controlled …) …. by a hand lever on the gearbox cover. A latch that engages in of a toothed sector can hold
the brake tightly. Lever arm ratio: 56:1. All these brakes apply both backwards and forwards.
Steering:
It was controlled by a steering wheel with an inclined axis which carries a worm screw that drives a gear sector. The
movement of this sector causes the wheels to move the wheels by means of levers and connecting rods.
The steering wheel moving through 320° produces a wheel movement of 40° for one-way steering. The steering was to
the right or to the left of the vehicle. The gearshift and brake levers were in the middle.
Weight and wheels:
Weight without water and fuel: 980 kg. Weight with passengers: 1,380 kg (530 kg on the front and 850 kg on the rear).
Diameter of driving wheels: 765 mm.
Speeds: For 2000 rpm: 1st gear: 14, 60 km/h; 2e gear: 25,00 km/h; 3rd: 46,20 km/h; Reverse: Unknown

Type B2
The Type B2 was an evolution of the Type A.
Its internal name was Type 2B. It was an improved version of the first Citroën model by increasing the engine capacity
and power. It retains most of its general characteristics, although many of its components had been modified in detail.
With the Type B2 came new, more substantial, and less simplistic bodyworks, notably the 4-seater Torpédos, which were
more finished and more luxurious. The chassis number of the car that was presented at the “Mines Office “was part of the
numbers allocated to the Type A.
Administrative file:
Request for inspection: 11 April 1921. Presentation to the “Mines Office “and acceptance: 14 April 1921.
Tested vehicle: N°13 770, with engine: N°13 770.
Technical characteristics:
Category: Commercial name: " 10HP" " B2 “. Administrative classification: car.
Engine 4 cylinders:
Administrative power (rated): 9 hp. Effective power: 20 hp at 2 100 rpm. Nature 4-stroke petrol, oil, benzol, carburetted
alcohol or alcohol.
Bore: 68 mm. Stroke: 100 mm Displacement: 1,452 cm³.

■ Torpédo B2 "Tourisme Luxe" 1923 © ACC

Electric ignition: by high voltage magneto operated by the engine. Battery 6 Volts with a capacity of 45 A/h. Dynamo with
cut-out switch.
Water cooling: by water circulation, with finned radiator acting as thermosiphon
Exhaust: 130 mm diameter and 400 mm long. The diameter of the outlet tube was 28 x 30 mm.

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Clutch and gearbox:
The clutch was of the single flat disc type. The gearbox was of the direct drive, sliding gear type; it had three forward
gears and one reverse gear. The first gearshift was for reverse and first gear. The second shifter gives second gear and
high gear in direct drive. These two shifters were operated by a ball lever on the gearbox cover.
Gearbox ratios: number of gear teeth: 16 x 30 for 1st; 22 x 24 for 2nd; 17 x 29 for reverse gear.
Transmission of the movement to the wheels: This was done by shaft with a cardan joint at each end. This joint was
of the flexible disc type.
Rear axle:
Bevel gears had 10 x 44 teeth. The connection of the axle to the chassis was as follows: on each side of the chassis. Two
semi-suspension springs were arranged on each side of the chassis at a certain distance from each other. These springs
had one end clamped by bolts firmly attached to the frame. The ends of the springs had an eye that received the pin for
attachment to the axle. The axle was thus attached to the suspension springs by four joints. The whole assembly formed
an articulated parallelogram which allowed the axle to move in relation to the chassis. The four springs resisted the
reaction torque and provided the thrust. The differential was with bevel satellite gears. The wheels were mounted on the
cone-shaped ends of the differential shafts.
Braking:
1-Braking acting on the differential was placed on the shaft at the output of the gearbox. Controlled by a pedal
placed in front of the driver's right foot... The drum had a diameter of 225 mm. Two extendable inner segments
of 40 mm width were covered with a special lining. Lever arm ratio 28:1.
2-. Brakes on the rear wheels, same type, and dimensions as the previous one. They were controlled by a hand
lever on the gearbox cover. A latch that engages in of a toothed sector can hold the brake tightly. Lever arm
ratio: 56:1. All these brakes apply both backwards and forwards.
Steering:
It was controlled by a steering wheel with an inclined axis and was of the worm gear type which operates a toothed
sector, the movement of this sector causing the wheels to move via levers and connecting rods.
The steering wheel moving through 315° produces a wheel movement of 38° for one-way steering. Steering was at will,
to the right or left of the vehicle.
The gear and brake levers were in the middle.
Weight and wheels: Approximate empty weight: 810 kg (4-seater Torpédo “Luxe “). Weight with passengers: 1,100 kg
(650 kg front and 450 kg rear).
Drive wheel diameter: 710 mm.
Speeds: At 2000 rpm: 1st: 18.50 km/h; 2nd: 31.50 km/h; 3rd: 58.50 km/h Reverse: Unknown

Type B9
The Type B9 is the first Citroën vehicle to be fitted with front wheel brakes. It looks like a Type B2 but with
brakes on the front.
It also had the technical characteristics of the B2s which, in 1924, had a "Type II" chassis (10x44 axle) for passenger
cars and a "Type VI" chassis (9x44 axle) for 400 kg commercial vehicles. The unladen weight was however significantly
higher, which could be justified by the new front axle.

50

CHAPTER 3:

THE DIFFERENT 10HP

The Type B9 was accepted on the same day as the 5HP type C4 (also with front brakes and never marketed). This
similarity between the two models (B9 and C4) and their non-commercialisation corroborates the difficulty to adapt
brakes on front suspension trains with suspension. These were not originally designed to be fitted with brakes. The
report does not specify the type of front axle but it must have been seriously modified. The suspension was certainly
reinforced with thrust bars compatible with the front springs, as on some transformations proposed by several accessory
manufacturers for the Type A, B2 or 5HP.
The Type B9, which had the same date of inspection as the Type B12, (acceptance September 1), may lead one to
believe that the Type B9 could be a preliminary draft of a 10HP car with brakes on all four wheels that would have been
finalised by developing the Type B12.
Administrative file: Application for inspection: 11 January 1925.Presentation to the “Mines Office “and acceptance: 16
January 1925.
Tested vehicle: N°99 996, with engine: N°B.2 526 K.B.
Technical characteristics:
Category: Trade name unknown. Administrative classification: car.
Engine 4 cylinders:
Administrative power (nominal): 9 hp Effective power: 20 hp at 2 100 rpm. Type: 4-stroke petrol, oil, benzol, carburetted
alcohol or alcohol.
Bore: 68 mm Stroke: 100 mm. Displacement: 1 452 cm³.
Electric ignition: by high voltage magneto operated by the engine. Battery 6 Volts with a capacity of 45 A/h. Dynamo with
cut-out switch. Fixed advance.
Cooling: by water circulation, with finned radiator acting as thermosiphon.
Exhaust: 130 mm diameter and 400 mm long. The diameter of the outlet tube was 28x30 mm.
Clutch and gearbox:
The clutch is of the flat disc type with a special lining on both sides. It was controlled by a pedal placed in front of the
driver's left foot.
foot. The gearbox was of the direct drive and sliding gear type., with three forward gears and one reverse. gear.
The first shifter gives the reverse and first gear. The second shifter gives the second gear and high gear in direct drive.
These two shifters were operated by a ball lever on the gearbox cover.
Gearbox ratios: number of gear teeth: 16 x 30 for the 1st; 22 x 24 for the 2nd; 17 x 29 for the reverse gear.
The reverse gear was obtained by means of an intermediate pinion always in mesh with a toothing provided on the
splitting shaft. The 1st gear shifter, in its extreme stroke, engages this intermediate gear.
Transmission of the movement to the wheels: This was done by a longitudinal shaft fitted with a cardan joint at each
end. This joint was of the flexible disc type.
Rear axle: Bevel gears had 9 x 44 teeth or10 x 44 teeth. The connection of the axle to the chassis was as follows: on
each side of the chassis. Two semi-suspension springs were arranged on each side of the chassis at a certain distance
from each other. These springs had one end clamped by bolts firmly attached to the frame. The ends of the springs had
an eye that received the pin for attachment to the axle. The axle was thus attached to the suspension springs by four
joints. The whole assembly formed an articulated parallelogram which allowed the axle to move in relation to the chassis.
The four springs resisted the reaction torque and provided the thrust. The differential was with bevel satellite gears. The
wheels were mounted on the cone-shaped ends of the differential shafts.
Braking:
1. Braking acting on the differential, was placed on the shaft at the gearbox output and on the front wheels, by means of
a compensating lever. The brake drums had a diameter of …

51

CHAPTER 3:

THE DIFFERENT 10HP

(The brake drums had a diameter of …) … 260 mm. Two expandable inner segments, 45 mm wide, covered with a special
lining.
2. Rear wheel brake of the same type as the previous one. Controlled by handbrake lever placed on the gearbox cover.
A lock engaging in the notches of a toothed sector can keep the brake applied.
Lever arm ratio. front wheel brake: 28/1. Differential brake: 16.5:1. Brake on rear wheel brake: 56:1. All these brakes
apply both in the rear and in the rearward and forward directions.
Steering:
It was controlled by a steering wheel with an inclined axis and was of the worm gear type, which operates a gear sector;
the movement of this sector causes the movement of the wheels by means of levers and connecting rods. The steering
wheel moving through 320° produces a wheel movement of 37° for steering in both directions. The steering was at will,
to the right or to the left of the vehicle.
The gear and brake levers were in the middle of the car.
Weight and wheels: Approximate empty weight: 1,000 kg. Weight with passengers: 1,345 kg (505 kg on the front, 840
kg on the rear). Diameter of driving wheels: 730 mm. Rolling radius: 345 mm.
Speed: For 2000 rpm:
9 x 44: 1st gear: 16,35 km/h; 2nd: 28,35 km/h; 3rd gear :52,65 km/h ; Reverse : Unknown
10 x 44: 1st gear: 18,50 km/h; 2nd: 31,50 km/h; 3rd gear: 58,50 km/h; Reverse: Unknown

Type B10
The Type B10 was an evolution of the Type B2. The other characteristics were identical to the B2.
It had only two types of bodywork of all-metal construction, the saloon and

the touring or commercial Torpédo. Its

name for internal use was “Type B2B “.
Type B2 1000 kg
The Type B2 1000 kg was a completely new commercial vehicle.
There were no documents or photos of this vehicle manufactured in only 6 examples, from January to December 1925.
Administrative file: Application for inspection: 30 April 1925. Presentation to the “Mines Office” and acceptance:
4 May 1925. Tested vehicle: N°1, with engine: N°134.
Technical characteristics:
Category: Commercial name: “10HP “Tout Acier” “. Administrative classification: car.
Engine 4 cylinders:
Administrative power (nominal): 9 hp. Effective power: 20 hp at 2 100 rpm. Type: 4-stroke petrol, petroleum, benzol,
carburetted alcohol or carburetted or alcohol.
Bore: 68 mm, stroke: 100 mm. Displacement: 1 452 cm³.
Electric ignition: by high voltage magneto operated by the engine. Battery 6 Volts with a capacity of 45A/h. Dynamo with
cut-out switch. Fixed advance.
Cooling: by water circulation, with a finned radiator acting as thermosiphon.
Exhaust: 130 mm diameter and 400 mm long. The diameter of the outlet tube was 28 x 30 mm.
Clutch and gearbox:
The clutch was of the single flat disc type, covered on both sides with a special lining. It was controlled by a pedal placed

52

CHAPTER 3:

THE DIFFERENT 10HP

(It was controlled by a pedal placed …) ... in front of the driver's left foot. The gearbox was of the direct drive, sliding
gear type, with three forward gears and one reverse gear. The first gearshift gives reverse and first gear. The second
gearshift gives second gear and high gear in direct drive. These two shifters were operated by a ball lever on the
gearbox cover.
Number of gear teeth: 16 x 30 for the first gear; 22 x 24 for the second; 17 x 29 for the transmission. The reverse gear
was obtained by means of an intermediate. The reverse gear was obtained by means of an intermediate pinion always in
mesh with a toothing provided on the splitting shaft. The first gear, in its extreme stroke, meshes with this intermediate
gear.
Transmission of the movement to the wheels: This was done by a longitudinal shaft fitted with a cardan joint at each
end. This joint was of the flexible disc type.
Rear axle: Bevel gears had 9 x 67 teeth. The connection of the axle to the chassis was as follows: on each side of the
chassis. Two semi-suspension springs were arranged on each side of the chassis at a certain distance from each other.
These springs had one end clamped by bolts firmly attached to the frame. The ends of the springs had an eye that
received the pin for attachment to the axle. The axle was thus attached to the suspension springs by four joints. The
whole assembly formed an articulated parallelogram which allowed the axle to move in relation to the chassis. The four
springs resisted the reaction torque and provided the thrust. The differential was with bevel satellite gears. The wheels
were mounted on the cone-shaped ends of the differential shafts.
Braking:
1. Braking acting on the differential and rear wheels combined, operated by a pedal placed in front of the driver's right
foot. The brake acting on the differential was placed on the shaft at the output of the gearbox, its drum had a diameter of
260 mm. Two inner shoes40 mm wide were covered with a special lining. Lever arm ratio: on gearbox = 44.8:1, on rear
wheels = 79.6.
2. Brakes on the rear wheels of the same type as the previous one, the drums had a diameter of 350 mm and the shoes
were 55 mm wide. It was operated by a handbrake lever, placed on the gearbox cover. A latch engaging in the notches of
a toothed sector can hold the brake tightly. All these brakes apply both forward and reverse.

■ All-Steel Sedan B10. © ACC

Steering: It was controlled by a steering wheel with an inclined axis and was of the worm gear type which operates a
toothed sector, the movement of this wheel causing the wheels to move by means of levers and connecting rods. The
steering wheel produces a 44° movement of the wheels for steering one way. Gear ratio from 1 to 8.55. Steering was at
will, to the right or left of the vehicle. The gear and brake levers were in the middle.
Weight and wheels:
Approximate empty weight: 1,335 kg. Weight with passengers: 2,335 kg (835 kg front, 1,550 kg rear). Diameter of
driving wheels: 835x135 mm.
Speed: For 2,000 rpm with 9 x 67 rear axle gearing:
Speeds achieved: 1st: 13.25 km/h 2nd: 22.50 km/h 3rd: 41.90 km/h Reverse: Unknown

53

CHAPTER 3:

THE DIFFERENT 10HP

Type B12
The Type B12 was a car that incorporated many of the mechanical elements of the B2 and B10 (engine,
gearbox, rear axle, etc.) but with a chassis with front brakes which was completely new.
Its name for internal use, which for the first time was consistent with its type, was “Type B12".
It should be noted that when the new: “Banjo"
the ““Mines Office “

type of rear axle was adopted in 1926, there will be no second check by

Administrative record:
Application for control: 11 January 1925 as the B9s. Presentation to the “Mines Office “and acceptance: 1 September
1925.
Tested vehicle: n° 130699, with engine nº B 2289 BB.
Technical characteristics:
Category: Commercial name: " 10 HP “Tout Acier” “. Administrative classification: car.
Engine 4 cylinders:
Administrative power (nominal): 9 hp. Effective power: 20 hp at 2 100 rpm. Type: 4-stroke petrol, petrol, benzol, alcohol
carburetted or alcohol.
Bore: 68 mm. Stroke: 100 mm. Displacement: 1 452 cm³.
Electric ignition: by high voltage magneto operated by the engine. Battery 6 Volts with a capacity of 45A/h. Dynamo with
Cut-out switch. Fixed advance. Cooling: by water circulation, with finned radiator acting as thermosiphon.
Exhaust: 130 mm in diameter and 400 mm in length. The diameter of the outlet tube was 28x30 mm.
Clutch and gearbox:
Flat disc clutch with special lining on both sides. with a special lining. It is controlled by a pedal placed in front of the
driver's left foot. The gearbox is of the direct drive type with three forward gears and a reverse gear. The first shifter
gives reverse and first gear. The second one gives second gear and high gear in direct drive. These two shifters were
operated by a ball lever on the gearbox cover. Gearbox ratios: number of gear teeth: gearwheels: 16 x 30 for the 1st; 22
x 24 for the 2nd; 17 x 29 for the gearbox. The reverse gear is obtained by means of an intermediate pinion always in
mesh with a toothing on the drive shaft. This intermediate gear was driven by the 1st gear shifter.
Transmission of the movement to the wheels:
This was done by a shaft with a cardan joint at each end. This joint was of the flexible disc type.
Rear axle: Bevel gears had 9 x 44 teeth or 10x44 teeth. The connection of the axle to the chassis was as follows: on
each side of the chassis. Two semi-suspension springs were arranged on each side of the chassis at a certain distance
from each other. These springs had one end clamped by bolts firmly attached to the frame. The ends of the springs had
an eye that received the pin for attachment to the axle. The axle was thus attached to the suspension springs by four
joints. The whole assembly formed an articulated parallelogram which allowed the axle to move in relation to the chassis.
The four springs resisted the reaction torque and provided the thrust. The differential was with bevel satellite gears. The
wheels were mounted on the cone-shaped ends of the differential shafts.
Braking:
1. Braking acting on the differential and placed on the shaft at the output of the gearbox controlled by a pedal placed in
front of the driver's right foot. The drum had a diameter of 260 mm in diameter. Two extendable inner segments 45 mm
wide were covered with a special lining.
2. Brakes on the rear wheels of the same type as the previous one controlled by a handbrake lever on the gearbox
cover. A lock engaging in the notches of a toothed sector can keep the brake applied.

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