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Nucleus accumbens neuronal maturation differences in young rats bred for low versus high voluntary running behavior Michael D.
une centrale le nucleus pulposus et une périphérique l'annulus fibrosus.
21 RC141 1 of 4 Cocaine and Amphetamine Increase Extracellular Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens of Mice Lacking the Dopamine Transporter Gene Ezio Carboni,1 Ce´cile Spielewoy,2 Cinzia Vacca,1 Marika Nosten-Bertrand,2 Bruno Giros,2 and Gaetano Di Chiara1 Department of Toxicology and Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Center for Neuropharmacology, University of Cagliari, 09126 Cagliari, Italy, and 2Neurobiology and Psychiatry Faculte´ de Medicine de Creteil, 94000 Creteil, France 1 Behavioral and biochemical studies suggest that dopamine (DA) plays a role in the reinforcing and addictive properties of drugs of abuse.
was observed in several brain regions, including striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, septum, and to a lesser degree C-FOS INDUCTION IN NON-DOPAMINE AREAS IN DAT–/– MICE parietal and cingulate cortex, in wild-type brains (Fig.
We have tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of inhibitors selective for the three monoamine transporters with those of a nonspecific inhibitor, cocaine, on uptake of 3H-dopamine into synaptosomes from frontal cortex, caudate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens from wild-type, NET, and dopamine transporter (DAT) knock-out mice.
Neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) that receive the highest levels of convergent excitatory glutamatergic input (blue lines) from the PFC, BLA and thalamus are selectively activated to form a neuronal ensemble that corresponds to or encodes the specific combination of stimuli and their relationships on the basis of past experience.
Hutchison1 1Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, and 2Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292 Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion.
Furthermore, in electrophysiological investigations, agonist properties of the derivatives were verified at the crucial population of melatonergic receptors localized in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN).
a direct nucleus accumbens (NAcc)–SNR pathway, an indirect NAcc–SNR pathway involving the ventral pallidum (VP) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and a disynaptic cortico-STN–SNR pathway.
Mitochondria (use oxygen for metabolism) have their own set of DNA, separate from that of the cell nucleus 2 ii.
(2009) provide this lacking evidence by studying synaptic plasticity in the substantia nigra pars reticulata of 18 Parkinson’s disease patients undergoing therapeutic implantation of deep brain stimulating electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus.
Although the brain circuitry underlying addiction is complex, it is unequivocal that the mesolimbic dopamine system, consisting of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), as well as associated limbic structures (FIG.
Furthermore, in a successful bid to reconcile the paradoxes and even quarrels arising from this concept, Janin  has used the Greek philosopher’s hot-and-cold metaphor to devise the concepts of “hot nucleus” and “cold nucleus.” According to Janin, the cold nucleus of trauma forms as a result of an early inadequate relationship, which opens the floodgates to an unmanageable excitation that subsequently constitutes the hot nucleus.
Group Size (kb) Number of genes Eukaryotic nucleus 13,500 (L) 6,000 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Nematode 100,000 (L) 13,500 Caenorhabditis elegans Plant 120,000 (L) 25,000 Arabidopsis thaliana Human 3,000,000 (L) 20 à 30 000 Homo sapiens Prokaryote Bacterium 4,700 (C) 4,500 Escherichia coli Bacterium 1,830 (C) 1,703 Hemophilus influenzae 1,660 (C) 1,738 Methanococcus jannaschii Bacterium Viruses Bacterial virus 172 (L/C) 300 T4 Human virus 229 (L) 200 HCMV (herpes group) Eukaryotic organelles 78 (C) 34 S.
Disque Intervertébral • Nucleus puplosus ovoïde, gélatineuse excentré vers l’arrière • Annulus fibrosus anneau fibreux externe (fibre de Sharpey) anneau fibreux interne • Plaque cartilagineuse VARIATIONS MORPHOLOGIQUES ESPACES RACHIDIENS • ESPACE EPIDURAL :