INECC 19062018 Water environment and health in Haiti .pdf



Nom original: INECC 19062018 - Water environment and health in Haiti.pdf
Titre: EE - INECC 19062018 - Water environment and health in Haiti
Auteur: Evens Emmanuel

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Reunión Cambio climático: perspectivas binacionales et internacionales
de integración entre ciencia, educación y política pública
INECC, IPSL, Ambassade de France, IRD et AFD
México 19 de Junio 2018

Environment, water and health in Haiti

Dr Evens Emmanuel
Université Quisqueya
Port-au-Prince, Haiti
e-mail: evens.emmanuel@gmail.com

Physical environment of Haiti
Area : 27750 km2
Located :18o – 20o6'N
71o20‘ – 74o 30‘ W
Temperature
max : 35°
min : 9°
Geology
:
Limestone 2/3
Basalt 1/3
Rain: 300-4000 mm
2

Physical environment of Haiti

Caribe - Zona de:
• huracanes regulares
• teremotos.

3

Natural disasters in Haiti
Between 1986 and 2016, Haiti recorded 18 major environmental events (floods,
droughts, cyclones and earthquakes)
•2004 - El huracán Jeanne, que cruzó el norte del pais y el Artibonito: 2.620
heridos, 846 desaparecidos y 300.000 heridos y con más de 3.000 muertes,
Gonaïves, fue el más afectado.
• 2008 - 4 huracanes devastaron el país, destruyendo cultivos y hogares.
• 2010 - Terremoto del 12 de Enero (más de 250 000 muertes). Este terremoto
ha sido el más devastador durante dos siglos.
•2016: el huracán Matthew devastó el departamento del Sur, los de Nippes y
Grand'Anse.

Haiti: water stressed country
Renewable
water
resources : between 12
and 14 billion cubic
meters per year
Population: 11,000,000
1000 to 1272 cubic
meters/person/yr
<1700 m3/person/yr

Effects of natural disasters on urban areas
Haitian cities are increasingly exposed to population growth that significantly
affects water and sanitation facilities, when they exist.

The consequences of the natural disasters on cities:
• the displacement of the population,
•the dislocation of the general drinking water supply system, the setting up of
several make shift camps in the cities,
• and the creation of new slums.

Effects of natural disasters on urban areas

Geology, Water and Health
460-377 BC, Hippocrates mentioned the relationship between
environmental factors and the distribution of many
pathologies.
Medical geology is the science dealing with the
relationship between natural geological factors and health
in humans and animals and with understanding the
influence of ordinary environnemental factors on the
geographical distribution of such health problems.
Sellinus et al., 2005
8

Hardness of water ressources
•Hardness has been deemed safe for human health, until Kobayaski (1957) showed a
relationship between water hardness and the incidence of vascular diseases.
•Other studies reported the existence of a relationship between cardiovascular disease
mortality and water hardness (Schroeder, 1960; Sharret, 1979; Masironi et shaper, 1981).
•Very hard natural water with CaCO3 concentration higher than 200 mg/L with a
magnesium concentration lower than 7 mg/L may affect various organs including the
cardiovascular physiology (Rubenowitz-Lundin and Hiscock, 2005).
•Studies on water resources used to supply a part of the population of MAPP) showed a
total hardness greater than 200 mg/L, with magnesium concentration less than 7 mg/L
(TRACTEBEL, 1998; Emmanuel et al., 2013).
•Otherwise, cardiovascular diseases are the 7th cause of death and represent 3% of total
deaths in the MAPP (MSPP, 2003).

Hardness of water ressources in Haiti

Emmanuel et al., 2013

Observatory on groundwater salinity

Evolución de la salinidad

Resolución No. PHI-LAC IX-7
Los Comités Nacionales y Puntos Focales
del PHI-LAC presentes en la reunión
apoyan la propuesta presentada por el
Comité Nacional del PHI Haití de
declarar la cuenca de Masacre
(departamento Noroeste de Haití) como
“cuenca piloto” para la implementación
de los programas del PHI.

Port-au-Prince Urban wastewater
3

2

1

4

5

14

A ir

R é s e a u d ’a s s a in is s e m e n t
d e l’h ô p it a l

(1)

Chaine des Matheux

(2)

Baie de Port-au-Prince

P u it s d ’in f ilt r a t io n

Fosse
s e p t iq u e

C h â te a u
d ’e a u

F o r a g e d ’e a u d e s t in é e
à la c o n s o m m a t io n h u m a in e
H a b it a t s h u m a in s

H ô p it a l

Massif de la selle

(1) Plain of Cul-de-Sac aquifer
(2) Map of the Republic of Haïti

Z o n e n o n s a tu ré e
Caribbean sea

N a p p e s (Z o n e s a tu ré e )

S e n s d e l’é c o u le m e n t

MDI
(mg/kg--day)-1
(mg/kg

Human health
Risk
Assessment

Substances

CAS#
Adult

Child

Quotient
of risk

ADI
(mg/kg--day)-1
(mg/kg

Risk level

Adult

Child

Adult

Child

Cr(III)

1606516065-8383-1

2.03

5.32

1.5

1

4

M

H

Ni

7440
7440--0202-0

2.57

2.89

0.02

129

145

H

H

Pb

74397439-9292-1

0.18

0.46

0.0035

50

132

H

H




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