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Capillaroscopic ﬁndings associated with RP may vary, ranging from a normal pattern to abnormalities that show microvascular involvement, including microhemorrhages, irregularly enlarged loops, megacapillaries or giant loops, neoangiogenesis, architectural derangement, and loss of capillaries (1–3,6).
Whilst tight glycemic control has been shown to reduce the risk of microvascular complications, controversy remains regarding the benefit of intensive treatment in relation to the prevention of cardiovascular events.
Diabetes Care 2015;38:140-149 UKPDS Clinical Outcomes for glibenclamide 1977-1997 Heart Attack Microvascular Complications F/NF (n=21) Complications ¯ 22% Reduction (p=0.056) ¯ 34% Reduction (p=0.017) ¯ 18% Reduction (p=0.018) ADVANCE :
A plausible scenario in which NO inactivates these iron-containing enzyme systems in the microvascular endothelial cells that constitute a major site of the BBB, thereby causing cellular destruction or alteration and loss of integrity of the BBB, may be postulated.
05-07-09 E a r ly a nd L ate L e sions Important features of the tissue lesions in various stages of scleroderma are early microvascular damage, mononuclear-cell infiltrates, and slowly developing fibrosis (Fig.
BP BrS CAC CAD CCS CCTA CHD CKD CMD CMR CPET CPR CT CV CVA CVD DBP DCM EACPR EAPC ECV ECG EDS EF EP ESC Ex-R exCR FFR FITT HCM HDL HF HIIT HR HFmrEF HFpEF HFrEF HRmax HRR HTAD HTx ICD IMT INOCA LBBB LDL LEAD LGE LV LVEDD LVEF LVNC LVOT LQTS Blood pressure Brugada syndrome Coronary artery calcium Coronary artery disease Chronic coronary syndrome Coronary computed tomography angiography Congenital heart disease Chronic kidney disease Coronary microvascular dysfunction Cardiac magnetic resonance Cardiopulmonary exercise test Cardiopulmonary resuscitation Computed tomography Cardiovascular Cerebrovascular accident Cardiovascular disease Diastolic blood pressure Dilated cardiomyopathy European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation European Association of Preventive Cardiology Extracellular volume Electrocardiogram Ehlers Danlos syndrome Ejection fraction Electrophysiological European Society of Cardiology Exercise-related Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation Fractional flow reserve Frequency, intensity, time, and type Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy High-density lipoprotein Heart failure High-intensity interval training Heart rate Heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction Maximal heart rate Heart rate reserve Hereditary thoracic aortic disease Heart transplant Implantable cardioverter defibrillator Intima media thickness Ischaemic and non-obstructive coronary artery disease Left bundle branch block Low-density lipoprotein Lower extremity artery disease Late gadolinium enhancement Left ventricular Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter Left ventricular ejection fraction Left ventricular non-compaction Left ventricular outflow tract Long QT syndrome Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/advance-article/doi/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa605/5898937 by guest on 31 August 2020 Recommendations for participation in recreational/leisure-time sports in asymptomatic individuals with mitral regurgitation .
Hyperglycemiainduced oxidative stress promotes inflammation through increased endothelial cell damage, microvascular permeability, and increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, ultimately leading to decreased insulin sensitivity and evolution of diabetic complications [69, 70] (Figure 1).
Recent studies have suggested that chronic low levels of inflammation and oxidative stress may play a role in the development of diastolic dysfunction via microvascular endothelial inflammation and tissue fibrosis that results in impaired left ventricular relaxation.11 Due to its distinct pathophysiology, diastolic dysfunction responds differently to traditional heart failure therapies that were intended for the treatment of HFrEF.