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The two basic operations are conjunction and disjunction, represented on the tree respectively by a listing or a branching of sentences.
So try to keep your sentences plain, clear and well structured.
2006 年6 月 第 29 卷 第3 期 中国英语教学 （双月刊） CELEA Journal（Bim onthly） Jun．2006 Vol． 29 No． 3 A NEW MODEL OF TEACHING COMPOSITION Gong Xueping Sichuan Nor m al University Abstract The teaching of basic skills of a co m position could be a quartet involving a cluster of interactions by teacher and students ：warming up ，new ite m of presentation ，developing it and case analysis．This m odel can be repeatedly performed in the process of teaching different skills． The rather unusual grading procedure is very hu manism ，w hich lessens the burden of teacher s correcting ，m ore im portantly ，it stim ulates learners responsibility and explores their initiative and creativity．In addition ， this m odel reveals an accessible way to learn with initiative by the strategies of performing the individual－ featured and interactive teaching and learning ， also it entrusts students with confidence and freedo m ． Key w ords co m position ； teaching ；m odel This m odel is co m posed of three parts ，one is the teaching of basic skills ，the second is writing practice ， the third is checking and evaluation．In other w ords ， this m odel is a cluster of interactions by teacher and students that could be repeatedly perform ed in the process of teaching different contents． The teaching of basic skills m ainly refers to teacher s behavior thatinvolves four steps ：warming up ， new ite m of presentation ，developing the new ite m and case analysis． Take the teaching of writing a paragraph as an exa m ple ， the four steps are the activity of warming up ，teaching a piece of gra m m ar ＆ m echanics ，m ore sentence patterns concerned ，and the activity of case analysis． The following is the description in detail． Teacher organizes the activity of warming up．In warming up ，first ，teacher writes a topic on the blackboard and lets students contribute sentences freely w hich relate to the topic．So m e students surely m ake good sentences w orthy of teacher s praise and of popular use ；take care not to criticize the poor w ork done by so m e students so that teacher can successfully inspire the w hole class initiative in the teaching of every tim e． In sequence ， it s now the high tim e for teacher to teach gra m m ar ，for exa m ple ， the correct use of capitalization ，or the correct use of part of speech ，but with no m entioning of w ho s mistake．Students usually can be concentrated on listening to their teacher because the teaching of gra m m aris closely related to the difficulties they m et in free writing． After the tw o steps ， teacher shall develop the teaching by contributing m ore sentence patterns of the topic w hich students failto give ， but are useful for developing the topic ，and requiring students to imitate m ore sentences based on the patterns．This step is challenging ，but full of interesting． When students are writing ，teacher m ay gather so m e basic sentences faults to m ake case analysis ， m ay choose the sentences lacking conciseness ，point out the a m biguous expressions or the twisted sentences ，or the sentences of Chinese－ English expressions fro m students etc．Teacher s explanation and correction of the faulty sentences w ould w ork successfully ，and always can call students response directly． 115 A Ne w Model of Teaching Co m position Gong Xueping Teaching basic skills in this way strategically transforms the dull knowledge－ explanation into a co m petitive ga m e that not only puts knowledge across students ，but also stim ulates another eager try in the following teaching． This process involves tw o tim es of mistakes correction and one new ite m of presentation ，m ost im portantly ， it e m bodies a continuable interaction between teaching and learning． The second part of the m odel is writing practice ，m ainly an exercise given to students．In the teaching of writing a paragraph ，the exercise is divided into tw o ：polish of writing ，and focus arrange m ent of sentences． After the four－ step procedure ，students are m ore conscious to re－ write and refine their written sentences． They will take gra m m ar into consideration ，they will use patterns to express and they will try to write plain and distinct sentences w hile writing． Up to now ，the sentences they wrote are generally correct ，can convey sense．The closely followed exercise is the training of focus arrange m ent．Before re－ arranging sentences ， teacher m ay re mind students of the topic again ， lead the m to have a sm all discussion by m aking everybody have a say． Around the topic ，students are inspired to increase or decrease so m e sentences they hope．Since the exercise focuses on the establish m ent of the m ain idea of a paragraph ， it s not the tim e to correct the error of the new－written sentences if there is any．Only w hen students have a centered idea in their mind ，can they organize the sentences into a paragraph ，avoid redundancy and a m biguity． Though this paragraph is not written in a breath ，the training leads students to write fro m single sentences to a paragraph step by step．Sure they shall write a good paragraph after m any tim es of this training． The last part of the m odel is checking and evaluation w hich are interesting and inspiring．The new teaching m odel also calls for a m obilization of students initiative．Stressing the learner－ centered pattern in the teaching and learning process ，Daniel A ． Kister ，an Am erican professor ，teaches in Sichuan Norm al University ，he w orks as a good exa m ple．In his writing class ，seven or eight students good at writing serve as tutors for other students ， they grade an assign m ent for other students ，not the teacher． Following the set norms ， the tutors first give a tentative grade to the assign m ents of students w ho did not tutor．In the light of the tutor s grade ，each student then gives his／ her ow n grade and returns the assign m ent to the teacher．If this grade differs fro m the tutor s grade by m ore than three points（ten points for total）， the student gives a one－ sentence reason for altering it．The teacher reviews and gives the final grade ，usually accepting the students grades of their ow n w ork（Daniel ，2003） ．Other teachers followed Daniel s suit or m ade so m e m ore try ， for exa m ple ， each tim e they chose seven of the class to be tutors ， teacher corrected the tutors assign m ents one by one and face to face ，then ，each of the seven tutors graded the assign m ents of his group w ho did not tutor and returned the graded assign m ent to his fellow m en．His fellow m en w ould re－ check it and evaluate his tutor s grading ， then he ll grade his ow n assign m ent ，co m paring his tutor s grading with his ow n ，presenting his opinion m aybe ，returned the assign m ent to the teacher． Teacher keeps a record of each student s self－ learning data to observe ， evaluate and supervise the w hole process of each student s self－ learning． This rather unusual grading procedure lessens the burden of teacher s correcting ， m ore im portantly ，it stim ulates students responsibility in judging their ow n w ork ，they beco m e m ore interested and involved with analysis ， speculation and criticism ，therefore ，the exploration in learning cultivates student s initiative and creativity．As for teacher ，he is always a guide and a designer in the w hole process of teaching and learning． Let s have a sim ple look at another exa m ple ， the teaching of coherent paragraphs． In warming up ，students are required to organize w ords and phrases into a sentence and then put several sentences into a paragraph with logic ，paying attention to the linkage of sentences． The miscellaneous errors of writing a paragraph now lie in the use of conjunctions of sentences． Teacher will take the chance to teach the m echanics of using conjunctions． Taking the organized paragraphs fro m students as sa m ples ，teacher m ay present so m e proper conjunctions and ，at the sa m e tim e present so m e im proper or zero ones as well to co m pare ， letting students discuss till they agree．This correction is done without m uch conspicuous notice ； it s also the presentation of a new ite m ．This style of teaching is very arguing ，interactive and effective． Basing on the teaching ，teacher will contribute another paragraph to drill the use of conjunctions ，better repeat the sa m e conjunctions learnt above so that he can m ake students bear the use of conjunctions wellin mind． 116 CELEA Journal 67 The third step of teaching basic skills is spreading the technique ， fro m the use of conjunctions to the use of other transitions ，a w ord or a phrase for instance ，by organizing ten disordered sentences or m ore into tw o or three paragraphs ，stressing that the tw o paragraphs are in the logic connection of a certain topic．Between paragraphs ，based on the m eaning of sentences or on the m ood of speaker ，a proper transition is needed．Only w hen students understand the function of a transition ，could they know w hat a transition is ，and know w hen and how to use a transition． As far as students roughly know the use of conjunctions and transitions ， teacher m ay give another group of sentences ， require students to link the m with conjunctions or transitions around a m ain idea that the sentences m ay convey． The last is case analysis．Students w ork m ay differ fro m each other ，so m e write sentences without logic ， so m e m ay m ake an im proper shifting in focus of paragraphs ，others m ay present broken sentences in m eaning because of the wrong use of conjunctions． Teacher gathers faulty use of the m as m any as possible ，explains each error and corrects the m either by teacher himself or by students． For the second part ， the writing practice teacher assigned for students as their ho m ew ork is writing a coherent paragraph．The exercise m ay include tw o ，one is organizing the given w ords and phrases into a paragraph by the correct use of conjunctions ， the other is paragraph writing．Basing on the learning and practice of m echanics of conjunctions and transitions in class ，especially through the case analysis ， students are eager to do the ho m ew ork by using conjunctions and transitions thatthey didn t know before． The last of the new m odelis checking and evaluation．Quite like the above ， teacher first corrects the tutors assign m ents ， then the student tutor grades for each of his group ，each student gives his／her ow n grade and returns the assign m ent to the teacher．The w orth m entioning is teacher s assign m ents to the student tutors． Each tim e ，seven students can have a chance to discuss with teacher ，the face－ to－ face co m m unication shortens the distance between teacher and students ，they feel dear to each other ， therefore ， teacher s guide can im press student unexpectedly． Within a se m ester ， the w hole class can have tw o tim es of opportunities to get individual guide ，w hich is a great help for teacher to supervise his students self－ learning． Face－ to－ face coach also e m bodies hu m anism that shows m ore concern for the individual difference and pays close attention to all sorts of students． At the sa m e tim e ，this m odel reveals an accessible way to learn with initiative by the strategies of performing the individual－ featured and interactive teaching and learning ，entrusts students with confidence and freedo m ．In checking and evaluation of the new m odel ，it shifts part of responsibility fro m teacher onto students． The circulation of initiative and responsibility turns out having aroused a bigger initiative and creativity fro m students． References Kister ，D ．A ．2003．The use of literature in teaching English co m m unication to Asian university students． Journal of Teaching English Literature 7 ：118－ 119． 117
Session de formation La rédaction des sentences CCI Jeudi 11 avril 2019, de 14h à 18h PROGRAMME Participants :
Passive Voice for Imperative Sentences Sentence which can't be changed into Passive Grammar •Articles "a/an and the"
Ever since then, students all over the world have found it worthwhile to study the structure of words and sentences.
S V S V S V -Some sentences also have an object [O].
Applying these criteria to, say, sentences (1) through (6) below, it is straightforwardly obvious which ones are complex and which ones are not as much:
36 TUNIS (TAP) - The Justice Ministry decided, on the 1st anniversary of the January 14 Revolution for Freedom and Dignity, to commute death sentence to life in prison for 122 prisoners, grant 3,868 others the special amnesty by quashing or reducing their sentences, and make 4,976 detainees benefit from release on parole.
Read the sentences and match them to the picture.
1 TRADUCTION ET PUBLICATION DE L’ŒUVRE DE SAINT THOMAS D’AQUIN A l’occasion de la première traduction du Commentaire des sentences de Pierre Lombard par Thomas d’Aquin, rappelons que l’essentiel de l’œuvre du Docteur Angélique est disponible grâce à l’Institut qui porte son nom et dont il échet de remercier tous ceux qui participent à la traduction des écrits de Thomas d’Aquin.
Identify the category of the underlined words in each of the following sentences:
Page 56 – Special Units Ignore the last two sentences in the sidebar.