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The African Development Bank
Group in North Africa

2013

Rethinking Growth
and Integration

African Development Bank

For ORNA, this report was led by Nice Muhanzu (Consultant) and Vincent Castel (Principal Economist), under the overall guidance of
Jacob Kolster (Director).
For ORNB, this report was led by Catherine Baumont-Keita (Lead Economist during the preparation of the report) and Anne Sophie
Ouedraogo (Consultant) under the overall guidance of Nono Matondo-Fundani (Director).
The authors of the report would like to thank for their inputs Abdourahamane Charaf-Eddine (Chief Country Programme, Officer ORNA),
Prajesh Bhakta (Chief Country Programme Officer, EGFO), Kossi Robert Eguida (CPO, DZFO), Alassane Diabate (Principal Country
Economist, ORNB), Olivier Breteche (CPO, MAFO), Rad Sahar (Consultant, ORNA), Yasser Ahmad (CPO, ORNA), Gharbi Jouade
Mohamed (Consultant, ORNA), Malek Bouzgarrou (Senior Courntry Economist, ORNB), Benbahmed, Tarik (Country Economist, DZFO),
Bitoumbou Pascal (Consultant, ORNB), Assitan Diarra-Thioune (Resident Representative, DZFO), Sibry Tapsoba (Resident Representative,
EGFO), Amani Abou-Zeid (Resident Representative, MAFO), Andrea Borgarello (Photographer), Johannes Svanback (Photographer).
Project Briefs were also reviewed by their respective task managers in the sector departments.
The thematic chapters are based on recent research led by ORNA/ORNB. Chapter 1 is drawn from the AfDB North Africa Policy Series
publication «Promoting crisis-resilient growth in North Africa» authored by Gita Subrahmanyam. Chapter 2 «The Political Economy of
Food Security in North Africa» by Jane Harrigan also comes from the AfDB North Africa Policy Series. Finally, chapter 3 «Maghreb
Economic Integration – A time for action» is drawn from Mustapha Rouis’ s presentation at the «Regional Integration Day» seminar held
in Carthage under the Tunisian Presidency. The original reports can be found together with references at the North Africa regional
departments as part of the African Development Bank’s objective of sharing knowledge on the opportunities and challenges of the
North Africa countries and region.
The African Development Bank Group
This document has been prepared by the African Development Bank (AfDB) Group. Designations employed in this publication do not
imply the expression of any opinion on the part of the institution concerning the legal status of any country, or the limitation of its frontier.
While efforts have been made to present reliable information, the AfDB accepts no responsibility whatsoever for any consequences of
its use.
Published by:
African Development Bank (AfDB) Group
Temporary Relocation Agency (TRA)
B.P. 323-1002 Tunis-Belvedere, Tunisia
Tel.: (216) 7110-2876
Fax: (216) 7110-3779
Design and Layout
African Development Bank
External Relations and Communication Unit
Yattien-Amiguet L.
Zaza creation: Hela Chaouachi
Copyright © 2012 African Development Bank Group
Website: www.afdb.org

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Table of contents
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Foreword

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Preface

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Acronyms and Facts

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CHAPTER 1

Promoting crisis-resilient growth in North Africa

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Introduction

20

Framework for assessing crisis resilience and growth

23

Patterns of growth and crisis resilience in North Africa

43

Lesson-learned for successful crisis resilience measures in other regions

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Recommendations: roadmap for promoting crisis-resilience growth in the short to medium term

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CHAPTER 2

The Political Economy of Food Security in North Africa

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Introduction

54

The Food Security Status of North Africa

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The Impact of the 2007/08 Global Food Price Shock

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Short-term Policy Responses to the Global Food price Shock

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A Longer Term Food Security Strategy for North Africa

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Conclusion

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CHAPTER 3

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Introduction

75

Potential Gains and Challenges of Economic Integration

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Impact Assessment and Lessons Learned from Regional Integration Efforts

Maghreb Economic Integration – A time for action

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Performance of Trade in Goods and Services

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Infrastructure and Cross-Border Trade Facilitation

89

Constraints to Integration

93

Conclusion and Recommendations

96

CHAPTER 4

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The African Development Bank Group at a Glance

104

CHAPTER 5

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Regional Overview

113

Algeria

127

Egypt

155

Libya

163

Mauritania

187

Morocco

223

Tunisia

266

CHAPTER 6

The African Developement Bank in Brief

Bank Group Activities in North Africa

Staff & Contact Details

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Foreword

discussion of resilience—as highlighted in domestic
development strategies but also in the obvious domain
of food security as well as in forging stronger integration
among the economies of the region.

eographically situated at the northern rim of the
continent and at the cross-road of the Arab,
European and African worlds, North Africa is a region of
unique importance. In 2011, North Africa became the
epicenter of social and political movements as the Arab
Spring began in Tunisia and spread across and beyond
the region.

G

Building resilience is an inherent dimension of developing
more inclusive societies with better safeguards for the
poor and most vulnerable. As such, this is at the core of
our long term strategy which is to place the Bank at the
center of Africa’s transformation and to improve the quality
of Africa’s growth. It aims to broaden and deepen the
process of transformation, mainly by ensuring that growth
is shared and not isolated, for all African citizens and
countries, not just for some. It also aims to bring about
growth that is not just environmentally sustainable, but
also economically empowering. This is also our overriding
focus in supporting North African countries in forging
better futures for more of their people.

Producing about one-third of Africa’s total GDP and
home to more than 170 million people (17% of Africa
population), North Africa regroups mainly Middle Income
Countries (MICs) and occupies a geopolitical position
that goes significantly beyond its economic weight. North
Africa is also central to the history and the daily operations
of the African Development Bank (AfDB). The countries
of the region were instrumental in the creation of the
Bank Group more than 45 years ago and are now
contributing nearly 20 percent of the Bank’s subscribed
capital. Since the beginning of its operations in 1966,
the Bank Group has committed nearly US$ 17 billion in
loans and grants to North Africa, consistently supporting
the people of the region in their endeavors to develop
and modernize their economies and improve their living
conditions.

Our commitment to the entire African continent is a longterm commitment, and we are proud to stay firmly
engaged in North Africa during this period of transition.
It is in this spirit that we present this year’s Annual Report
for North Africa.

In recognition of the region’s importance, I am pleased
to present, the African Development Bank’s 4th Annual
Report on North Africa. In addition to providing an
overview of the Bank’s portfolio of lending and
non-lending activities in the six countries of the region,
the report’s first three chapters provides a thematic

Zondo SAKALA
Vice President
Country and Regional Programs and Policy
African Development Bank Group

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Preface

Africa—from the world food crisis and the global
financial crisis to the Arab Spring crisis. We propose
a comprehensive understanding of the countries’
vulnerabilities, both structural and nurtured, as well
as adaptability factors. Combining macroeconomic
developments and microeconomic concerns, the chapter
shows, among other results, the importance of pro-poor
and inclusive social and economic policies in a medium
to long-term development strategy.

ore than two years after the beginning of the Arab
Spring, North Africa continues to experience the
inherent challenges of turning political transition into
decisive gains on the social and economic fronts. In
addition to the difficulties faced by these countries, the
development in the neighboring region has not been
conducive. The south has experienced spillovers from
armed insurgence and conflicts in Sahel countries. In the
north, Europe is still in the midst of the worst economic
recession and unemployment crisis in decades. While
developments in the region differ widely, the past years
have demonstrated just how intertwined countries in
North Africa are with the world around them, both within
their region and with neighbors in the north and the south.

M

In chapter 2, on “The political Economy of Food Security
in North Africa”, we look into the appropriateness of
macroeconomic patterns and policy responses of North
Africa countries in attempting to cushion the adverse
impacts of the global food crisis and more recently the
Arab Spring. The chapter moves on to discuss the
un-sustainability of ongoing fiscal pressure and subsidy
regimes, and suggests a more holistic approach to food
stability including food trade governance, agricultural
productivity and alternative social responses.

The political transition towards better governed and more
participatory societies will take its course in North Africa.
In the meantime, the African Development Bank continues
to respond to the demands for more inclusive social and
economic developments as its core objective in support
to the efforts of the countries in the region. In a setting
where external and internal turbulence are commonplace,
resilience becomes a core virtue in building a stronger
platform for inclusive growth and better safeguards for
the vulnerable. The overriding focus of this year’s North
Africa Annual Report is therefore on resilience—both as
highlighted in domestic development strategies but also
in the obvious domain of food security as well as in forging
stronger integration among the economies of the region.

In chapter 3, on “Economic Integration: A Time for
Action”, we discuss how the shifting currents following
the revolutions could provide a unique historical
opportunity for North African countries to readjust their
trade and financial relationships and strengthen their
regional and global economic integration. The chapter
explores the potential gains, challenges and constraints
of regional integration. Creating the adequate conditions
for the emergence of regional supply chains and,
production networks will unlock the region’s economic
potential, achieving a more diversified export sector and
generating employment.

In chapter 1 of this Annual Report, on “Promoting crisisresilient growth in North Africa”, we focus on an in-depth
policy analysis of the crisis resilience patterns in North

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Jacob Kolster
Director – Regional Department North for Egypt, Libya
and Tunisia

The remainder of the Annual Report provides a brief
introduction to the Bank Group and an overview over the
Bank’s activities in North Africa (in Chapter 4); a summary
of the Bank’s regional activities in the North Africa
(in Chapter 5) and our contact details (in Chapter 6).

Nono Matondo-Fundani
Director – Regional Department North for Algeria,
Mauritania and Morocco

We hope you may find this report useful and welcome
any feedback you may have.

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Acronyms

ADB
AEO
AfDB
AFESD
AIDS
AMINA
AMU
ASEAN
AVERROES-Paris
AWF
BCI
BIO
BMC
BMICE
CDC Enterprises-Paris
CEN-SAD
CIMR
CNED
DPEF
DWS
DZFO
EC
EGFO
EIB
EMAF
EU
FAO
FAPA
FDI
FIV
FMI
FMO
FPMEI
FSAP
FTA
GCC
GDP
GEF
GoE

The African Development Bank
African Economic Outlook
The African Development Bank Group
Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
African Development Bank Initiative for Micro-Finance in Africa
Arab Maghreb Union
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Fund of Funds sponsored by CDC Enterprise and Proparco
African Water Facility
Banque pour le Commerce et l’Industrie
Belgian Investment Company for Developing Countries (BIO)
Basic Medical Coverage
The Maghreb Bank for Investment and Foreign Trade
Caisse des Dépôts et des Consignations
The Community of Sahel-Saharan States
Caisse Interprofessionnelle Marocaine de Retraite
Caisse Nationale d’Equipement pour le Développement
Directorate of Education and Training Projects
Drinking Water Supply
Algeria Country Office
European Commission
Egypt Country Office
European Investment Bank
Export Market Access Funding
European Union
Organisation des nations unies pour l’Alimentation et l’Agriculture
Fund for African Private Sector Assistance
Foreign direct investment
Neighbourhood Investment Facility
Fonds Monétaire International
The Netherlands Development Finance Corporation
Fonds pour les PME et l’innovation
Financial Sector Assessment Program
Gross Domestic Product
Gulf Cooperation Council
Global Environment Facility
Government of Egypt
Human Development Index

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GSM
HDI
HIV
IDB
IFC
IMF
IRMS
ISET
JBIC
KFAED
LEPC
MAFO
MAPM
MDBs
MDG
MENA
MERCOSUR
MFI
MFN
MIC
MLA
MoU
MSE
MTS
MW
MWPP
NAFTA
NBE
NGO
NPLs
NTF
NTMs
OECD
OPEC
ORNA
ORNB
OTRI
OTRI_T
PADESFI

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Global system for mobile communication
Human Immunodeficiency Index
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Islamic Development Bank
International Finance Corporation
Integrated Resources Management Strategy
International Monetary Fund
Institut Supérieur d’Enseignement Technologique
Japanese Bank for Investment and Cooperation
Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development
Libyan Export Promotion Centre
Morocco Country Office
Ministry of Agriculture and Maritime Fisheries
Multilateral Development Banks
Millennium Development Goals
Microfinance Institutions
Middle East and North Africa
Mercado Común Sur (Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay)
Middle Income Countries
Most Favored Nation
Maghreb Leasing Algeria
Memorandum of Understanding
Micro and Small Enterprises
Medium Term Strategy
Megawatt
Multi-Donor Water Partnership Program
North American Free Trade Agreement
National Bank of Egypt
Non Governmental Organisations
Nonperforming loans
The Nigeria Trust Fund
Nontariff measures
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
Country Regional Department North 1
Country Regional Department North 2
Overall Trade Restrictiveness Index
Tariff-only Trade Restrictiveness Index
The Financial Sector Development Support Program

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PAFTA
PAI
PISEAU II
PMI
PMN
PNDSE
PPP
PRECAMF
PRP
RAMED
RMCs
RWSSI
SESP II
SFD
SFD*
SIFEM
SME
SNIM
STRI
TRAINS
UA
UN
UNCTAD
UNDP
UPS
USA
USAID
WB
WTO

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Pan-Arab Free Trade Area
Integration Support Program
Water Sector Investment Project Phase 2
Industrial Modernization Program
Industrial Upgrading Progra,
Education System Development Support Project
Purchasing Power Parity
Project to build the capacities of Microfinance Stakeholders
Poverty Reduction Program
Régime d’Assistance Médicale aux Economiquement Démunis
Regional Member Countries
Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative
Secondary Education Support Project Phase II
Egypt Social Fund for Development
Saudi Fund for Development
Swiss Investment Fund for Emerging Markets
Small and Medium Enterprises
National Industrial and Mining Company
Services Trade Restrictiveness Index
Trade Analysis and Information System
Unit of Accounts
United Nations
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
United Nations Development Program
Unified Power System
United States of America
United States Agency for International Development
World Bank
World Trade Organization

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The African Development Bank Group – Facts
• Mission: To promote sustainable and inclusive economic growth and reduce poverty in Africa.
• Founded: 1963
• Constituent Institutions:
o
o
o

The African Development Bank (ADB)
The African Development Fund (ADF)
The Nigeria Trust Fund (NTF)

• Headquarters: Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
• Temporary Relocation Agency: Tunis, Tunisia
• Shareholders:
o
o

53 African countries (regional member countries)
25 non-African countries (non-regional member countries)

• President: Donald Kaberuka
• Total Employees: 2005
• Field Offices: 34, including 2 Regional Resource Centers (Nairobi and Pretoria). Three of these
offices are called Customized Offices (Guinea Bissau, Mauritius and Sao Tome Principe). The
Bank has also established (in 2012) an External Representation Office in Tokyo, Japan.
• Authorized Capital as of December 31, 2012: Unit of Accounts (UA) 66.98 billion
(US$102.48 billion).
• 12th ADF replenishment (2011-2013): UA 5.805 billion (US$ 8.84 billion).
• Total Cumulative Approvals 1967-2012: 3,796 loans and grants totalling UA 63.66 billion
(including multinational operations) (US$85.98 billion).

As of March 2013
UA 1.00 is equivalent to:

United States Dollar
Euro (European)
Algerian Dinar
Egyptian Pound
Libyan Dinar
Moroccan Dinar
Mauritania Ouguiya
Tunisian Dinar

14

1.56
1.15
118.70
10,22
1.93
12.85
451.28
2.39


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