Free Movement of People and Goods in West Africa .pdf



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ACTION
JOUTH -WAEMU

ECOWAS – Spain funds on
Migration and Development

Mobilizing overland travelers behind African Integration

Report on the state of Free Movement
of People and Goods in West Africa

(The digital version of this document in French, English and Spanish can be downloaded at:
www.ajuemoa.net )

December 2012

i
RECEIPT N°2004-323/MATD DU 28 MAI 2004 BURKINA FASO
HEADQUARTERS : Rue Bélèm TUGRI Secteur 06 - 01 P.O Box 2878 Ouagadougou 01- Phone :(00226) 50.46.11.09
CELL: (00226) 70.24.17.81 – Web: www.ajuemoa.net E-mail: ajuemoa2004@yahoo.fr

FOREWORD
The establishment of Economic Spaces such as the Economic Community of West Africa
( ECOWAS) should not address the sole concern of economic integration, but should also
and mainly aims at a real development where people should feel at home everywhere. This
situation could be effective without a free movement of people and goods as stated by the
provisions of such space. Poorly known by the inhabitants of this space, these provisions
are trampled by those in charge of enforcing peace and security in a good number of
counties through various harassments and the illegal collection of some money. In the face
of such a situation, only the civil society which is both closer to the populations and the
supranational authorities can be an appropriate answer.
It is in this context that a group of young afro-optimists created the WAEMU YOUTH
ACTION association (A.J.UEMOA) whose overall goal is the Development of African
States. Its actions include: the free movement of people and goods, regional and African
integration, migration & development, protection of the rights of people in movement,
peace prevention, conflicts management, facilitations, advocacy, and CSO capacity
building. The Association is a driving belt between the major principles of the Regional
Organizations such as: ECOWAS, WAEMU, CILSS etc. and works to bring people
together through a synergy of action of sensitization and the drafting of socio-education
projects. According to the Sub regional Organizations such as ECOWAS AND WAEMU,
the free movement of people and goods remains the cornerstone of the regional integration
in West Africa. And for all the development partners, regional integration is the way to
achieve a competitive economy against the globalization challenges of the development
systems. In order to put in place an efficient strategy and to bring the African populations
to take ownership of the integration concept, A.J.UEMOA, with the financial support of
the ECOWAS - Spain funds on Migration and Development, has implemented a project
called « Mobilizing overland travelers behind the African Integration Project ».
One of the activities of the project consisted of collecting data from travelers through a
survey and an interview. This document presents the outputs of this data collection
activity.

ii

Summary of the Project
The project on « Mobilizing overland travelers behind the African Integration » consisted
of convoying public transportation coaches to countries bordering Burkina Faso. The goal
is to rally a target group of 16.126 passengers behind their rights and duties according to
the free movement of people and goods, identify the difficulties, and gather views and
suggestions to help advance the regional integration. The project was executed in
Ouagadougou by surveyors/jobless people with university background with an ECOWASSpain fund on Migration and Development for a period of 12 months.
The outputs of these actions helped to:
1- sensitize 20 004 people on the ECOWAS rights and duties Protocol on free
movement of people and goods;
2- Fight against road harassments and illicit collection of funds at each check point ;
3- Reinforce the partnership between the civil society and state and regional
institutions ;
4- Have a referential document on free movement of people and goods practice within
the community space.

iii

Acknowledgements


ECOWAS/Spain fund on Migration and Development ;



Economic Community of the West Africa States (CEDEAO) ;



Spain Republic ;



West Africa Economic Monetary Union (UEMOA) ;



Ministry of Youth, Vocational Training and Employment (MJFPE) ;



Ministry of des Transports, Post and Digital Economy (MTPEN) ;



Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Cooperation (MAECR) ;



International Transportation Companies and Transporters Unions ;



Authorities of Countries of Intervention : Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana,
Mali, Niger, Togo ;



Travelers on the Roads Covered.

iv

List of Abbreviations, acronyms and initials

A.J.UEMOA : WAEMU Youth Action
APT

: Association for the Prevention Against Torture

BAD

: African Development Bank

BCEAO

:

CEA

: Economic Commission for Africa

CEDEAO

: Economic Community of West African States

CILSS

: Inter State Committee for the Control of Drought in the Sahel

CPCC

: ECOWAS conflict Prevention Framework

CSAO

:

ECD

: Education to Democratic Citizenship

IDH

: Human Development Index

MAECR

: Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Cooperation

MASSN

: Ministry of Social Action and National Solidarity

OCDE

: Cooperation and Economic Development Organization

OSC

: Civil Society Organization

OUAGA

:

PIB

: Domestic Gross Product

PNUD

: United Nations Development Program

PPA

; Purchasing Power Parity

SP/CNI

: Permanent Secretariat of the National Commission for Integration

UA

: African Union

UEMOA

: West African Economic and Monetary Union

West African States Central Bank

Sahel and West Africa Club

Ouagadougou

v

Table of Contents

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................ ii
SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT ................................................................................................................................. III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ....................................................................................................................................... IV
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS, ACRONYMS AND INITIALS ................................................................................................... V
TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................................................................... VI
LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................................................... VIII
LIST OF MAPS, FIGURES AND GRAPHS .................................................................................................................... IX
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................................... X

GENERAL INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................. 1
CHAPTER I : CONTEXT OF THE STUDY ...................................................................... 2
I.1- ¨GENERAL PRESENTATION OF ECOWAS ......................................................................................................... 2
I.2- SOCIO POLITICAL,SOCIO CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC CONTEXT .............................................................................. 3
I.3- CONTEXT OF FREE MOVEMENT IN THE ECOWAS ZONE ........................................................................................ 4
I.4- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY .............................................................................................................................. 5

CHAPTER II : METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE DATA GATHERING ........... 6
II.1- DATA GATHERING METHODOLOGIES ........................................................................................................... 6
II.1.1- Sample of the Target Population ................................................................................................... 6
II.1.2- Interview Methodology ................................................................................................................. 7
II.1.3- Survey Methodology ..................................................................................................................... 7
II.1.3.1- Questionnaire based survey ................................................................................................................... 7
II.1.3.2- Travel form based survey ...................................................................................................................... 8
II.1.3.3- Guide based interview ........................................................................................................................... 8
II.1.3.4-C Data gathering staff ............................................................................................................................ 9

II.2- ASSESSMENT AND DIFFICULTIES OF THE COLLECTION .......................................................................................... 9
II.2.1- Difficulties of the gathering ......................................................................................................... 9
II.2.2- Assessment of the data gathering .............................................................................................. 11
II.3- USE OF THE DATA GATHERING FORMS ........................................................................................................ 12
II.3.1- data entering .............................................................................................................................. 12
II.3.2- Data processing .......................................................................................................................... 12
II.3.3- Data analysis................................................................................................................................ 12
II.4- NOTIONS AND TERMINOLOGIES .................................................................................................................. 13

CHAPTER III : OUTPUTS OF POLLING......................................................................... 15
III.1- CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INTERVIEWEE ....................................................................................................... 15
III.1.1- Road considered characteristics ................................................................................................ 15
III.1.2- Country of residence .................................................................................................................. 16
III.1.3- Age and sex of the interviewees ................................................................................................ 16
III.2- VIEWS OF THE INTERVIEWEES ON AFRICAN INTEGRATION ................................................................................. 17
III.2.1- View of all the interviewees ....................................................................................................... 17
III.2.2- View of the interviewees according to the sex .......................................................................... 18
III.2.3- View of the interviewees according to the road considered and the country of residence ....... 18

CHAPTER IV : SURVEY OUTPUTS................................................................................ 21
IV.1- CONVOYS DATA ...................................................................................................................................... 21
IV.1.1- Perception on Travellers/ checking points authorities ............................................................... 21
IV.1.2- Perception on the engines of change of the free movement .................................................... 22
IV.1.3- number and time of stop ........................................................................................................... 23
IV.2-SURVEYS DATA ....................................................................................................................................... 24
IV.2.1- Country of residence of the people involved in the survey ......................................................... 24
IV.2.2- Distribution per age and sex of the people involved in the survey ............................................ 25
IV.2.3- Occupation of the people surveyed ........................................................................................... 25

vi

IV.2.4- Reasons of travel ....................................................................................................................... 27
IV.2.5- Knowledge on the integration and practice of free movement .......... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
IV.2.6- Appreciation on free movement ......................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
IV.2.7- Appreciation on African Integration .................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
IV.2.8- wave of suggestions from interviews conducted with travelers on improving free movement
......................................................................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................................. 37
CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................................. 37
RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 37

BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................... 39
ANNEXS ............................................................................................................................. 40
ANNEX I : OUTPUTS TABLE ......................................................................................................................... 41
ANNEX II : DATA GATHERING TOOLS .......................................................................................................... 46

vii

List of Tables

Table 1.1 : Demo-economic Situation of ECOWAS countries ........................................... 4
Table 2.1 : Distances covered on the roads considered under the study ............................. 6
Table 2.2 : Recap of data gathering ..................................................................................... 11
Table 2.3 : Rate of responses of individual data gathering ............................................... 11
Table 4.1 : Level of indicators on the state of relations travelers/ checking authorities
(country of departure) .......................................................................................................... 21
Table 4.2 : Level of indicators on the state of relations travelers/checking points
authorities (hosting country ) .............................................................................................. 22
Table 4.3 : Level of indicators of the engines of change of the state of free movement ... 22
Table 4.4 : Average number of stop per road and type of convoy ................................... 23
Table 4.5 : average time (in minute) of stops according of the roads covered and the type
of convoy ........................................................................................................................... 23
Table 4.6 : Distribution of travelers per occupation according to the road covered ......... 25
Table 4.7 : Distribution of travellers per number of travels according to the occupation . 26
Table 4.8 : Percentage of use of document according to the country of residence ............ 29
Table 4.9 : Percentage of documents use according to the occupation ............................ 29
Table A1 : Percentage (%) of checking according to the occupation ............................. 41
Table A2 : Distribution (%) of convoys per total time of stops according to the convoy.. 41
Table A3 : Distribution (%) of convoys per total time of stops according to the roads
covered................................................................................................................................. 41
Table A4 : Some indicators per road covered (%) ............................................................. 42
Table A5 : Distribution (%) of travellers per response provided according to the sex .... 42
Table A6 : Reasons and travel documents ......................................................................... 43
Table A7 : Reasons and solutions to hassles during the travel ......................................... 43
Table A8 : Reasons and solutions of hassles during another travel ................................ 44
Table A9 : Proportion of travelers according to the sex and the number of travel .......... 44
Table A10 : Knowledge and practice of free movement ................................................... 44
Table A11 : Reasons behind the absence of complaints in case of hassles according to the
sex ...................................................................................................................................... 45
Table A12 : Satisfaction regarding free movement according to the sex ......................... 45
Table A13 : Confidence in the African Integration according to the sex .......................... 45

viii

List of maps, figures and graphs

Map 2.1 : Roads covered by convoys from Ouagadougou ................................................... 7
Graph 3.1 : Weight (%) of people surveyed according to the roads covered .................... 15
Graph 3.2 : Countries of residence of the people surveyed ................................................. 16
Graph 3.3 : Age pyramid of people surveyed ..................................................................... 16
Graph 3.4 : Percentage of views on African Integration ................................................... 17
Graph 3.5 : Percentage of views per sex ............................................................................. 18
Graph 3.6 : Percentage of views per road covered ............................................................. 18
Graph 3.7 : Percentage of views according to the country of residence ............................ 20
Graph 4.1 : Country of residence of the people surveyed .................................................. 24
Graph 4.2 : Age pyramid of the people surveyed ............................................................... 25
Graph 4.3 : Percentage of travelers per occupation and per sex ......................................... 26
Graph 4.4 : Reasons of the current trip according to the sex .............................................. 27
Graph 4.5 : Documents used for the current trip according to the sex .............................. 28
Graph 4.6 : Percentage of travelers who responded « yes » to the question according to the
sex ............................................................................................. Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Graph 4.7 : Percentage of travelers according to the sex and meaning provided to the free
movement ................................................................................. Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Graph 4.8 : Percentage of travelers according to the sex and difficulties listed ...... Erreur !
Signet non défini.
Graph 4.9 : Percentage of travelers according to the reasons of hassles and sex ..... Erreur !
Signet non défini.
Graph 4.10 : Percentage of travelers according to the solutions to the hassles and sex
.................................................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Graph 4.11 : Percentage of travelers according to the level of satisfaction regarding free
movement .................................................................................. Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Graph 4.12 : Percentage of travelers according to the sex and level of satisfaction wioth
respect to free movement ............................................................ Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Graph 4.13 : Percentage of travelers according to the level of confidence in African
Integration ................................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
Graph 4.14 : Percentage of travelers according to the sex and level of confidence in
African Integration ................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.

ix

Executive Summary
In this globalization era, from all the parts of the world, big regional groupings have been
consolidated themselves. The African Continent does not escape this reality; African
Integration will be achievable when all its different regions are organized. Just after the
independence of the African States, some of them started some forms of get together which
experienced slow starting and finally ended up in major economic spaces.
In West Africa, ECOWAS was created in 1975 with the goal, amongst others, to turn this
space into a free people and goods movement zone. Since 1979, many protocols were
signed to promote free movement. However, the free movement of people and good has
not been enforced yet in this space.
It is in view of this observation that the Project « Mobilizing overland travelers behind the
African Integration » was initiated and executed par the A.J.UEMOA. One of the
components of this project focuses on data collection by the means of survey and interview
investigation.
Both the survey and investigation were carried out from March through November 2012.
They were carried out by some young people embarked with public transportation coaches
from Ouagadougou to cities like Niamey, Cotonou, Lome, Kumasi, Bouake and Bamako.
At the end of the data collection 18 032 people were interviewed, 3 216 responded to the
survey questionnaire and 105 resource people underwent in-depth interviews.
The majority of the interviewees was made up of males. 40% of the travelers encountered
on the roads are traders or businessmen. With an average age of 35, the majority of the
travelers live in Burkina Faso which is the country of departure and arrival of the convoys.
The travelers encountered travel regularly on the roads considered: about 80% of them
have already travelled more than four times on the ECOWAS roads.
91% of the travelers investigated said that they were for African Integration whereas 6% of
them were indifferent to the issue. Men seem to be more in favor of African Integration
than women.
Most of the travelers (60%) move for Job/business purposes. The majority of travelers
(70%) use their national Identity cards as travel document against 8% using the ECOWAS
passport and the international vaccination certificate (41%).
As for harassments, 74% of travelers state that they paid illegal money, but 21% say that
they made sure to get all the required documents before travelling.
75% of the travelers have knowledge on ECOWAS, 65% are informed about the free
movement of people and goods and 57% have knowledge about the African Integration. .
Amongst them, 34% have been victims of harassment during the travel. However, 32% do
not know that they could report harassment cases. 5% said they reported harassment cases.
x

To the question to know why harassment cases are not reported, 40% of the travelers state
that they ignore where to report and 40 % find that judiciary procedures are lengthy.
Concerning the conditions related to the free movement of people and goods, 20% of
travelers say that they are satisfied against 37% who are not satisfied. Regarding The issue
of African Integration, 40% of the travelers have confidence in it against 16%.

xi

GENERAL INTRODUCTION
The hereby document is the report of surveys and interview outputs carried out under the
project for mobilizing overland travelers behind the African Integration Project.
This project was implemented and executed by the association called A.J.UEMOA.
Funded by the ECOWAS-Spain fund on Migration and Development the goals of the
project are to eradicate poverty in the West African sub region and to build the capacity
of the Civil Societies Organizations, the ambition of this project is to help in achieving
the 2020 vision of the ECOWAS.
The activities identified under the project included, amongst others, sensitization of
overland travelers and a data collection on the travelers’ views on the free movement of
people and goods, the sub regional and African integration.
The major phases of the survey included what follows:
-

Preparatory activities : facts finding missions, training and survey documents
preparation ;

-

Recruitment and training on the survey and interviews process ;

-

Travel Survey and interview ;

-

Drafting of referential documents.

The hereby document of analysis deals with the methodology and the outputs of the
survey and investigation. It starts with a presentation of the ECOWAS context. Then, it
attacks the methodology used in the survey and investigation. At last, the outputs of the
data analysis are presented.

1

CHAPTER I: CONTEXT OF THE STUDY
Globalization is an irreversible phenomenon and therefore, it should be taken into
account in designing state development and fulfillment. Concerning Africa, economic
and commercial fragmentation observed is as well harmful as tribalism in politics. The
multiplication of customs and administrative procedures, the high cost of transportation,
rigged markets, the inadequate distribution of labor force and capital, the discrepancy
between the offer and the demand, the poor state of the international roads are, amongst
others, factors which slow the continent development.
Africa remains hugely an exporter of raw materials, without added value. It weighs for
2% of the international trade, with 12% of the global population. Its population has the
highest growth rate.
The state of African integration is tributary of the sub regional integration. Therefore,
the obstacles mentioned under achieving the sub regional integrated spaces constitute de
facto limitations to achieving the African Integration. As a result it is necessary that the
« micro-States » create larger and stronger economic and demographic groupings in
terms of production and consumption. The sub regional and African integration appears
today as the sole way to overcome under development, hence the necessity to create
economic, political and socio cultural integration spaces. As far as ECOWAS is
concerned, many valuable actions have been carried out. However, some limitations
have been noted mainly regarding the free movement of people and goods.
I.1- General Presentation of ECOWAS
ECOWAS is a huge human and economic potential with an area of 6 millions square
meters (Km2) and a populations estimated to nearly 250 millions inhabitants. It includes
15 member states: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verte, Ivory Coast, the Gambia, Ghana,
Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra –Leone and Togo. From the
historical standpoint, the ECOWAS space is characterized by the extreme mobility of
the population. Nearly, 90% of the migration influx are made by land over more than 15
000 Km of borders between the member states.
The cardinal goal of ECOWAS is the creation of a customs union and an economic
union. The lift of constraints to the freedom of movement of people, goods, services and
capital is the key requirement.
During its creation in 1975, ECOWAS put in place a barrage of texts aiming at
formalizing an integrated economic space. Indeed, many protocols for the promoting
free movement of people and goods were adopted in 1979. However, it should be noted
that in spite of some progress registered, some difficulties, notably road harassments and
the illicit collections of money do prevail.

2

I.2- Socio political, sociocultural and economic context
The West Africa countries are marked by internal sociopolitical crises and a weakness in
the inter-African trades when compared to trade exchanges made by individual countries
of Europe, Asia or America. From existing data, it comes out that « Their markets being
limited, they do not offer interesting performance perspectives to potential investors,
while diversification of production and exports are delayed. The investments
possibilities dedicated to essential infrastructures whose variability depends on scale
economies are limited » (APT, 2006: 133).
The States of the ECOWAS community space have in common some features which can
help to facilitate the integration process. The conducive factors are geo-historical,
sociolinguistics and economic by nature. The whole zone has had big empires such as
the empire of Ghana, the empire of Sonrhai and the empire of Mali. The stay of
European explorers and colonizers have had an influence on the these people in the
political organization .However the colonization and decolonization process had as
cultural corollary to impose on each country an official language. That is why we have
currently three languages used in the community. These languages include: English,
French and Portuguese.
Most of the populations of the countries of the community double every 20 to 30 years
in the face of a relatively low life expectancy. In the UNDP 2011 Sustainable Human
Development report, the first ECOWAS country in the ranking was at the 133th rank out
of 187.

3

Table 1.1: Demo–Economic Situation of ECOWAS countries
Countries
Population in
2010
(million)

Demographic
Growth rate
(2000-2010)

Life
expectancy

GDP /hbt ($)
PPA

Ranking
IDH 2011

Benin

9,0

3,2

56,1

1 508

167

Burkina Faso

16,0

3,3

55,4

1 187

181

Capo Verte

0,5

1,6

74,2

3 644

133

Côte d'Ivoire

22,0

2,2

55,4

1 701

170

The Gambia

1,8

3

58,5

1 415

168

Ghana

24,0

2,2

64,2

1 552

135

Guinea

10,0

2,1

54,1

1 048

178

Guinea-Bissau

1 071

176

1,6

2,3

48,1

Liberia

4,0

3,7

56,8

396

182

Mali

15,0

3,1

51,4

1 185

175

Niger

16,0

3,7

54,7

690

186

Nigeria

158,0

2,4

51,9

2 203

156

Senegal

13,0

2,6

59,3

1 817

155

Sierra Leone

6,0
7,0

3,2
2,6

47,8
57,1

808
850

180
162

Togo

Sources : UNDP 2011 Human Development Report

I.3- The context of the free movement in the ECOWAS region
The issue of the free movement of people and goods in the ECOWAS space is a major
challenge to the region political and economic integration .Indeed, this free movement is
not in reality tangible. It is strongly hindered by less orthodox practices: Erection of
physical barriers, illicit payments, systematic Rackets, delays in hauling goods between
the various member states, etc.
The protocol on the free movement of peoples (1979) coupled with supplements defined
the principles, criteria, obligations and codes of residence and settlement in the
community. It aims at creating a free border region with citizens enjoying equal rights
for entry, stay, residence and settlement within all the countries of the space.
The decade from 2000 to 2010 was characterized by the Ivorian crisis which put the road
travelers in difficult moments mainly those going to Côte d’Ivoire. In 2012, the coup in
Mali, followed by the rebellion in the North also influenced the movement conditions.
In spite of its adoption since 1979 by the ECOWAS and its review in 1993 to promote
integration, the free movement of people and goods in the community space is struggling
to become a reality.
It is in this environment that the A.J.UEMOA initiated and executed the project to
mobilize overland travelers behind the African Integration project.

4

The hereby study carried out in the framework of this project is part of the baseline
study for a better knowledge and the practice of the free movement of people and goods
as well as the appreciation of people on the African Integration project.
I.4- Goals of the study
General goal
The aim of the study is to collect and analyze data on the characteristics and
appreciations of travelers regarding the issue of free movement and African Integration.
More specifically, the study sets to achieve the following goals:
Specific goals


To carry out an inventory of the difficulties encountered by the travelers at the
various checking points during the journey and the steps in filling out the
formalities at the border posts.



List the countries with the majority of citizens not having travel documents;



Identify the background ( socio-economic and socio demographic characteristics)
of travelers against their migration characteristics;



Various travel documents (ECOWAS certificate, National Identity Card,
Passport, Vaccination certificate…) according to the travelers characteristics;



Assess the level of knowledge of the travelers on the issues of free movement of
people and goods, ECOWAS and African Integration.

5

CHAPTER II: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS CONSIDERED IN
DATA GATHERING/COLLECTION
To better tackle the study of the state of the practice of the free movement of people and
goods in the ECOWAS space, it is necessary to present the data collection methodology
before going to define the terminologies used in this document.
II.1- Data gathering methodology
The collection of Data was carried out from March to November on the six (06) roads
linking Ouagadougou to the neighboring countries of Burkina Faso.
II.1.1- Sampling of the target Population
The sample population involved in the survey was drawn from all the travelers using the
following roads: 1=Ouaga-Niamey, 2=Ouaga-Cotonou, 3=Ouaga-Lome, 4=OuagaKumasi, 5= Ouaga-Bouaké, 6= Ouaga-Bamako. These six roads are covered by a certain
number of companies. Some of them are more regular then others.
Table2.1: Distances covered over the roads considered under the survey.
Roads covered
OUAGA-NIAMEY
OUAGA-COTONOU
OUAGA-LOME
OUAGA-KUMASI
OUAGA-BOUAKE
OUAGA-BAMAKO

Length (in Km)
529
1021
1036
736
773
910

The primary units (UP) are drawn from all the companies travelling on the various
roads. At this level, the draw was made in a reasonable way. The issue was to choose
International transportation companies which travel on a regular basis on the roads
considered by the project. So those first choices constitute a delineation of a sub group
of population of all the convoys considered under the study. The number of companies
considered depended on their capacity to cover the six targeted roads. To avoid making a
biased selection, the working methodology gave more priority to the use of at least two
companies on each road
The secondary units (US) are made up of convoys. They have been chosen through an
equal probability draw. Two trips were made per month meaning one trip per company.
The date of the first convoy was chosen randomly in the first week of the month .The
date of the second convoy was set on the 15th day following the date of the first choice.
In each convoy, the eligible individuals were at least 15 years old. The surveyor was to
interview randomly 15 individuals. To tally the survey, 85 individuals per convoy were
to be interviewed.

6

Map 2.1: Roads on which convoys travelled from Ouagadougou

II.1.2- Interview Methodology
The survey was conducted with travelers found in the buses, but also those found in the
bus stations and at the border posts. The main goal of the interview is to gather the views
of the road travelers on African Integration.
The interview was conducted with a copy book where the interviewees have to tick one
answer from the following proposal list: for, against and indifferent. Each page of the
book allows to record choices of five interviewees.
II.1.3- Study methodology
The target groups include people travelling on the roads covered by the project during
the study period .During the study, the quantitative data were gathered by the means of a
questionnaire and a travel form while the qualitative data were collected by the means of
an interview guide.
II.1.3.1- Questionnaire based study
To carry out the questionnaire, the sole criterion considered was the age of the
individual. This restriction is due to the fact that some relevant questions required
individuals of more than 15 years old to be well answered.

The questionnaire included six sections :


Section A - Identification of the traveler



Section B – Characteristics of the trip and knowledge on Integration



Section C – Knowledge and practice of free movement
7



Section D – Appreciation
eciation of the concept of integration and free movement



Section E - Suggestions and recommendations



Section F - Socio demographic features of the traveler interviewed

Each section is made up of a set of questions and deals with a particular aspect of the
information to collect.
II.1.3.2-- Trip form study
The form was used to collect information
information on the convoys. Only the surveyors should fill
out the form. Each trip form includes three big sections:
A - Identification of the convoy;
B – Views of the relations Travelers/Checking authorities;
C – Recap table of the checking points stops
II.1.3.3 Guide based interview
II.1.3.3The qualitative data gathering technique provides the maximum of information on the
integration and free movement practice. Interviews are conducted by the means of a
semi-structured
structured interview guide. They have been conducted with resource people,
meaning, people with a lot of information on integration and free movement as well as
the relations between the travelers and the checking point’s authorities. The choice of
these interviewees was made on the basis of their road travel experiences. These
interviews were carried out by the means of a voice recorder.
recorder

The interviewers often select one or two individuals who are well informed and willing
to provide the required qualitative information.
info
The interview guide includes
in
the
following sections :


A- identification ;



conomic and demographic characteristics ;
B- Socio-economic
8



C- Knowledge of the Community;
Community



D- Knowledge of the free movement;
movement



E- Perspectives and suggestions.

II.1.3.4-- The data gathering staff
At the central level, the data gathering was coordinated by a team of 4 supervisors with
proven knowledge on the various aspects of the study. The supervisors’ team proceeded
with the recruitment, training and scheduling of the trips.
The recruitment was made on the basis of criteria allowing getting a good quality of
information to collect. Students/jobless
Students/job
with a bachelor degree took part in the training.
The training of the agents was provided in three days. During the training, the
prospective
spective agents were taught many useful notions on ECOWAS and free movement of
people and goods. The
methods to gather a sample
and questionnaires conduct
were also taught. On the
ground, teams made up of
two individuals: a male and
female were to travel with
ith
each convoy on each of the
six roads considered. To
ensure that agents do not
turn
biased
in
the
information to collect, they
have to be shifted
ed from one
road to another one.

II.2- Assessment and Difficulties encountered
Data gathering
athering went on well, however some difficulties made it difficult to attain some
results.
II.2.1- Data gathering difficulties

9

Data
gathering
has
experienced some limitations
because of the fact that many
people were reluctant
luctant to
answer to questions. Besides,
filling out a form in a bus in
movement was not easy. Out
of all the trips recorded, it has
been noted that the average
number of the individuals per
convoy was 50 individuals of
all ages. It is out of these 50
individuals
viduals that only 15 were
interviewed on average per convoy. The low number of travelers per bus did not make it
possible to reach the number of interviewees on some roads. Indeed, some convoys were
traveling with less than 15 eligible individuals.
individuals Anotherr limitation encountered in data
gathering includes missing information to the questionnaires. Indeed, some interviewees
were reluctant to provide information to questions put to them. This information
includes socio demographic information where only little
little information was collected. To
prioritize the questionnaire and interview data, the number of in-depth
in depth interviews was
downsize. As a result, the 192 interviews planned to be carried out was not reached.
At the travels level, the calendar experienced some
some disturbances punctuated by missed
departures due to vehicle break down problems bringing about some disturbances to
t the
initial schedule. A total of 12 buses companies were used on all the roads of the project.
They include :


Association des Transporteurs
Transporteu Locateurs du Burkina (ACTLB)



BITTAR TRANS



Compagnie Malienne de Transport (CMT)



RAKIETA



Compagnie de Transport
nsport Singbéogo (CTS)



IMPERIAL EXPRESS



Makola Transport



Rimbo
bo Transport Voyageurs (RTV)



S. O. Frimpong Transport
ransport (SOFT)



SONEF Transport Voyageur



Transport Confort Voyageur
V
(TCV)



Transport Sana Rasmané
smané (TSR)

10

II.2.2- Assessment of the data gathering

Table 2.2 : Recap of data gathering
Roads covered

Survey

Questionnaire

Trip form

Individual
interview

OUAGA-NIAMEY
OUAGA-COTONOU
OUAGA-LOME
OUAGA-KUMASI
OUAGA-BOUAKE
OUAGA-BAMAKO
TOUS LES AXES

2004
2637
3358
2890
3787
3354
18030

381
529
654
579
599
474
3216

32
32
32
32
32
32
192

15
23
27
21
10
9
105

At the end of the data gathering, 18 030 individuals were interviewed, 3 216 were
surveyed and 195 took part in the individual interviews. The number of people varies
from the roads covered as shown by the table below. In addition, 32 trip forms were
filled out taking it to a total of 192 forms filled out.
Table 2.3: Rate of responses collected from the individual data
Roads covered
OUAGA-NIAMEY
OUAGA-COTONOU
OUAGA-LOME
OUAGA-KUMASI
OUAGA-BOUAKE
OUAGA-BAMAKO
ENSEMBLE DES AXES

Survey
79,38
110,21
136,25
120,63
124,79
98,75
111,67

Questionnaire
73,68
96,95
123,46
106,25
139,23
123,31
110,48

By and large the response rates of the questionnaire and survey form have proved to be
satisfactory (more than 110%). On some roads covered, these rates are less than 100%.
On the OUAGA-NIAMEY road where the response rates were mainly found the lowest
ones. The reason is that some convoys have less than 15 eligible peoples (Table 2.2).

11

II.3- Use of the data gathering forms
Both the survey and questionnaire forms were used through data capturing, processing
and analysis phases.
II.3.1- Data capturing
Data were gradually captured in mask under the CSpro software. Three capturing masks
were elaborated for that purpose:
• Capturing mask for the questionnaire;
• Capturing mask for the trip form;
• Capturing mask for the survey.
These masks have been installed in different computers for simultaneous data capturing.
II.3.2- Data processing
At the end of the capturing of all the data, we proceeded with concatenation.
First, data were concatenated for each road covered. Next, data of the various roads
covered were concatenated to get a final data base. This final data base was finally
transferred onto a software SPSS for analysis. The processing allowed to get data bases :
• Data base on the convoys ;
• Data base on the travelers;
• Data base on survey.
II.3.3- Data analysis
The analysis of quantitative data was made with a software SPSS. It was mainly
descriptive. The procedure allowed to sort out the needed information and crossed tables
to identify the characteristics of the convoys and the population surveyed or interviewed.
Each data base was analyzed in a separate way and took into account the themes which
are relevant to the study. The guide line of the analysis used a basis the targeted goals of
the project, namely, amongst others, « identifying difficulties encountered by these
travelers at the various checking points, formalities filling out at the borders posts» and
« Identifying countries with the majority of people not having travel documents ».
As for the survey, the results are at the level of the convoys and individuals. For
individuals the analysis focused on the individuals’ characteristics, trip characteristics,
knowledge of the Integration Project, knowledge and practice of free movement,
appreciation of both integration and free movement. The qualitative data were analyzed
by listening to the recordings from a computer in order to transcribe in extensor relevant
extracts for the study content.

12

II.4- Notions and Terminologies1
WAEMU: West African Economic and Monetary Union, has replaced since August 1,
1994 UMOA (West African Monetary Union), the headquarters of the commission is
located in Ouagadougou), which was created in 1962. The WAEMU has a central Bank
known as WASCB (BCEAO) West African States Central Bank.
ECOWAS CITIZENSHIP: According to the protocol of May 29, 1982 related to the
Community Citizenship Code, is considered as citizen of the community «Any person
who, through his lineage, acquires the nationality of any of the member states and does
not hold any other nationality of a non member state ».It results from what is stated
above a facilitation and simplification of borders crossing formalities for the community
citizens (ECOWAS Travel certificate, ECOWAS Passport). In addition, according to the
supplemental protocol of July 6,1985 related to the code of conduct for the enforcement
of the protocol on free movement of people, residence and settlement rights, member
states were required to inform their citizens on entry, stay, residence and settlement
requirements in the other member states as well as expulsion requirements.
ENTRY RIGHT: The protocol of May 29, 1979 grants the free entry meaning entering
one of the member states without a visa to all the community citizens. Only one
requirement to meet, to have a valid travel document and international vaccination
certificate. To travel within the ECOWAS, the citizen has to have one of the following
documents: National Passport, ECOWAS travel certificate and ECOWAS Passport.
SETTLEMENT RIGHT: It grants the right to a citizen of any member state to settle or
live in another member state of the community, to access and run economic activities, to
run businesses and/or companies under the requirements defined by the hosting member
state legislation.
RESIDENCE RIGHT: The residence right on the territory of a member state of the
ECOWAS is recognized to the citizens whishing to access or not to any remunerated
activity and to practice it, apart from public office positions unless otherwise specified
by the legislation by the hosting member state. The citizens should enjoy the same rights
and freedom as the nationals. However, the residence right is subject to some
requirements which are as follows:


Valid residence card, stay permit or stay card ;



Valid for 3 years and renewable after each three years ;



Withdrawal of the residence card in the event where the holder of card has to
serve a crime or offence sentence issued by a jurisdiction ;



The refusal to deliver the residence card is discretionary ;



Migrant workers and their family members who have duly entered the territory of
a member state can be expelled for national security and good manners reasons;

1

All the concepts used in the gathering tool were defined in the survey and sensitization manual, used to
train the agents.

13



Migrant workers in regular situation should benefit from a fair treatment like
nationals of the hosting member state.

ECONOMIC INTEGRATION: According to the theory of unions, an Economic
Integration consists of a five step process: 1°) free trade zone; 2°) customs union; 3°) the
common market; 4°) economic union; and 5°) economic integration.
INTEGRATION: From the Latin integrare: make one, an action of including one part of
something into a larger group. Integration is seen as the fact of including one element
into a larger segment. In a practical way, Integration includes many aspects including
economic, political and social aspects.
FREE MOVEMENT ( of people and goods) : in the framework of ECOWAS, the
provisions of the protocol of May 29,1979 on free movement confer on the West African
citizens the right to move freely , to settle where they want in the community in order to
run or not an activity. The free movement is an expression covering five rights
recognized to the ECOWAS citizens: the entry, stay, residence, settlement, community
justice rights.
NATION: Human Community whose members bounded by materials ties (soils, State,
common economic interests) and spiritual (tradition, history, culture), are aware of the
necessity to be united.
COMPLIANCE WITH THE LAW: It is the fact of filling out all the required formalities
prior to the travel.

14

CHAPTER III : RESULTS OF THE SURVEY
This section presents the results of the analysis of the survey. But first it is important to
know the characteristics of the people surveyed.

III.1- Characteristics of the people surveyed
Some characteristics have been considered at the level of the surveyed population. The
main ones include the sex, age, country of residence and the road on which he or she
travels.
III.1.1- Characteristics according to the roads covered

Graph 3.1: Weight (%) of the people surveyed according to the roads covered

The largest portion of the people surveyed was registered on the Ouaga-Bouaké
Ouaga
(21%)
road and the lowest portion on the Ouaga-Niamey road with 11, 1%. It results from the
analysis that 56,, 1% of the people
people surveyed were interviewed at their departure against
ag
43, 9% at their arrival.

15

III.1.2- Country of residence

Graph 3.2 : Country of residence of the people surveyed

Nearly 50% of the people surveyed live in Burkina Faso. That can be explained by the
fact that this country constituted the departure and arrival point of all the convoys used
in the framework of the project. Ivory Coast (15, 7%) and Mali (12,
(12 6%) are also
countries where important portions of individuals
indivi
surveyed live.

III.1.3- Age and sex of people surveyed

Pyrami of the people surveyed
Graph3.3: Age Pyramid

16

We have more men out of the people surveyed (69%) against 31% of women.
women the age
pyramid shows that across all the ages lines men are more numerous than women. The
majority of travelers are aged between 25 and 29 and between 30 and 34.
III.2- Views of the people surveyed on African Integration.
The analysis shows that a majority
majority of those who have been surveyed is in favor of
African Integration. However, the views on integration vary according to the
characteristics such as sex, country of residence and the road covered.
III.2.1- View of all the people surveyed

Graph 3.4 : Percentage
ercentage of views on African Integration

A bigger proportion of the people surveyed are in favor of African Integration
ntegration (91,
(
36
%). A low proportion (2,, 97%)
97
of the people
ople surveyed is against while 5, 66% remain
undecided.

17

III.2.2- Views of people surveyed per sex

Graph3.5 : Percentage
ercentage of views according to the sex

Views of people on integration vary according to the gender. Men are more in favor of
integration (92,
92, 2%) than women (89, 74%). A stronger proportion of women are against
integration (3, 28%) or undecided (6, 98%).

III.2.3- Views of the people surveyed according to the road covered and the country
of residence

ercentage of views according to the road covered
Graph3.6: Percentage

18

According to the road covered, the travelers on the roads Ouaga-Lome and OuagaKumasi are more in favor of African Integration. But the lowest proportion is reported
on Ouaga-Bouake road.

19

Graph 3.7 : Percentage
ercentage of views according the country of residence

Travelers living in Ghana and Togo are more favorable to African Integration. The
highest percentage of undecided respondants lives in Ivory Coast and Benin. The highest
proportion of those who are against the African Integration, live in countries not
no
included in the project.

20

CHAPTER IV: RESULTS OF THE SURVEY
This fourth chapter of the hereby document focus on the analysis of the study data. This
analysis presents the characteristics of the people interviewed and the aspects related to
the free movement and African Integration project.
IV.1- Data related to convoys
They are related to the number and time of stops and the state of perception of the
relations between the travelers and the checking points authorities
IV.1.1- Perception of the relations between travelers and checking points
authorities
The measure of the state of perception of the relations between the travelers and the
checking points authorities sets 10 variables with values set between 0 and 5
proportionally to the their observation frequency. The figures included in the table are
averages of these variables for all the trips made. These averages constitute the state of
relations between the travelers and the checking point’s authorities.
Table 4.1: Level of indicators on the state of relations between the travelers
and the checking points authorities (country of departure)
Country of departure of the convoy
Perception of the state of
relations

Burkina
Faso

Niger

Benin

Togo

Ghana

Ivory
Coast

Mali

Total

Climate of conflict

0,4

0,0

0,8

0,6

1,1

2,2

1,3

0,7

Mistrust

1,4

1,2

3,3

1,1

2,1

3,3

3,7

1,9

Antipathy

0,8

0,7

1,5

0,4

3,0

2,5

3,8

1,4

Lack of respect

0,7

1,2

2,3

0,6

1,9

2,7

3,3

1,3

Transparence

3,0

3,2

1,8

3,0

1,7

3,3

1,2

2,7

Corruption

1,8

3,2

3,3

4,6

4,0

4,0

4,5

2,9

Negligence of travelers

1,0

2,0

2,0

0,7

2,4

3,8

3,3

1,7

Bad treatment of travelers

1,1

1,2

2,0

1,1

2,0

2,7

3,8

1,6

Respect of travelers

3,6

2,7

2,8

3,7

2,6

3,2

2,0

3,2

Need for positive change

2,9

4,0

4,8

4,7

4,1

4,3

4,7

3,6

NOTE : 0= None,

1=scare,

2=scare,

3=Average ,

4=Frequent,

5=very frequent

At the level of the country of departure, the most frequent modalities are « Need for a
positive change » (3, 6/5) and the « respect of travelers » (3, 2/5). The « lack of respect
of travelers » and the « Climate of conflict » are scare.

21

Table 4.2: Level of indicators on the state of relations between the travelers
and the checking points authorities (hosting country)
Countries where convoys are hosted
Perception of the state of
relations
Climate of conflict

Burkina
Faso
0,6

Niger
0,5

Benin
1,8

Togo
0,6

Ghana
0,7

Ivory
Coast
3,5

Mali
1,3

Total
1,0

Mistrust

1,2

2,3

1,6

0,7

1,9

4,5

3,7

1,8

Antipathy

0,8

1,7

1,6

0,4

2,1

4,2

3,3

1,5

Lack of respect

1,0

1,7

2,0

0,6

1,6

3,5

3,2

1,5

Transparence

3,3

2,6

2,8

3,0

2,3

2,0

0,0

2,7

Corruption

1,9

3,3

4,0

4,0

4,1

4,2

4,3

3,0

Negligence of travelers

1,1

2,5

2,0

0,9

2,0

3,8

3,8

1,8

Bad treatment of travelers

1,1

3,3

2,6

0,6

1,6

3,2

3,3

1,8

Respect of travelers
Need for a positive change

3,4
3,2

2,2
5,5

2,0
3,8

3,3
4,6

3,0
4,3

2,5
4,0

2,0
3,8

2,9
3,7

NOTE : 0= None,

1=scare,

2=scare,

3=Average ,

4=Frequent,

5=very frequent

At the level of the hosting country (country of arrival) the« need for a positive change »
is what is more expressed. The « respect of travelers » and « corruption » come also in
top position. However, the importance of these modalities depends on the countries.
IV.1.2- Perception of change engines regarding the free movement project.

Table 4.3 : Level of change engines indicators regarding the free movement
state
Engines of change

Burkina Faso

Niger

Benin

Togo

Ghana

Ivory
Coast

Mali

Total

1,33
5,00
4,83
4,83

1,64
4,26
2,80
2,05

1,33
4,50
4,00
4,00

1,78
4,15
2,98
2,31

Countries of departure of the convoys
Decrees
Sensitization
Report
Crackdown

1,19
3,88
2,23
1,56

1,83
3,83
2,50
1,83

Decrees
Sensitization
Report
Crackdown

1,44
3,74
2,34
1,67

2,17
4,67
3,17
2,67

Note : 0=none,

1=scare, 2=scare,

3,00
1,29
1,71
3,67
4,25
5,00
4,71
5,00
2,25
2,43
3,43
4,67
2,00
1,29
2,14
3,17
Hosting countries of the convoys
2,60
3,40
4,00
3,00

3=average,

1,29
5,00
2,14
1,57

1,57
4,71
3,71
2,43

4=Frequent,

3,67
5,00
4,50
3,83

5=very Frequent

Regarding the behavior of the travelers and that one of law enforcement authorities, it
comes out that the main engine of change is « sensitization » with a weight of
4,15/5.This is followed by «report » and « crackdown » from both the departure and
arrival ( hosting) countries .

22

IV.1.3- Stops number and time

Table 4.4: Average number of stops per road and type of convoy
Total number of
stops
OUAGANIAMEY

OUAGACOTONOU

OUAGALOME

OUAGAKUMASI

OUAGABOUAKE

OUAGABAMAKO

TOTAL

Number of stops
In the countries of
departure
5,5

Number of stops in the
hosting countries ( arrival
countries)
3,0

Departure

8,5

Return

6,8

1,8

5,0

Total

7,7

3,7

4,0

Departure

12,8

4,2

8,6

Return

13,6

10,0

3,6

Total

13,2

7,1

6,1

Departure

8,4

4,0

4,4

Return

10,7

4,6

6,1

Total

9,6

4,3

5,3

Departure

6,4

3,1

3,3

Return

7,7

3,0

4,7

Total

7,1

3,1

4,0

Departure

15,2

3,2

12,0

Return

17,2

12,8

4,3

Total

16,2

8,0

8,2

Departure

11,8

4,3

7,5

Return

13,7

9,8

3,8

Total

12,8

7,1

5,7

Departure

10,5

4,1

6,5

Return

11,6

7,0

4,6

Total

11,1

5,5

5,5

In general, convoys are stopped 10 times on their way to the hosting countries. These
stops are unevenly distributed amongst the countries of departure and the countries of
arrival (hosting countries). The roads where many stops have been reported are OuagaBouaké (16 stops) and Ouaga-Cotonou (13 stops) roads.
Table 4.5: Average stops time (in minute) according to the roads covered and
the type of convoy.
Roads covered
Type of
convoy
Departure

OUAGANIAMEY
195

OUAGACOTONOU
161

OUAGALOME
64

Return

95

149

147

173

151

141

143

TOTAL

145

155

105

128

151

146

138

23

OUAGAKUMASI
84

OUAGABOUAKE
151

OUAGABAMAKO
151

Total
134

The average total stops time on the roads covered is of 138 minutes that is to say more
than two hours. The longest average stops time have been reported on the roads OuagaCotonou (155 minutes) and Ouaga-Bouake (151 minutes).

IV.2- Survey data
This portion of the report presents the results of the analysis on the individuals surveyed.
It brought out the characteristics of the people surveyed, their knowledge and practice
regarding the free movement of people as well as their appreciation of the African
Integration.
IV.2.1- Country of residence of the people
peopl surveyed

Graph 4.1 : Country of residence of the people surveyed

More than half of the people surveyed live in Burkina Faso while 11,, 57% are living in
Ivory Coast. The inhabitants of Mali are fairly represented (8,, 26%)
26
amongst the
travelers surveyed.

24

IV.2.2- Distribution of people surveyed per age and sex

Graph 4.2: Age Pyramid of the people surveyed

The age pyramid of the people surveyed shows that a majority of them are comprised
between 20 to 44 years old. At all the levels, men are by far more numerous than
women? The average age is 35 years with a slight variation according to the sex: 35,
35 19
years in women and 34, 89 years in men.

IV.2.3- Occupation of the people surveyed

Table 4.6 : Distribution of travelers by occupation according to the road
covered
Occupation

Farmer/cattle raiser
/Fisherman
factoryWorker/labourer
Artisan/Manufacturing
Administrative (public
/Private)
Transporter
Commerce/Business
pupil/student
Retired
Jobless
Others
Overall

OUAGA
OUAGANIAMEY

OUAGACOTONOU

OUAGALOME

OUAGAKUMASI

OUAGABOUAKE

OUAGABAMAKO

Overall

3,41
41

1,14

1,22

2,32

18,43

3,14

5,32

5,80
80
1,37
37

4,12
8,47

1,22
5,75

4,64
1,79

2,33
4,47

1,93
5,56

3,14
4,65

27,99
99

27,23

8,36

6,07

8,94

14,25

13,82

1,37
37
39,93
93
13,65
65
0,00
00
0,00
00
6,48
48
100

3,66
40,27
7,78
0,00
1,60
5,72
100

4,36
43,73
6,79
0,52
4,36
23,69
100

4,64
64,46
7,86
0,00
2,68
5,54
100

4,11
35,60
9,48
0,72
2,33
13,60
100

4,11
29,95
12,80
0,00
5,07
23,19
100

3,91
43,29
9,27
0,25
2,86
13,50
100

By and large, the majority of travelers are traders or businessmen (43, 29%). This
category is followed by people working in both public and private administration. The
25

analysis shows that the road Ouaga-Accra has a strong proportion of traders. A majority
of people involved in agro--pastoral activities travel on the Ouaga-Bouake
Bouake road.

Graph 4.3 : Percentage
ercentage of travelers per occupation according to the sex.

We have more men involved in « Trade/Business » (45, 05%) against (37, 78%) of
women. At the level of individuals working in the
the administration, we have a stronger
proportion of women. We have also more « jobless women » and in the « other
occupation segments ».
Table 4.7 : Distribution of Travelers per number of trips made and per
occupation
Occupation
Farmer/cattle raiser
/Fisherman
factoryWorker/labourer
Artisan/Manufacturing
Administrative (public
/Private)
Transporter
Commerce/Business
pupil/student
Retired
Jobless
Others
Overall

Number of trips made
More than 5
Less than 3 trips. 3 to 5 trips.
trips.

Total

28,57

21,09

50,34

100,00

19,54
20,97

24,14
42,74

56,32
36,29

100,00
100,00

19,67

29,23

51,09

100,00

13,00
10,08
31,30
0,00
38,16
19,49
17,43

10,00
18,47
38,62
28,57
23,68
26,84
24,32

77,00
71,45
30,08
71,43
38,16
53,67
58,26

100,00
100,00
100,00
100,00
100,00
100,00
100,00

26

Amongst the socio professional categories, « transporters » are those using more
frequently the roads covered with 77% having already traveled 5 times on the roads.
roads
IV.2.4- Reasons
easons of the travels

Graph.4 : Reasons
easons of the current travel per sex

The majority of men travel for professional reasons (66, 24%). While women travel
more frequently for family reasons (49, 35%).

A higher proportion of people go on holiday (19, 76% against 8,, and 83% for men).

27

Graph 4.5: Documents
ocuments used for the current travel according to the sex

A higher portion of women carry with them their National Identity Card as well as the
ECOWAS certificate. Unlike women men use more their passport or school card. They
are also those who travel the most with no document.

28

Table 4.8: Percentage in the use of travel documents according to the country
of residence
Percentage of travelers using the travel documents listed
No
document

National
Identity
Card

Burkina Faso
Niger
Benin
Togo
Ghana
Ivory Coast
Mali
Other African Countries

3,1
17,5
0,0
2,8
10,0
1,0
2,5

Outside Africa
Overall

Country of residence

Internat.
Vaccination
Certificate

School/Student
Card

Passport

ECOWAS
certificate

80,8
77,6
65,8
73,9
50,9
72,5
83,5

25,3
57,0
47,2
28,8
41,1
22,4
23,0

9,3
16,1
12,9
0,0
3,8
4,1
2,5

39,5
45,0
51,2
26,4
13,7
43,4
47,9

6,7
30,9
21,7
6,4
10,0
11,7
10,6

2,4
0,0
3,3
4,6
10,0
12,2
1,2

7,8

77,6

51,0

9,3

61,7

4,4

11,9

0,0
3,5

66,7
77,7

53,8
29,0

16,7
7,7

28,6
40,5

0,0
9,1

0,0
4,1

Others

The proportion of people travelling without any document is higher amongst the
residents of Niger. The National Identity Card is more frequently used with residents
from Mali and Burkina Faso. The ECOWAS certificate is more used by the residents of
Niger (16, 1%) and those of Benin (12, 9%).
Table 4.9 : Percentage in the use of documents according to the occupation
Percentage of travelers using the listed documents
Travelers Occupation
Farmer/cattle raiser
/Fisherman
factoryWorker/labourer

No
document

National
ID Card

Internat.
Vacc.
Certificate

School/Sudent
Card

Passport

ECOWAS
certificate

Others

3,8

78,2

18,3

4,8

45,8

7,6

11,5

19,4

76,0

16,7

16,7

44,7

13,3

16,7

Artisan/Manufacturing
Administrative (public
/Private)
Transporter

4,7

78,9

20,6

0,0

42,5

9,1

10,6

1,0

70,5

47,1

6,1

50,4

12,4

2,7

0,0

76,7

27,8

5,6

26,4

2,8

12,5

Commerce/Business

4,2

84,3

27,2

10,3

37,1

4,1

3,6

pupil/student

1,2

65,8

27,0

5,3

36,5

32,4

2,4

Retired

0,0

100,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

33,3

Jobless

0,0

89,7

11,1

9,3

37,0

3,7

3,6

Others

3,5

73,4

33,5

8,7

47,8

7,4

1,7

Overall

3,4

78,0

29,2

8,1

40,7

9,4

4,6

The proportion of people travelling with no document is much higher in factory
worker/Laborer (19, 4%). This category uses frequently ECOWAS certificate (16,7%).
The International vaccination certificate and passport are more used by travelers
working in both public and private administration.
29

IV.2.5- Knowledge on integration and practice of free movement

Graph 4.6: Percentage
centage of travelers that answered « yes » to the question per
sex

Men have a better knowledge on the ECOWAS and the African integration. On the other
hand, the free movement of people and goods
g
is best-known
known by women (69.7%).
(69.
However, this knowledge
wledge remains nominal enough at the level of the majority of the
interviewees as illustrated by this definition given by this traveler met
m on OuagaCotonou road: «it is the neighboring countries that associated or regrouped for at least
to have an agreement on only one plan ".
When you ask the travelers if they know that it is possible to report any complaint, men
seem to be more informed with a percentage of 7.14%
7.14% having reported a complaint.

30

Graph 4.7: Percentage of travelers per sex and according to the meaning given
to free movement

For the majority of the travelers, free moving consists in traveling without hassles (62,
(62
38%)
%) or to travel with the documents in entire (60,
(60 43%).
%). More than 10% among them
think that free moving, is to transport goods without paying for the taxes. Also, a little
proportion (of 3% to 4%) thinks that free movement is the fact to travel without any
a
document.
To the question that is what do you understand by free moving of people and goods, an
interviewee answers: “No
No road hassles, a tradesman who leaves with his luggage
somewhere, he comes and he normally get into the country, he pays for the normal
n
taxes, and he gets in with his products”.
products

31

Graph 4.8: Percentage
ntage of the travelers per sex and per difficulties listed

Travelers
ers are aware of the difficulties that hinder the free movement of people and
goods, the most cited among all being road hassles. It is cited by 61.4% of the travelers.
During the individual interview, a passenger of Ouaga-Cotonou
Ouaga Cotonou road expressed himself
him
in the following terms: « Now when we are travelling there are many problems. The
police doesn’t respect the ECOWAS laws,
laws, the customers do not respect the ECOWAS
laws…It hassles us when we travel…I don’t know what the ECOWAS authorities do. Do
the ECOWAS leader travel and they don’t
don’ see all this? ».
Graph 4.9: Percentage of travelers according to hassles reasons and per sex

All hassles reasons concern men the most than women. Hassles due to lack of the goods
documents or lack of national identity card touch as much as men and women. It comes
out that 35.71%
71% of the women undergo more hassles without any reason.
32

Graph 4.10: Percentage of travelers according to hassles solution and per sex

A higher proportion of women are said having paid to resolve
lve hassle cases. The
resolution of some cases by" negotiation-indulgence"
negotiation indulgence" or by" respect of the law" is
practiced more by the men.
IV.2.6- Appreciation of the free movement

Graph 4.11: Percentage of travelers according to the level of satisfaction of the
free movement

A strong proportion of the travelers interviewed (37%) is not quite satisfied of the
conditions of free movement of people and goods while only 19.76%
76% among them quite
is saidd to be satisfied. More than 13.86%
13.86% are undecided regarding the question.

33

Graph 4.12: Percentage of travelers per sex and according to the level of
satisfaction of the free movement
movemen

The men are more numerous to not to be satisfied with the conditions of the free
movement of people and goods. On the other hand, a stronger proportion of women
remained undecided regarding the question (16.4%).
IV.2.7- Appreciation of African integration

Graph 4.13: Percentage of the travelers according to the level of confidence on
the African integration

A strong proportion of the travelers interviewed (39.8%) are quite confident of the
African integration while 16.36% said not to be at all
all confidant. More than 16.77% are
undecided.
34

Graph 4.14: Percentage of travelers per sex and level of confidence in the African
Integration

The proportions of the travelers that are quite confident of the integration African
are similar enough from men and women. Women present a stronger proportion of
undecided.
According to the interviews, the free movement of people and goods includes much
mu
more to the profit of the populations. However, for lack of control, one faces several
inconveniences. Other travelers think that for the time being, the ECOWAS
procures no advantage. According to their words, “the
“the ECOWAS is not doing its
job. It is necessary
essary to say also that the agents of the borders are not also doing their
job. Maybe we can say that it is the ECOWAS because they created something that is
very well but there is not a follow-up
follow up unfortunately and there is, we have too many
hassles at the borders… The ECOWAS makes its work between the head of states, but
not with the population”.
IV.2.8- Wave of suggestions descended of the interviews with the travelers on the
improvement of the free movement
The interviews allowed the travelers to give a great number of suggestions with regard to
the working of the free movement of people and goods. Here are some of them:


Some suggest that the police must not let themselves corrupt by the travelers and
that the travelers who don't have the documents in rule must be prohibited from
crossing the border.



The travelers who don't have any documents in rule must pay for fines to have
some documents (pass, visa…)
visa ) and to continue their journey. Habit being a
35

second nature, it remains difficult to fight the rackets by the texts. Some travelers
propose then: “it is necessary that the authorities of the ECOWAS intervene for
that. Because the policemen and the customs-officers are accustomed to take
money by force from people. They cannot change except if the government
imposes strength or another system to stop that”.


Several travelers propose to establish a common border where there will be all
categories of polices of the different countries. Indeed, the travelers noted some
disparities in the treatment of the passengers according to the nationality. They
suggest sensitizing the agents of the borders so that they are not more aggressive
when it is about individuals of other nationalities notably when the latter enter in
their country.



They also suggest delivering the ECOWAS certificates in all countries and for all
nationalities of the ECOWAS at the same time. For that, it is necessary to use
embassies to collect and process the demands of ECOWAS certificates to the
profit of the nationals.



Education and sensitization of the populations often come back in the
propositions of the travelers in order to make better know the ECOWAS and to
popularize its supremacy on the member states.



The innovative approach in the suggestions bound to the sensitization is that the
travelers propose that studying ECOWAS be registered to the civic education
program in every State of the communal space.



It was also suggested the creation and the increase of the visibility of the
structures assigned to collect the complaints there at the borders.

36

CONCLUSION ET RECOMMANDATIONS
Conclusion
The realization of this study is part of the project to mobilize the over land travelers
behind the African Integration. Its goal is to gather and analyze information on the
characteristics of the individuals traveling by roads and to gather their views on their
knowledge and practice of the free movement of people and goods, on ECOWAS and
African Union.
The results show, amongst other, that the majority of travelers have a little knowledge on
ECOWAS and the African Integration. It results from this observation, a large portion of
under informed travelers on the possibilities and places where they could report in case
of harassment. In spite of that, a strong proportion of travelers interviewed approves of
the African Integration.
Africa is a developing continent meaning a continent of future with huge potentialities.
However, a bright future implies unquestionably that people and goods are able to move
freely that will constitute the cornerstone for the building of big socio economic spaces.
Recommendations
The rapidity and efficiency underpinning the achievement of Africa integration will
foster in bigger part the support of the populations, the strong participation of the civil
society organizations and the political will of the States along side the regional
institutions.
To achieve this goal, the recommendations below have to be fulfilled :

To the populations :
-

To travel with valid documents ;

-

To take ownership of the Regional Integration Concept ;

-

To appose a collective refusal in case of rackets and illicit perceptions ;

-

To report any attempt to hamper the free movement of people and goods as well as
those found responsibles;

-

To avoid corruption.

To the Civil Society Organizations:
-

To mainstream the issue of regional integration into all the actions to carry out;

-

To develop synergies in order to achieve the results;

-

To reinforce the monitoring and evaluation of sector-to-sector policies in the
framework of free movement.
37

-

To reinforce the watching structures and access to expression spaces at all the
levels.

To the States :
-

To educate and sensitize the populations on the concepts of free movement of
people and goods and regional and African integration. ;

-

To comply with the number of checking points agreed by the sub regional
organizations;

-

To reinforce the knowledge of checking authorities at the borders posts
challenges of the African Integration. ;

-

To take measures to punish the officers found guilty of breaching the law;

-

To promote and make it easy for the applicants to obtain travel documents such as
ECOWAS certificate, passport, International vaccination certificate, etc;

-

To build the capacity of the civil society organization involved on the issue of
regional integration.

on the

To the AU, ECOWAS and WAEMU, etc. :
-

To make operational the mechanisms of implementation
evaluation of free movement practice;

-

To build the capacity of the civil society organization involved on the integration
project;

-

To fast tract the creation of the collect and process of complaints mechanisms;

-

To fast tract the setting up of joint border check posts between member states;

-

To fast tract the upgrading of international roads in the regional community spaces ;

-

To put in place legal instruments to punish the States failing to comply with the
agreements.

and monitoring and

To the Technical and Financial Partners:
-To reinforce the Partnership CSO in order to improve the regional trades exchanges;
-

To support and influence the African member states so that they could implement
the regional agreements.

38

BIBLIOGRAPHY
ECOWAS, 2008 – ECOWAS conflicts prevention framework (CPCC), ABUJA,
Nigeria. 66p.
APT, 2006 - Human Rights Protection in Africa, APT, Genève, 2006 ISBN 2-94033703-9, 395p.
BURKINA FASO, 2008 – African Integration, Challenges and implication for Africa
and the World. SP/CNI-SG-MAECR, 44p.
Bossard L., 2005 – ECOWAS Regional Atlas for Transportation
Telecommunications, ECOWAS/CSAO/OCDE Executive Secretariat, 40p.

and

Edo Kodjo Maurille AGBOBLI, 2006 – Regional Integration Dynamics in West Africa:
Background, diagnostic, perspectives; CAMES Review – New series B, Vol. 007
N° 2-2006 (2nd semester).
AfDB, UA, CEA, 2011 – Africa Statistics Directory 2011, 346p.
A.J.UEMOA, 2012 – Integration in Africa: some basic notions. Training manual. 22p.
A.J.UEMOA, 2012 – Survey and Sensitization method in the framework of rallying
behind the African Integration the road travelers, 42p.
UA, 2011 – State of Integration in Africa. 252p.
CEA, 2004 – State of regional Integration in Africa I, 314p.
CEA and UA, 2008 – State of the Regional Integration in Africa III: Towards monetary
and financial integration in Africa, 332p.
CEA, UA and BAD, 2010 – State of regional Integration in Africa IV: Developing the
intra-African trade, 590p.

39


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