Fichier PDF

Partage, hébergement, conversion et archivage facile de documents au format PDF

Partager un fichier Mes fichiers Convertir un fichier Boite à outils PDF Recherche PDF Aide Contact



presenzaafrica mondialdesnations davidalvarado 20110116 b .pdf



Nom original: presenzaafrica_mondialdesnations_davidalvarado_20110116_b.pdf

Ce document au format PDF 1.3 a été généré par Adobe InDesign CS3 (5.0) / Mac OS X 10.5.8 Quartz PDFContext, et a été envoyé sur fichier-pdf.fr le 21/09/2015 à 12:23, depuis l'adresse IP 105.154.x.x. La présente page de téléchargement du fichier a été vue 256 fois.
Taille du document: 166 Ko (22 pages).
Confidentialité: fichier public




Télécharger le fichier (PDF)









Aperçu du document


Le Mondial des nations

MAROC

L’ombre du Palais

;T aÏUÏaT]c ]PcX^]P[ Tbc d] Ï[Ï\T]c X]R^]c^da]PQ[T SP]b [{X\PVX]PXaT
R^[[TRcXU STb <Pa^RPX]b Tc bdac^dc ST bTb Ï[XcTb _^[XcX`dTb ?aÏbT]c SP]b
c^dcT d]T _[ÏXPST ST bXcdPcX^]b SÏ\PaRWTb aÏ TgTb X]XcXPcXeTb SXbR^dab Tc
ÏRaXcb ]^cP\\T]c SP]b [T RWP\_ _^[XcX`dT X[ P__PaPÔc c^dY^dab R^\\T d]
eTRcTda S{XST]cX
RPcX^] Tc ST \^QX[XbPcX^] 0d
[ STb P]]ÏTb Tc Æ [{X]bcPa STb
SÏeT[^__T\T]cb _^[XcX`dTb aÏRT]cb [Tb _aÏbPVTb `dX P]]^]RT]c [P \^ac [T]cT
Sd \^deT\T]c ]PcX^]P[ Tc ST bP RaÏPcdaT [P ]PcX^] b^]c [^X] ST bT aÏP[XbTa
‘ ;T U^]Sb ST eP[Tdab R^\\d] `dX T] Tbc aTbcT P RaÏÏ d]T \PcaXRT Rd[cdaT[[T
RT]caP[T PRcXeT ^\]X_aÏbT]cT T] c^db [Tb [XTdg bXV]X
RPcXUb ST [P eXT _^[XcX`dT
\Ð\T bX ST ]^\QaTdbTb ^aVP]XbPcX^]b ^]c TbcX\Ï `d{Æ [Tda ]PcX^]P[Xb\T STePXc
bT bdQbcXcdTa d] _a^YTc ST b^RXÏcÏ _[db YdbcT Tc _[db ÏVP[XcPXaT 1XT] `dT [Tb
XSÏ^[^VXTb Tc \^deT\T]cb _^[XcX`dTb Ïe^[dT]c Tc `d{d]T VaP]ST \PY^aXcÏ
STb PRcTdab _PacXRX_P]c ST [P eXT _^[XcX`dT S{PdY^daS{WdX ]{PXT]c _Pb eÏRd [P
_ÏaX^ST `dX P _aÏRÏSÏ [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT PR`dXbT T] ($% [P _[PRT ^RRd_ÏT _Pa
[Tb Ï[Ï\T]cb RT]caPdg Sd \^deT\T]c ]PcX^]P[ aTbcT RT]caP[T SP]b [P b_WÎaT
_dQ[X`dT Sd A^hPd\T RWÏaX
T]

E^Xa BTWX\X < ‘ ;Tb Ï[XcTb _Pa[T\T]cPXaTb ) 2^]cX]dXcÏ ^d aT]^deT[[T\T]c . ¡ SP]b [{^deaPVT
R^[[TRcXU ¯SX
RPcX^] S{d] ¯cPc \^STa]T ?PaXb 0[QX] <XRWT[ ('% __ ($ " * Tc ?PaTY^ < 0
;P Ï[XcTb _^[ÓcXRPb \Paa^`dÓTb) ;^b _Pa[P\T]cPaX^b (&& ((" <PSaXS 0VT]RXP 4b_P×^[P ST
2^^_TaPRXÙ] 8]cTa]PRX^]P[ (((

80

Maroc
Bda [P QPbT STb RPaPRcÎaTb S{d]T _PacXT ST [P b^RXÏcÏ \Pa^RPX]T `dT [T
]PcX^]P[Xb\T \Pa^RPX] e^d[PXc Ï\P]RX_Ta Tc \^STa]XbTa Æ _PacXa S{d] bdQbcaPc
Rd[cdaT[ TgXbcP]c RT[dX RX P \^ST[Ï b^] SXbR^dab T] b{P[[XP]c Pd bTd[ Ï[Ï\T]c
RP_PQ[T ST VP[eP]XbTa [P \^QX[XbPcX^] _^_d[PXaT Æ bPe^Xa [P \^]PaRWXT  d]T
b_ÏRX
RXcÏ \Pa^RPX]T `dX bXV]X
PXc Æ [P U^Xb [T aT[PXb PeTR d] _PbbÏ \hcWX
Ï Tc
d]T XRÚ]T aT[XVXTdbT bh\Q^[X`dT 0dc^da ST [{Xb[P\ ST [{PaPQXcÏ ST [{X]bcXcdcX^]
\^]PaRWX`dT Tc ST b^] [XT] PeTR [T _Td_[T PX]bX `dT ST [P aÏd]X
RPcX^]
cTaaXc^aXP[T c^dY^dab X]PRWTeÏT [T ]PcX^]P[Xb\T \Pa^RPX] R^]U^acT d]
_Td_[T `dX b{Ï\P]RX_T Sd Y^dV R^[^]XP[ UaP]R^ Tb_PV]^[ T] ($% 3T_dXb
[{WXbc^XaT Sd <Pa^R X]SÏ_T]SP]c Tbc \Pa`dÏT _Pa d] caP]bUTac ST bPRaP[XcÏ Sd
aT[XVXTdg eTab [T _^[XcX`dT _Pa [T Rd[cT e^dÏ Æ [P ]PcX^] \Pa^RPX]T Æ caPeTab
[Tb b^deTaPX]b P[P^dXcTb ;T ?P[PXb S^]c [P RT]caP[XcÏ bh\Q^[X`dT Tc _^[XcX`dT
Udc T]R^daPVÏT _Pa [Tb ]PcX^]P[XbcTb bT R^]b^[XST _Td Æ _Td R^\\T [{PRcTda
RT]caP[ Tc X]R^]c^da]PQ[T Sd RWP\_ _^[XcX`dT \Pa^RPX] ‘ ;{PUUTa\XbbT\T]c ST
[{^aSaT \^]PaRWX`dT Tbc X]bÏ_PaPQ[T ST [P U^a\PcX^] S{d]T eÏaXcPQ[T aT[XVX^]
Sd ]PcX^]P[Xb\T J L >] P S^]R PQ^dcX Æ d]T RTacPX]T X]cÏVaPcX^] ST STdg
X\PVX]PXaTb R^]bcXcdcXUb ST [P b^RXÏcÏ \Pa^RPX]T RT[dX Sd <Pa^R X\_ÏaXP[ Tc
RT[dX Sd <Pa^R \^STa]T ¡ !
;T ]PcX^]P[Xb\T \Pa^RPX] SP]b bP U^a\d[PcX^] R[PbbX`dT RT[[T `dX Ï\P]T
SXaTRcT\T]c STb [dccTb R^]caT [P R^[^]XbPcX^] UaP]ÍPXbT Tc Tb_PV]^[T b^db
U^a\T ST _a^cTRc^aPc b{Tbc ed R^]RdaaT]RÏ SdaP]c [T STa]XTa ST\X bXÎR[T
_Pa d] PdcaT ]PcX^]P[Xb\T Æ RPaPRcÎaT \^]PaRWX`dT ;{XSÏ^[^VXT _aÚ]ÏT
_Pa [T \^deT\T]c ]PcX^]P[ bTb RPcÏV^aXTb S{P]P[hbT Tc [Tb aÏUÏaT]RTb Æ [P
]PcX^] T[[T \Ð\T \dcT]c Tc PSP_cT]c [Tda R^]cT]d Æ RPdbT ST [ X]cTaPRcX^]
cP]cÚc eXad[T]cT cP]cÚc R^]bT]bdT[[T PeTR [Tb X]cÏaÐcb ST [P 2^da^]]T ;P
[dccT _^da [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT [XÏT Æ STb PccXcdSTb caPSXcX^]]T[[Tb Tc X\_aÏV]ÏT
STb XSÏTb ST SÏ\^RaPcXT YdbcXRT b^RXP[T b^[XSPaXcÏ [XQTacÏ Ï\P]RX_PcX^]
aTb_TRc STb Sa^Xcb ST [{W^\\T ÏSdRPcX^] Tc \ÏaXc^RaPcXT X]bÏ_PaPQ[Tb ST
RTccT _aT\XÎaT R^]RT_cX^] ]PcX^]P[T ]{P _Pb _d aTbcTa X]P[cÏaÏT STeP]c d]
?P[PXb b^acX VPV]P]c ST bP [dccT R^]caT [T _PacX ST [{8bcX`[P[ Tc bP _a^VÏ]XcdaT
P_aÎb [T SÏ_Pac STb R^[^]b " 4] SÏ_Xc STb Tb_^Xab RaÏÏb Tc S{d]T ^\]X_aÏbT]cT
! 2WTZa^d] < ‘ B^RXÏcÏ RXeX[T aT[XVX^] RXeX[T Tc [XT] b^RXP[ Pd <Pa^R ¡ SP]b 4[ 0^d
= SXa ;P
b^RXÏcÏ RXeX[T Pd <Pa^R APQPc B<4A ((! _ "#
" ;T _PacX ST [{8bcX`[P[ X]SÏ_T]SP]RT Tbc [P \PcaXRT bRXbbX^] P_aÎb bRXbbX^] ST ]^\QaT ST
U^a\PcX^]b _^[XcX`dTb Pd <Pa^R

81

Le Mondial des nations
aWÏc^aX`dT caP]bXcX^]]T[[T <^WP\\TS E8 ]T UPXc PdY^daS{WdX SXg P]b P_aÎb
b^] PbRT]bX^] Pd caÚ]T `d{PRR^\_[Xa [T caPePX[ X]XcXÏ _Pa b^] VaP]S _ÎaT
<^WP\\TS E _dXb b^] _ÎaT 7PbbP] 88 ‘ ;P caP]bXcX^] \Pa^RPX]T T] R^dab
_PacXRX_T S{d] TUU^ac S{PRR[X\PcPcX^] S{d]T \^STa]XcÏ ÏR^]^\X`dT _^[XcX`dT Tc
Rd[cdaT[[T Pd bTX] S{d] bhbcÎ\T ST ch_T caPSXcX^]]T[ J L ¡ # ;P \^]^_^[XbPcX^]
ST [P ]PcX^] \Pa^RPX]T ST bTb bh\Q^[Tb Tc aXcTb ST b^] WXbc^XaT Tc ST bTb
PRcTdab SÏ_daÏb _^da ÐcaT PSP_cÏb Pdg QTb^X]b Sd ?P[PXb UPXc `dT RTdg `dX
]{Pbbd\T]c _Pb RT fPcP] ]PcX^] \^]PaRWX`dT b^]c TgR[db Sd YTd _^[XcX`dT
ÏR^]^\X`dT Tc b^RXP[

Aux sources du nationalisme marocain
;P SÏUPXcT ST [P QPcPX[[T S{8b[h R^]caT [P 5aP]RT T] P^ác '## \^]caT caÎb
cÚc [{X]RP_PRXcÏ STb <Pa^RPX]b Tc ST [Tdab P[[XÏb P[VÏaXT]b Æ ^__^bTa d]T
aÏbXbcP]RT R^]caT d] T]]T\X _[db U^ac $ 0[^ab `d{Æ RTccT Ï_^`dT [P 5aP]RT
_^bT [Tb _aT\XTab YP[^]b ST bP _aÏbT]RT R^[^]XP[T TUUTRcXeT [{4b_PV]T [dX
T\Q^ÔcT [T _Pb T] '$( 4] SÏ_Xc ST `dT[`dTb Ï_Xb^STb eXRc^aXTdg [P UPXQ[TbbT
\X[XcPXaT bT R^]
a\T [^ab ST [P aÏe^[cT R^]SdXcT _Pa 0QST[ZaX\ T[ :WPccPQX
_T]SP]c [Tb P]]ÏTb (! SP]b [T AXU X]RP_PQ[T \P[VaÏ STb P]]ÏTb ST [dccTb
ST UPXaT UPRT Æ d]T Pa\ÏT R^[^]XP[T \XTdg U^a\ÏT Ï`dX_ÏT Tc ^aVP]XbÏT >dcaT
RTccT UPXQ[TbbT \X[XcPXaT [Tb SXbbXST]RTb Pd bTX] Sd \PZWiT] % R^]caPXV]T]c
[Tb bd[cP]b Æ ST\P]STa [T b^dcXT] TgcÏaXTda B^db 7PbbP] 8Ta `dX WÏaXcT S d]
a^hPd\T U^acT\T]c Tg_^bÏ Pdg eT[[ÏXcÏb Tda^_ÏT]]Tb [T b^ac Sd <Pa^R bT
Y^dT SÏYÆ PX[[Tdab ;P 2^]UÏaT]RT X]cTa]PcX^]P[T ST <PSaXS ST '' T]cÏaX]T
[Tb SXUUÏaT]cb caPXcÏb R^\\TaRXPdg ]ÏV^RXÏb c^dc Pd [^]V Sd G8GT bXÎR[T & Tc
_Td Æ _Td [T _^de^Xa P[P^dXcT ]{P S{PdcaT RW^Xg `dT ST RÏSTa d]T _PacXT ST
b^] Pdc^aXcÏ ;{X]VÏaT]RT ÏcaP]VÎaT PccTX]c b^] P_^VÏT PeTR [T _a^cTRc^aPc
# 1T]YT[[^d] < > ?a^YTc ]PcX^]P[ Tc XST]cXcÏ Pd <Pa^R 4bbPX S{P]cWa^_^[^VXT _^[XcX`dT ?PaXb
4SSXU ;{7Pa\PccP] ! ! _
$ <^d[Ph 0QSTaaPW\P] WÏbXcT \PXb
]Xc _Pa T]e^hTa bTb ca^d_Tb eTab [P Ua^]cXÎaT P[VÏa^ \Pa^RPX]T
Pd bTR^dab ST [{¯\Xa 0QST[ZPSTa ;P 5aP]RT ÏRaPbT [Tb ca^d_Tb RWÏaX
T]]Tb d]T SÏUPXcT `dX bT b^[ST
_Pa [P bXV]PcdaT S{d] caPXcÏ ST _PXg
% =^\ `dT aTÍ^Xc [T bhbcÎ\T _^[XcX`dT caPSXcX^]]T[ \Pa^RPX] 4]bT\Q[T ST [{P__PaTX[ ÏcPcX`dT Tc
STb bTaeXRTb Tc aTeT]db `d{X[ SXb_T]bT [T \PZWiT] bT QPbT T]R^aT PdY^daS{WdX bda [Tb _aX]RX_Tb
S{P[[ÏVTP]RT Tc ST b^d\XbbX^]
& =^cP\\T]c PeTR [P 5aP]RT Tc [{4b_PV]T \PXb PdbbX PeTR [{0]V[TcTaaT [{0[[T\PV]T [P 1T[VX`dT [T
?^acdVP[ [P BdÎST [P =^aeÎVT Tc \Ð\T [Tb ¯cPcb D]Xb

82

Maroc
SP]b [T`dT[ [{PS\X]XbcaPcX^] Tc [P _a^cTRcX^] Sd cTaaXc^XaT b^]c S^aÏ]PeP]c
b^db [P aTb_^]bPQX[XcÏ STb ^RRd_P]cb UaP]ÍPXb Tc Tb_PV]^[b bT[^] [Tb R[PdbTb
Sd caPXcÏ ST 5Îb bXV]Ï _Pa <^d[Ph 7P
S [T " \Pab ( ! 0d bTX] Sd ]^deTPd
\PZWiT] R^[^]XP[ [T bd[cP] ]T VPaST ST UPRc^ `dT [T _^de^Xa aT[XVXTdg '
0_aÎb [{ÏRWTR ST [P R^]Ua^]cPcX^] _Pa [P U^aRT Tc [P _aXbT Sd _^de^Xa _Pa
[Tb ^RRd_P]cb ÏcaP]VTab [{Xb[P\ P__PaPÔc SP]b d] _aT\XTa cT\_b R^\\T [P
bTd[T ePaXPQ[T XST]cXcPXaT bdbRT_cXQ[T ST \^QX[XbTa [Tb <Pa^RPX]b Pdc^da S{d]T
aÏbXbcP]RT ST [^]VdT WP[TX]T R^]caT [T R^[^] B^db \P]SPc ST _dXbbP]RTb
RWaÏcXT]]Tb b{P__dhP]c bda [T aÏbTPd STb iP^dXPb R^]UaÏaXTb aT[XVXTdbTb Tc
bda [T \PaPQ^dcXb\T Rd[cT STb bPX]cb [P \PcaXRT Sd ]PcX^]P[Xb\T \Pa^RPX]
S{^QÏSXT]RT Xb[P\X`dT e^Xc [T Y^da Æ [{X]bcPa STb ]^deT[[Tb XSÏTb aÏU^a\XbcTb
eT]dTb ST [{>aXT]c PaPQT ( 2T aT]^deTPd [T bP[P
b\T _aÚ]T [{^acW^S^gXT
Xb[P\X`dT [T aTc^da Æ [P U^X ‘ _daT ¡ STb P]RXT]b PX]bX `dT [{X]Ï[dRcPQ[T
^__^bXcX^] T]caT [{>RRXST]c RWaÏcXT] Tc [T \^]ST PaPQT Tc \dbd[\P] ;Tb
R^]c^dab _^[XcX`dTb Sd BP[P
b\T ÏcPXT]c R[PXab SÎb bTb SÏQdcb _dXb`d{X[ SÏUT]SPXc
[T aT]U^aRT\T]c STb [XT]b Pd bTX] ST [{^d\\P ]PcX^] Sd ?a^_WÎcT T] UPeTda
ST [P [XQÏaPcX^] STb \PW^\ÏcP]b ST [{^__aTbbX^] ÏcaP]VÎaT Tc ST [P R^\_[ÎcT
Tg_d[bX^] STb \ÏRaÏP]cb ST 3Pa T[ 8b[P\ [P \PXb^] ST [{Xb[P\ 2Tb XSÏTb
PeXePXT]c [T bT]cX\T]c ST aÏbXbcP]RT Æ [P R^[^]XbPcX^] bdac^dc _Pa\X [Tb R[PbbTb
\^hT]]Tb daQPX]Tb P__PdeaXTb _Pa [T R^\\TaRT Tc [{X]SdbcaXT Tda^_ÏT]]T
`dX UaP__T]c SPeP]cPVT [{PacXbP]Pc Tc [Tb R^\\TaÍP]cb caPSXcX^]]T[b
4] _PaP[[Î[T RT Udc d]T _TcXcT VÏ]ÏaPcX^] ST R^[[ÏVXT]b Tc ST QPRWT[XTab Æ RT
\^\T]c [Æ `dX P[[PXc aÏdbbXa `dT[`dTb P]]ÏTb _[db cPaS [P RaÏPcX^] S{d] _PacX
]PcX^]P[XbcT \^STa]T P_cT Æ \^QX[XbTa [T _Td_[T _^da aT\TccaT T] `dTbcX^]
[T aÏVX\T ST _a^cTRc^aPc 1XT] `dT [T aÏbXST]c VÏ]ÏaP[ Æ [{Ï_^`dT [T \PaÏRWP[
;hPdcTh Tác eTX[[Ï Æ RT `dT [Tb YTd]Tb \dbd[\P]b b^XT]c d]X`dT\T]c X]bcadXcb
' BT[^] [{PacXR[T Sd CaPXcÏ ST 5Îb ‘ [P bXcdPcX^] aT[XVXTdbT [T aTb_TRc Tc [T _aTbcXVT caPSXcX^]]T[ Sd
bd[cP] bTa^]c bPdeTVPaSÏb ¡ 3P]b [Tb UPXcb RT[dX RX _TaS c^dcT Pdc^aXcÏ Tc 7dQTac ;hPdcTh [T _aT\XTa
aÏbXST]c VÏ]ÏaP[ UaP]ÍPXb X]RPa]T SÏb^a\PXb [{TgÏRdcXU \Pa^RPX]
( ?Pa\X S{PdcaTb STb
VdaTb R^\\T [T RWTXZW 0Q^d 2W^dPXQ 3^dZZP[X ^d <^WP\\TS 1T] ;PaQX
0[P^dX b^]c [Tb _aÏRdabTdab ST [P SXUUdbX^] STb XSÏTb bP[P
bcTb Pd <Pa^R BT[^] Tdg bTd[ [T aTc^da Æ
[{Xb[P\ _^dePXc _Ta\TccaT S T]
]Xa PeTR [P SÏRPST]RT STb \dbd[\P]b \Pa^RPX]b
;Tb bP[P
bcTb P__T[[T]c Æ _daX
Ta [{Xb[P\ ST c^dcT caPRT ÏcaP]VÎaT Rd[cdaT[[T ^d b^RXP[T T]
aTVPaSP]c [T \^]ST Æ caPeTab [P RWPaXP [^X Xb[P\X`dT 3P]b RT R^]cTgcT WXbc^aX`dT _PacXRd[XTa
S{ÏR[^bX^] STb ]PcX^]P[Xb\Tb PaPQTb [T R^daP]c bP[P
bcT aTeÐcPXc d] RPaPRcÎaT aÏU^a\PcTda Pd bTX]
ST [P R^\\d]PdcÏ \dbd[\P]T ?Pa\X RTb bP[P
bcTb \Pa^RPX]b bT ca^dePXc 0[[P[ 4[ 5PbbX [T [TPSTa
]PcX^]P[XbcT WXbc^aX`dT Tc RWTU Sd _PacX ST [{8bcX`[P[

83

Le Mondial des nations
SP]b [Tda Rd[cdaT Tc R^]cP\X]Ïb [T \^X]b _^bbXQ[T _Pa [Tb XSÏTb UaP]ÍPXbTb
_aÏRXbÏ\T]c _^da ÏeXcTa STb SÏaXeTb SP]VTaTdbTb _^da [Tb X]cÏaÐcb ST ?PaXb [P
_aTbbX^] \dbd[\P]T T] UPeTda ST [P bR^[PaXbPcX^] ^RRXST]cP[T Udc caÎb U^acT
<X]^aXcPXaT RT \^deT\T]c ÏcPXc _aX]RX_P[T\T]c _^acÏ _Pa [Tb VaP]STb UP\X[[Tb
ST [P Q^daVT^XbXT daQPX]T ST 5Îb APQPc Tc BP[Ï `dX ca^dePXT]c PX]bX d]T
e^XT _^da PRRÏSTa Pdg RTaR[Tb ST _^de^Xa aÏT[ ST [{PS\X]XbcaPcX^] R^[^]XP[T
;{X] dT]RT UaP]ÍPXbT Udc SÏcTa\X]P]cT _^da [{ÏR[^bX^] Sd ]PcX^]P[Xb\T Tc RTccT
VÏ]ÏaPcX^] _aXeX[ÏVXÏT SÏR^deaT [^ab ST bTb ÏcdSTb T] 5aP]RT \Ïca^_^[XcPX]T
[P R^]caPSXRcX^] T]caT [Tb _aX]RX_Tb ST [P AÏ_dQ[X`dT Tc [{^__aTbbX^] R^[^]XP[T
¦ [Tda aTc^da Pd <Pa^R RTb UaP]RXbP]cb X\_aÏV]Ïb STb eP[Tdab _^[XcX`dTb
^RRXST]cP[Tb Tc S{d]T b^[XST U^a\PcX^] b^]c R^]Ua^]cÏb Æ [P UTa\TcdaT Sd
\PaRWÏ ST caPePX[ SP]b [Tb PS\X]XbcaPcX^]b _dQ[X`dTb Tc [Tb WPdcb [XTdg Sd
_^de^Xa STb _^bcTb TgR[dbXeT\T]c aÏbTaeÏb Pdg aTbb^acXbbP]cb UaP]ÍPXb
<PaVX]P[XbÏb TgR[db ST [P b_WÎaT _dQ[X`dT Tc STb RTaR[Tb ST SÏRXbX^] X[b
caPePX[[T]c _^da [P RPdbT ]PcX^]P[XbcT Æ caPeTab [P \XbT T] _[PRT STb QPbTb Sd
\^deT\T]c ]PcX^]P[ ‘ 2Tb |9Td]Tb <Pa^RPX]b} S{P_aÎb [T \^SÎ[T STb 9Td]Tb
CdaRb QXT] `dT caÎb _Td ]^\QaTdg UdaT]c [Tb RaÏPcTdab Sd ]PcX^]P[Xb\T
\^STa]T Pd <Pa^R ¡ !
¦ [P
] STb P]]ÏTb (! ^] ca^deT RTb STdg cT]SP]RTb Pd bTX] Sd aÏU^a\Xb\T
]PcX^]P[XbcT \Pa^RPX] ) d]T QaP]RWT aT[XVXTdbT Tc caPSXcX^]]T[[T Pdc^da Sd
`W
bPeP]c T] YdaXb_adST]RT Xb[P\X`dT S{d] 1T[VWPiX Æ 5Îb 0[[P[ 4[ 5PbbX ÏcP]c b^]
SXbRX_[T Tc d]T PdcaT UPRcX^] _[db [PÕ`dT Tc \^STa]XbcT Æ APQPc S^]c 0W\TS
1P[PUaTY Udc [{d] STb [TPSTab 2Tb STdg R^daP]cb bT aP__a^RWT]c T] (!& [^ab
ST [{PaaXeÏT Pd caÚ]T ST <^WP\\TS 1T] H^dbbTU T] X]bcPdaP]c _Pa [P bdXcT
[P UÐcT Sd caÚ]T d] PRcT `dX caPSdXc [Tda Tb_aXc ST \^STa]XbPcX^] _^[XcX`dT
Tc [Tdab b^dRXb [ÏVXcX\XbcTb ?^da PR`dÏaXa [{P__dX Sd _Td_[T Tc \^QX[XbTa d]
_dQ[XR _[db [PaVT SP]b d]T b^RXÏcÏ T]R^aT caÎb adaP[T Tc caPSXcX^]P[XbcT SP]b
[P`dT[[T [P aT[XVX^] P c^dY^dab Y^dÏ d] aÚ[T R[Ï [T ]PcX^]P[Xb\T \Pa^RPX] S^Xc
R^]bTaeTa Tc T]R^daPVTa bcaPcÏVX`dT\T]c b^] PccPRWT\T]c Æ [P \^]PaRWXT
;P [ÏVXcX\XcÏ aT[XVXTdbT Sd b^deTaPX] SP]b bP `dP[XcÏ S{0\Xa P[ <^d\X]X\T
3P]b [P i^]T ]^aS [P bXcdPcX^] Tbc SXUUÏaT]cT ;T SÏR[T]RWT\T]c ST [P VdTaaT RXeX[T Tb_PV]^[T T]
("% UPe^aXbT d]T T]cT]cT T]caT [T VÏ]ÏaP[ 5aP]R^ Tc [Tb ]PcX^]P[XbcTb Sd _a^cTRc^aPc b^db R^]caÚ[T
ST <PSaXS 2TccT b^acT ST c^[ÏaP]RT aT]S _^bbXQ[T [P RaÏPcX^] Sd ?PacX STb aÏU^a\Tb ]PcX^]P[Tb SXaXVÏ
_Pa 0QST[ZWP[TS C^aaTb ^d Sd ?PacX S{d]XcÏ \Pa^RPX]T ST <PZZX =PbXaX
! ETa\TaT] ? ;T <Pa^R T] caP]bXcX^] ?PaXb ;P 3ÏR^deTacT ! ! _ !"

84

Maroc
‘ [T R^\\P]STda STb Ra^hP]cb ¡ Tbc R^]bXSÏaÏT R^\\T d] Pc^dc \PYTda _Pa
RTb ]PcX^]P[XbcTb " 4] b{P__dhP]c S^]R bda [P caPSXcX^] Sd _Phb [T bd[cP]
RWÏaX
T] STeXT]c _^da RTb _X^]]XTab ]PcX^]P[XbcTb [T a^X Sd <Pa^R #

Le réveil du nationalisme
;^X] STb R^]RT_cX^]b TbbT]cXP[XbcTb aÏ_P]SdTb [P ]PcX^] \Pa^RPX]T Tbc d]
_a^SdXc \^STa]T d]T R^]bcadRcX^] b^RXP[T XbbdT S{d] R^]cTgcT _PacXRd[XTa Tc
S{d] _a^RTbbdb _^[XcX`dT `dX _aÏcT]S aT]SaT R^\_cT S d]T XST]cXcÏ R^[[TRcXeT
2TccT ]PcX^] ST ]PcdaT Q^daVT^XbT Tbc \T]ÏT _Pa d]T Ï[XcT X]cT[[TRcdT[[T
`dX [P \^SÎ[T SP]b bP U^a\T bTb SXbR^dab bTb \hcWTb U^]SPcTdab PX]bX `dT
bTb _TaRT_cX^]b R{Tbc Æ SXaT [P \P]XÎaT S^]c X[ UPdc bT eP[^aXbTa Tc eP[^aXbTa
[Tb PdcaTb $ 4] b^\\T bP _a^SdRcX^] aT`dXTac [P R^]RdaaT]RT S{d]T bÏaXT
ST R^]SXcX^]b TcW]X`dTb % Tc b^RXP[Tb ]^daaXbbP]c [{TgXbcT]RT ST RTccT ]PcX^]
R^\\d]T & d]T bcadRcdaT S{^__^acd]XcÏ _^[XcX`dT UPe^aPQ[T ' Tc d]T
\^QX[XbPcX^] Æ caPeTab d] caPePX[ ^aVP]XbPcX^]]T[ TU
RPRT ( ;P ]PcX^] b{X]b_XaT
Sd _PbbÏ _^da _PaeT]Xa Æ [P aÏP[XbPcX^] S{d] ^QYTRcXU R^\\d] ST SÏ\^RaPcXT
[XQÏaPcX^] X]SÏ_T]SP]RT Ï\P]RX_PcX^] Tc SÏeT[^__T\T]c ?^da _PaR^daXa [T
RWT\X] eTab d] \^STa]Xb\T ^RRXST]cP[ PRRTbbXQ[T Æ [P \PbbT [Tb ]PcX^]P[XbcTb
" ;T bd[cP] \Pa^RPX] ÏcPXc Æ [P U^Xb RP[XUT Tc X\P\ RT[dX `dX SXaXVT [P _aXÎaT Pdc^aXcÏ _^[XcX`dT
cT\_^aT[[T Tc aT[XVXTdbT b_XaXcdT[[T 3TbRT]SP]c Sd _a^_WÎcT <PW^\Tc X[ _^acT [T cXcaT ST 0\Xa 0[
<^d\X]X\T 8[ SXaXVT Tc aTbcT [P aÏUÏaT]RT d[cX\T ST [P R^\\d]PdcÏ STb \dbd[\P]b bd]]XcTb ST aXcT
\P[PRWXcT \PY^aXcPXaTb Pd <Pa^R
# ?^da _[db ST SÏcPX[b bda [Tb b^daRTb ST [P ]PcX^] \Pa^RPX]T e^Xa ;Pa^dX 0 ;Tb ^aXVX]Tb b^RXP[Tb Tc
Rd[cdaT[[Tb Sd ]PcX^]P[Xb\T \Pa^RPX] '" ( ! 2PbPQ[P]RP 2T]caT Rd[cdaT[ PaPQT !
$ E^Xa =PXa] C ‘ ;P \P[SXRXÙ] ST[ adaP[Xb\^) [^b [Ó\XcTb ST [P cT^aÓP ST [P \^STa]XiPRXÙ] ¡ SP]b
9^W] 0 7P[[ SXa 4bcPS^ h ]PRXÙ]) 4a]bc 6T[[]Ta h [P cT^aÓP ST[ ]PRX^]P[Xb\^ <PSaXS 2P\QaXSVT
D]XeTabXch ?aTbb ! __ #& '!
% D] bdQbcaPc Rd[cdaT[ `dX \Ð\T _aTS^]]Ï ^d _aÏTgXbcP]c Tbc [ ^QYTc S{d] caPePX[ ST bÏ[TRcX^]
WXÏaPaRWXbPcX^] Tc PSP_cPcX^] ST [P _Pac STb ]PcX^]P[XbcTb
& ?Pa TgT\_[T [Tb X]ÏVP[XcÏb ^d [Tb SXbRaX\X]PcX^]b bhbcÏ\PcX`dTb Æ [{ÏVPaS S{d]T R^\\d]PdcÏ
S^]]ÏT 3P]b [T RPb STb _Phb R^[^]XbÏb [{^RRd_PcX^] ÏcaP]VÎaT ÏcPXc d] UPRcTda \PYTda _^da PRcXeTa
RT \P[PXbT b^RXP[ Pdc^da S{d]T ]PcX^] R^\\d]T Æ [P U^Xb Ï[Ï\T]c ST [dccT R^]caT [Tb ‘ T]ePWXbbTdab ¡
Tc R^\_aXbT R^\\T [P b^[dcX^] Æ c^db [Tb \Pdg Sd _Phb
' ;P bcadRcdaT U^a\T[[T ^d X]U^a\T[[T 2TccT bcadRcdaT S{^__^acd]XcÏ _Tdc ÐcaT PdbbX aÏT[[T ^d
_TaÍdT R^\\T UPe^aPQ[T _Pa [Tb ]PcX^]P[XbcTb RT `dX _Tdc SÏR[T]RWTa [P \^QX[XbPcX^] \Ð\T bX [Tb
R^]SXcX^]b ]T b^]c _Pb ^QYTRcXeT\T]c Q^]]Tb E^Xa CPaa^f B ?^fTa X] <^eT\T]c) B^RXP[ <^eT\T]cb
P]S 2^]cT]cX^db ?^[XcXRb 2P\QaXSVT D]XeTabXch ?aTbb ((#
( E^Xa <ÇXi A ‘ =PRX^]P[Xb\^ h \^eX[XiPRXÙ] _^[ÓcXRP) d] P]Ç[XbXb _[daXSX\T]bX^]P[ ST [P
R^]bcadRRXÙ] ST ]PRX^]Tb ¡ I^]P 0QXTacP ]– &( ((& __ %( ! %

85

Le Mondial des nations
\Pa^RPX]b X]bcad\T]cP[XbT]c [T _PbbÏ _Pa d] aTc^da Pdg b^daRTb Tc Æ d]T
P]cX`dXcÏ SXV]T UPXcTb ST \hcWTb _[P]X
ÏT Tc PSP_cÏT Pd _aÏbT]c !
2T `dX RaXbcP[[XbP [Tb aTeT]SXRPcX^]b ]PcX^]P[XbcTb Udc [T SPWXa SXc QTaQÎaT
Sd % \PX ST (" 2TccT [^X Sd _a^cTRc^aPc eXbPXc Æ _aÏbTaeTa [{Pdc^]^\XT
caPSXcX^]]T[[T STb 1TaQÎaTb TbbT]cXT[[T\T]c SP]b [T S^\PX]T YdaXSX`dT T]
[Tb b^dbcaPhP]c Æ [P [ÏVXb[PcX^] Xb[P\X`dT Tc T] VPaSP]c [Tda Sa^Xc R^dcd\XTa
;T SPWXa aTR^]]PXbbPXc Tc VPaP]cXbbPXc [{P__[XRPcX^] STb db QTaQÎaTb \PXb bP]b
_aÏRXbTa [Tda ]PcdaT ]X SXb_^bTa `dT[[Tb ÏcPXT]c [Tb caXQdb QTaQÎaTb <Ð\T
bX [{X]cTa_aÏcPcX^] ST RT SPWXa Tbc R^]ca^eTabÏT RTccT [^X Udc d] RPcP[hbTda
Sd ]PcX^]P[Xb\T \Pa^RPX] RXcPSX] PaPQT Tc U^]RXÎaT\T]c \dbd[\P] ! ‘ ;T
SPWXa QTaQÎaT aÏP[XbP [{d]X^] STb W^\\Tb Tc STb XSÏTb Pdc^da S{d] _a^VaP\\T
\X]X\d\ ) [P SÏUT]bT ST [{Xb[P\ R^]caT d]T cT]cPcXeT S{ÏeP]VÏ[XbPcX^] STb
<Pa^RPX]b _Pa[P]c [Tb SXP[TRcTb QTaQÎaTb [P SÏUT]bT ST [{PaPQXbPcX^] ¡ !!
4UUTRcXeT\T]c [T SÏRaTc Tbc X]cTa_aÏcÏ _Pa [Tb ]PcX^]P[XbcTb R^\\T d]T
\P]…deaT _^da SXeXbTa [Tb <Pa^RPX]b Tc \XTdg \PÔcaXbTa [T cTaaXc^XaT PX]bX
`d{d] ^dcX[ ST _a^bÏ[hcXb\T RWaÏcXT] R^]caT [Tb \PW^\ÏcP]b Tc [Tda [P]VdT
bPRaÏT ‘ ;T _a^YTc Sd SPWXa QTaQÎaT _a^RÎST ST RTccT e^[^]cÏ ST SXeXbTa [Tb
_Td_[Tb PbbTaeXb P
] S{PbbT^Xa d]T Pdc^aXcÏ bP]b _PacPVT `dX _aÏbXST Æ c^dcT
_^[XcX`dT ST R^[^]XbPcX^] ¡ !"
;Tb [XTdg ST Rd[cT \dbd[\P] PRRdTX[[T]c [Tb _aT\XÎaTb aÏPRcX^]b ]ÏVPcXeTb
R^]caT RT SPWXa ;T eT]SaTSX !& YdX] [{X\P\ P[ WPY 0[X 0^dPS _aÏbXST Æ [P
6aP]ST <^b`dÏT ST BP[Ï [P [TRcdaT Sd [PcXU SP]b RTb cTa\Tb ) ‘ º BPdeTda HP
;PcXU Ï_PaV]T ]^db [Tb \PdePXb caPXcT\T]cb Sd 3TbcX] Tc ]T ]^db bÏ_PaT
_Pb ST ]^b UaÎaTb QTaQÎaTb ¡ !# 2TccT _aXÎaT R^]bcXcdT [T _^X]c ST SÏ_Pac STb

! ?^da _[db ST SÏcPX[b bda [T _a^RTbbdb ST R^]bcadRcX^] S{d]T ]PcX^] e^Xa 0]STab^] 1 8\PVX]TS
2^\\d]XcXTb) AT TRcX^]b ^] cWT >aXVX]b P]S B_aTPS ^U =PcX^]P[Xb\ ;^]SaTb ETab^ P]S =Tf ;TUc
1^^Zb ('" Tc B\XcW 0 ‘ =PcX^]P[ 8ST]cXch P]S <hcWb ^U 4cW]XR 3TbRT]R ¡ ATbTPaRW X] B^RXP[
<^eT\T]cb 2^] XRc P]S 2WP]VT & ('# __ ($ "
! ?^da _[db ST SÏcPX[b bda [T R^]cT]d Tc bXV]X
RPcX^] ST RT SPWXa e^Xa ;PUdT]cT 6 ;P ?^[XcX`dT
QTaQÎaT ST [P 5aP]RT Tc [T =PcX^]P[Xb\T \Pa^RPX] ?PaXb ;{7Pa\PccP] ((( ?^da d]T X]cTa_aÏcPcX^]
RaXcX`dT Tc P[cTa]PcXeT ST RT[dX RX e^Xa 1dSWP] < ‘ 4[ 3PWXa 1TaÏQTa ¥<Xc^ ^ aTP[XSPS. ¡ SP]b
APRWXS APWP 0W\TS Tc EXRT]cT <^VP A^\Ta^ SXa 4bcdSX^b P\PiXVTb) BdQbcaPc^b h bX]TaVXPb
Rd[cdaP[Tb <T[X[[P 2XdSPS 0dcÙ]^\P ST <T[X[[P ! __ ($ "
!! 4[ 0[P\X < 0[[P[ 4[ 5PbbX ?PcaXPaRWT Sd ]PcX^]P[Xb\T \Pa^RPX] APQPc 0aaXbbP[P (&! _ $(
!" 0^dPS <{WP\\TS Tc <PaXP 0fPS ;Tb CaT]cT 6[^aXTdbTb ^d [{¨VT S{^a Sd ]PcX^]P[Xb\T \Pa^RPX]
(!$ ($$ APQPc ;?; ! % _ !
!# 8QXS _ !!

86

Maroc
\P]XUTbcPcX^]b aT[XVXTdbTb `dX bT _a^_PVT]c aP_XST\T]c ST eX[[T T] eX[[T
9db`d{Pd " P^ác SPcT Æ [P`dT[[T [Tb Pdc^aXcÏb Sd _a^cTRc^aPc X]cTaSXbT]c
[T [PcXU APQPc 5Îb <PaaPZTRW Tc 2PbPQ[P]RP b^]c [T cWÏÈcaT S PRcTb ST
_a^cTbcPcX^] PRR^\_PV]Ïb ST _aXÎaTb Tc ST YTá]Tb _T]SP]c `dT[`dTb \^Xb
bdXeXb S{PaaTbcPcX^]b ST ]ÏV^RXPcX^]b ST _a^\TbbTb ST \T]PRTb Tc ST
aT_aÏbPX[[Tb ?Td Æ _Td QÏ]Ï
RXP]c ST [{P__dX ST c^db [P aÏbXbcP]RT b{^aVP]XbT
SP]b [P RP_XcP[T PX]bX `d{Æ BP[Ï Tc 5Îb ;T \^deT\T]c bT bcadRcdaT Tc STeXT]c
PRcX^] _^[XcX`dT SXaXVÏT _Pa [Tb R[PbbTb \^hT]]Tb _[db X]bcadXcTb ¦ _PacXa
ST RT \^\T]c [T R^\QPc Tc [P RPdbT \Pa^RPX]T U^]c PdbbX [Tda T]caÏT bda [P
bRÎ]T PaPQ^ \dbd[\P]T
;Tb STdg QaP]RWTb Sd ]PcX^]P[Xb\T \Pa^RPX] aT[XVXTdbT Tc [PÕ`dT bT
aP__a^RWT]c T]UX] >] PbbXbcT Æ [P R^]b^[XSPcX^] S{d]T bcadRcdaT Tc Æ
[{Ï[PQ^aPcX^] S{d] _a^VaP\\T R^\\d] Pd bTX] Sd \^deT\T]c 4] (""
[T _aT\XTa ]d\Ïa^ Sd Y^da]P[ ;{0RcX^] Sd ?Td_[T SXaXVÏT _Pa <dWP\\PS
7PbbP] >dPiiP]X Tbc _dQ[XÏ 3{PdcaTb cXcaTb bT RaÏT]c SP]b [P i^]T ]^aS
R^\\T 0[ 7PhPc ^d 0[ BP[P\ ;Tb ]PcX^]P[XbcTb dcX[XbT]c [Tb \^hT]b ST
R^\\d]XRPcX^] \^STa]Tb _^da [{Tg_P]bX^] ST [Tda R^]RT_cX^] ST [{XST]cXcÏ
]PcX^]P[T ?^da c^dRWTa [Tb R[PbbTb daQPX]Tb Tc Rd[cXeÏTb X[b _PbbT]c _Pa [P
_aTbbT [Tb caPRcb [T cWÏÈcaT ^d [P _^ÏbXT ?^da [Tb \PbbTb _aX]RX_P[T\T]c T]
\X[XTd adaP[ X[b e^]c \T]Ta STb PRcX^]b bh\Q^[X`dTb STb aXcdT[b X]SXb_T]bPQ[Tb
_^da [P \^QX[XbPcX^] _^[XcX`dT ?^acTa d]T SYT[[PQP R^bcd\T caPSXcX^]]T[
^d d] cPaQ^dRWT RWP_TPd bdU
c Æ \^]caTa b^] PccPRWT\T]c Pdg cWÎbTb
]PcX^]P[XbcTb ;Tb cT]bX^]b T]caT [Tb SXUUÏaT]cTb R^\_^bP]cTb Sd \^deT\T]c
]PcX^]P[ Tc [P b^RXÏcÏ bdQbXbcT]c \PXb [P ]PcX^] Tbc \XbT T] PeP]c Æ caPeTab RTb
Ï[Ï\T]cb R^\\d]b `dX ‘ R^WÏbX^]]T]c ¡ [P R^\\d]PdcÏ ;P UÐcT Sd caÚ]T
Tbc [T aT Tc ST RTccT T]cT]cT 4[[T Tbc RÏ[ÏQaÏT _Pa STb ]PcX^]P[XbcTb `dX ^]c
STb XSÏTb _^[XcX`dTb SXUUÏaT]cTb aT[XVXTdg ^d [PÕRb Tc _Pa STb \Pa^RPX]b `d X[b
b^XT]c \dbd[\P]b ^d YdXUb !$
0_aÎb d]T _WPbT ST [dccT Pa\ÏT Tc ST ]PcX^]P[Xb\T daQPX] ^] _Tdc _Pa[Ta
_^da [P _aT\XÎaT U^Xb ST [{TgXbcT]RT S{d]T eÏaXcPQ[T ^__^bXcX^] ]PcX^]P[T Pd
R^[^]XP[Xb\T ) [T Ta SÏRT\QaT ("# bT R^]bcXcdT [T 2^\XcÏ S{PRcX^] \Pa^RPX]T
20< _aT\XTa T\Qah^] Sd _PacX ]PcX^]P[XbcT Tc _aT\XÎaT bcadRcdaT eaPX\T]c

!$ APRWXZ 7 Bh\Q^[XbTa [P ]PcX^] ) 4bbPX bda [{dbPVT STb XST]cXcÏb R^[[TRcXeTb Pd <Pa^R 2PbPQ[P]RP
;T 5T]]TR ! "

87

Le Mondial des nations
X]cÏVaPcXeT Sd \^deT\T]c ]PcX^]P[ ;T 20< _aÏbT]cT Pd bd[cP] Pd aÏbXST]c
VÏ]ÏaP[ Tc Pd RWTU Sd V^deTa]T\T]c UaP]ÍPXb d] _[P] ST aÏU^a\Tb aÏR[P\P]c
[P _PacXRX_PcX^] STb <Pa^RPX]b Æ [{PS\X]XbcaPcX^] Sd _Phb [P SÏ\^RaPcXbPcX^]
ST [P eXT _dQ[X`dT [P bÏ_PaPcX^] STb _^de^Xab [P RaÏPcX^] S{X]bcXcdcX^]b
aT_aÏbT]cPcXeTb cT[[Tb `dT STb R^]bTX[b \d]XRX_Pdg STb PbbT\Q[ÏTb _a^eX]RXP[Tb
Tc d]T PbbT\Q[ÏT ]PcX^]P[T Tc STb RWP\QaTb ST R^\\TaRT 0_aÎb ]^\QaT
S{X]XcXPcXeTb Tc ST SÏ\^]bcaPcX^]b ST U^aRT [T 20< Tbc SXbb^db _Pa [Tb Pdc^aXcÏb
R^[^]XP[Tb T] \Pab ("& 3Tdg U^a\PcX^]b Ï\TaVT]c P[^ab ) [T ?PacX ]PcX^]P[
_^da [P aÏP[XbPcX^] STb aÏU^a\Tb ST 0[[P[ 4[ 5PbbX Æ RPaPRcÎaT _[db aT[XVXTdg Tc
PaPQT Tc 0[ 7PaPZP P[ `Pf\XhhP <^deT\T]c ]PcX^]P[XbcT ST <^WP\\TS
1T[WPbbP] 0[ >dPiiP]X Æ cT]SP]RT [PÕ`dT

De la mobilisation à l’indépendance
;Tb P]]ÏTb bdXeP]cTb b^]c \Pa`dÏTb _Pa [P aÏ_aTbbX^] STb Pdc^aXcÏb Sd
_a^cTRc^aPc Æ [{ÏVPaS STb ]PcX^]P[XbcTb ¦ APQPc BP[Ï 5Îb Tc <TZ]Tb STb

VdaTb R^\\T 0W\TS 1P[PUaTY <TWSX 1T] 1PaZP <^WP\\TS ;hPiXSX ^d
0QSTaaPWX\ 1^dPQXQ ^aVP]XbT]c STb aÏd]X^]b STbcX]ÏTb Æ bT]bXQX[XbTa [Tb
\PbbTb Æ [P ]ÏRTbbXcÏ ST \TccaT
] Æ d]T U^a\T S X\\^QX[Xb\T UPRT Pd R^[^]
Tc ST aP[[XTa [P RPdbT ]PcX^]P[T ?PaP[[Î[T\T]c [^ab ST aÏd]X^]b _[db aTbcaTX]cTb
[Tb ]PcX^]P[XbcTb _aÏ_PaT]c [T cTgcT Sd <P]XUTbcT ST [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT `dX Tbc
_aÏbT]cÏ [T YP]eXTa (## bX\d[cP]Ï\T]c Pd bd[cP] Pd aÏbXST]c VÏ]ÏaP[
Tc Pdg aT_aÏbT]cP]cb Æ APQPc STb ¯cPcb D]Xb ST [P 6aP]ST 1aTcPV]T Tc ST
[{D]X^] B^eXÏcX`dT 2^bXV]ÏT _Pa b^XgP]cT SXg _Tab^]]P[XcÏb _^da [P _[d_Pac
XbbdTb Sd \^]ST X]cT[[TRcdT[ Tc STb PUUPXaTb RTccT SÏR[PaPcX^] P__T[[T ]^]
_[db STb aÏU^a\Tb \PXb [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT SP]b d] aÏVX\T SÏ\^RaPcX`dT
2T[dX RX bTaP PdbbX [{PRcT ST ]PXbbP]RT Sd ?PacX ST [{8bcX`[P[ [T _aT\XTa _PacX
_^[XcX`dT \Pa^RPX] bcadRcdaÏ Tc ^aVP]XbÏ `dX aPbbT\Q[T [Tb \T\QaTb ST [{Tg
?PacX ]PcX^]P[ Pdg`dT[b b PSY^X]Sa^]c _Pa [P bdXcT [Tb \ÏR^]cT]cb Sd bhbcÎ\T
UaP]ÍPXb R^\\T STb ÏcdSXP]cb Pbb^RXPcX^]b ^d[Ï\Pb Pdc^aXcÏb aT[XVXTdbTb T]
Xb[P\ PacXbP]b R^\\TaÍP]cb _a^UTbbX^]b [XQÏaP[Tb ^d \Ð\T Q^daVT^Xb `dX
]T ca^dePXT]c _Pb [Tda _[PRT Æ [{^\QaT Sd bhbcÎ\T Sd _a^cTRc^aPc
;Tb PaaTbcPcX^]b S{0W\TS 1P[PUaTY bTRaÏcPXaT VÏ]ÏaP[ Sd ?PacX ST [{8bcX`[P[
ST b^] PSY^X]c 0W\TS ;hPiXSX Tc ST <TWSX 1T] 1PaZP _a^e^`dT]c STb

88

Maroc
Ï\TdcTb bP]V[P]cTb [^daST\T]c aÏ_aX\ÏTb !% 2{Tbc d]T Ï_^`dT \Pa`dÏT
_Pa [Tb PaaTbcPcX^]b [P c^acdaT [Tb R^]SP\]PcX^]b Æ [^daSTb _TX]Tb Tc [Tb
TgÏRdcX^]b b^\\PXaTb ST ]PcX^]P[XbcTb 6aÎeTb \P]XUTbcPcX^]b Tc X]RXST]cb
b T]RWPÔ]T]c D] \^deT\T]c S{PRcX^] SXaTRcT bT SÏR[T]RWT Tc ^] PbbXbcT Æ
STb bPQ^cPVTb Tc Æ STb PVaTbbX^]b R^]caT STb 4da^_ÏT]b Tc [Tb <Pa^RPX]b
UaP]R^_WX[Tb Tc PdbbX Æ STb PccT]P]cb R^\\T RT[dX _Ta_ÏcaÏ _Pa 0[[P[ 1T]
0QSP[[PW [T bT_cT\QaT R^]caT [T R^acÎVT Sd bd[cP] ‘ X[[ÏVXcX\T ¡ <^WP\\TS
1T] 0aPUP !& ;Tb \X[XcP]cb X]RPaRÏaÏb b^]c _a^VaTbbXeT\T]c [XQÏaÏb 8[b
b ÏcPQ[XbbT]c b^deT]c Æ [ ÏcaP]VTa P_aÎb [Tda aT\XbT T] [XQTacÏ Tc \Î]T]c
d]T RP\_PV]T X]cTa]PcX^]P[T ST bT]bXQX[XbPcX^] Æ [P RPdbT \Pa^RPX]T 2{Tbc
[T RPb S 0QSTaaPWX\ 1^dPQXS T] 5aP]RT S 0W\TS 1P[[PUaTY T] BdXbbT Tc SP]b
[Tb _Phb bRP]SX]PeTb Tc S 0[[P[ 4[ 5PbbX Pd 2PXaT P_aÎb b^] TgX[ Pd 6PQ^] ;T
_PacX ST [{8bcX`[P[ _PaeXT]c \Ð\T Æ ^deaXa d] QdaTPd Æ =Tf H^aZ Tc aÏdbbXc
Æ X]bRaXaT [P SÏR^[^]XbPcX^] Sd <Pa^R Æ [{^aSaT Sd Y^da ST [{PbbT\Q[ÏT STb
=PcX^]b d]XTb [T !" bT_cT\QaT ($#
3P]b [P R[P]STbcX]XcÏ [Tb [TPSTab ST [{8bcX`[P[ PePXT]c ^aVP]XbÏ SÎb (#! STb
aT]R^]caTb _[db ^d \^X]b aÏVd[XÎaTb PeTR [T bd[cP] S^]c [{T]VPVT\T]c Æ [P
cÐcT Sd \^deT\T]c R^]bcXcdPXc d] bh\Q^[T S{d]XcÏ ‘ ;P
QaT _PcaX^cX`dT ST [P
_^_d[PcX^] eXQaP X]cT]bÏ\T]c Tc ST c^dcTb [Tb eX[[Tb Sd <Pa^R ST ]^\QaTdbTb
_ÏcXcX^]b Tc SÏ[ÏVPcX^]b UdaT]c SÏ_ÐRWÏTb Pd ?P[PXb _^da b^dcT]Xa [T <P]XUTbcT
Sd ?PacX ST [{8bcX`[P[ J L ¡ !' 4] SÏ_Xc S{d]T \PdePXbT P__aÏRXPcX^] X]XcXP[T
<^WP\\TS 1T] H^dbbTU bdc aP[[XTa [T \^deT\T]c ]PcX^]P[ RT `dX Udc R^]
a\Ï
_Pa b^] RÏ[ÎQaT SXbR^dab ST CP]VTa R^\\Ï\^aP]c [T !$T P]]XeTabPXaT ST b^]
X]ca^]XbPcX^] !( 9dVÏ ca^_ _a^RWT STb \X[XTdg ]PcX^]P[XbcTb [Tb 5aP]ÍPXb PeTR
[{P__dX ST RTacPX]b ]^cPQ[Tb \dbd[\P]b [T
aT]c SÏ_^bTa Tc [T R^]caPXV]XaT]c Æ
!% ;Tb RWXUUaTb ePaXT]c bT[^] [Tb b^daRTb 0_aÎb RTb PaaTbcPcX^]b Æ 5Îb [Tb cXab STb U^aRTb ST [{^aSaT
Sd _a^cTRc^aPc
aT]c d]T RT]cPX]T ST \^acb
!& =Ï T] ( % Æ 6dTaRXU SP]b [P _a^eX]RT ST CPiP 0[[P[ 1T] 0QST[[PW ÏcPXc _TX]caT PeP]c ST
b{X]bcP[[Ta Æ APQPc 5^acT\T]c PccPRWÏ Pdg eP[Tdab ST [dccT R^]caT [{^RRd_PcX^] X[ Tbc STeT]d d]
bh\Q^[T ST [P aÏbXbcP]RT _^da [T ]PcX^]P[Xb\T \Pa^RPX] ÏcP]c R^]bXSÏaÏ R^\\T [T _X^]]XTa ST [P
[dccT Pa\ÏT daQPX]T R^]caT [T R^[^]XbPcTda UaP]ÍPXb
!' 0^dPS <{WP\\TS Tc <PaXP 0fPS ^_ RXc _ (
!( 3P]b bP SXPcaXQT [T bd[cP] TgWXQPXc bP _aXbT ST _^bXcX^] P_aÎb [ ÏRWTR STb ]ÏV^RXPcX^]b T]VPVÏTb
PeTR [Tb 5aP]ÍPXb ST_dXb ^Rc^QaT ($ T] UPXbP]c [T QX[P] ST b^] aÎV]T Tc STb `dPcaT SÏRT]]XTb ST
_a^cTRc^aPc 8[ [^dT [Tb [XT]b S{PccPRWT\T]c Tc ST
SÏ[XcÏ Sd _Td_[T Æ bP _Tab^]]T Tc [T aPbbT\Q[T\T]c
b^[XSPXaT Pdc^da ST [dX ?^da _[db ST SÏcPX[b e^Xa [T cTgcT Sd SXbR^dab Sd CaÚ]T ST <^WP\\TS 1T]
H^dbbTU Sd ' ]^eT\QaT ($!

89

Le Mondial des nations
[{TgX[ RT `dX ]T
c `d{PdV\T]cTa bP [ÏVXcX\XcÏ Æ [{ÏVPaS ST b^] _Td_[T Tc ]^daaXa
T] \Ð\T cT\_b [P \^QX[XbPcX^] ]PcX^]P[XbcT 2Tc PccPRWT\T]c _^_d[PXaT bT
\P]XUTbcP [^ab Sd aTc^da caX^\_WP[ Sd bd[cP] [T % ]^eT\QaT ($$ ^ß d] VaP]S
R^acÎVT PccT]SPXc RT[dX `dX `dT[`dTb \^Xb _[db cPaS d]T U^Xb [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT
PR`dXbT Tc aPcX
ÏT _Pa [P 5aP]RT [T ! \Pab Tc _Pa [{4b_PV]T [T & PeaX[ ($%
STeXT]SaPXc a^X ‘ [T [XQÏaPcTda ¡

La nation monarchique
<^WP\\TS E X]RPa]T [T _PbbPVT Sd _a^cTRc^aPc Æ [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT P_aÎb
Pe^Xa PRR^\_PV]Ï [P ]PXbbP]RT Sd ]PcX^]P[Xb\T ÏcP]c [T bTd[ ST bP Sh]PbcXT
Æ Pe^Xa _^acÏ bdRRTbbXeT\T]c STdg cXcaTb RT[dX ST bd[cP] SÎb (!& Tc RT[dX
ST a^X Æ _PacXa ($% 8[ Tbc RW^XbX Pd SÏ_Pac _Pa [T _^de^Xa R^[^]XP[ _^da b^]
‘ X]bXV]X
P]RT ¡ _^da ]T _Pb R^]bcXcdTa d] ^QbcPR[T d[cÏaXTda Pdg eT[[ÏXcÏb
ST RTdg `dX [ ^]c SÏbXV]Ï RT `dT [ PeT]Xa X]
a\TaP " >] [T SÏRaXc R^\\T
d] W^\\T _adST]c PeXbÏ bX\_[T R^]bRXT]c ST [{X\_^acP]RT ST b^] _^de^Xa
\Ð\T b X[ Udc _daT\T]c bh\Q^[X`dT Æ d] \^\T]c S^]]Ï ;T % ]^eT\QaT
($$ [Tb Pdc^aXcÏb UaP]ÍPXbTb [dX _Ta\TccT]c ST R^]bcXcdTa d] V^deTa]T\T]c
RP_PQ[T ST ]ÏV^RXTa [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT 8[ ÏRPacT [{8bcX`[P[ ST [P SXaTRcX^] Tc ]^\\T
Æ bP cÐcT `dT[`d{d] ST R^]
P]RT <QPaTZ 1TZZPÕ d] P]RXT] ^U
RXTa bd_ÏaXTda
ST [{Pa\ÏT UaP]ÍPXbT ;P [dccT Tbc ^deTacT T]caT [T ?P[PXb Tc [T _PacX _WPaT Sd
]PcX^]P[Xb\T \Pa^RPX] d] _PacX ST \PbbTb Æ d] \^\T]c ^ß RTacPX]b SXaXVTP]cb
b^]c cT]cÏb _Pa [{Tg_ÏaXT]RT ST _PacX d]X`dT bdXeXT T] Cd]XbXT b^db [{ÏVXST ST
7PQXQ 1^daVdXQP
¦ [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT d] PdcaT <Pa^R b{^UUaT Pd _^de^Xa P[P^dXcT `dX S^Xc
R^\_^bTa PeTR [{WÏaXcPVT R^[^]XP[ Tc aT]^dTa PeTR [P caPSXcX^] \^]PaRWX`dT
4] `dT[`dTb P]]ÏTb [T a^X _PaeXT]c Æ ÏcPQ[Xa _dXb Æ R^]b^[XSTa b^] Pdc^aXcÏ
PeP]c bP \^ac T] (% ;Tb 5^aRTb Pa\ÏTb a^hP[Tb 50A b^]c RaÏÏTb P_aÎb
[ X]SÏ_T]SP]RT _Pa [P UdbX^] ST [{Pa\ÏT R^[^]XP[T UaP]ÍPXbT Tc Tb_PV]^[T Tc
S{Ï[Ï\T]cb Xbbdb ST [{0a\Ï ST [XQÏaPcX^] ]PcX^]P[T 4[[Tb aÏ_aX\T]c eX^[T\\T]c
[{X]bdaaTRcX^] Sd AXU T] ($' T] \TccP]c d] cTa\T Æ [P aÏbXbcP]RT STb
" 1XT] `dT ST [P Sh]PbcXT P[P^dXcT <^WP\\TS 1T] H^dbbTU ]{ÏcPXc _Pb _aÏSTbcX]Ï Æ STeT]Xa [T
bd[cP] Sd <Pa^R 8[ Tbc ]^\\Ï _Pa [T _a^cTRc^aPc `dX e^Xc T] [dX d]T _Tab^]]T S^RX[T _aÐcT Æ bTaeXa
bTb X]cÏaÐcb T] ^RRd_P]c d]T _[PRT bh\Q^[X`dT  _daT\T]c aT[XVXTdbT  SP]b RT ]^deTPd <PZWiT]
R^[^]XP[

90

Maroc
STbRT]SP]cb S{0QST[ZaX\ 4[ :WPccPQX R^]bXSÏaÏb R^\\T bÏ_PaPcXbcTb ;{8bcX`[P[
Tbc PUUPXQ[X _Pa [P aÏSdRcX^] ST b^] X] dT]RT Pd bTX] Sd V^deTa]T\T]c [P
RaÏPcX^] Sd <^deT\T]c _^_d[PXaT  _PacX adaP[ Tc QTaQÏaXbcT P[[XÏ Sd ?P[PXb
Æ RT \^\T]c Tc _Pa [{ÏR[PcT\T]c Sd VaP]S _PacX ]PcX^]P[XbcT T]caT d]T
Sa^XcT XbcX`[P[XT]]T Tc d]T VPdRWT aT_aÏbT]cÏT _Pa [{D]X^] ]PcX^]P[T STb U^aRTb
_^_d[PXaTb D=5? ST <TWSX 1T] 1PaZP
;T a^X ‘ [XQÏaPcTda ¡ eP ÐcaT b_ÏRXP[T\T]c PccT]cXU Pd _PbbPVT ST aT[PXb Æ b^]

[b 7PbbP] 88 ;^ab`dT RT[dX RX PaaXeT Pd _^de^Xa T] (% X[ SXb_^bT S{d]T
PS\X]XbcaPcX^] b^[XST SXaXVÏT _Pa ]^\QaT ST RPSaTb \Pa^RPX]b S^]c [Tb 50A
Tc [Tb bTaeXRTb ST bÏRdaXcÏ b^]c d] Ï[Ï\T]c X]R^]c^da]PQ[T B^db 7PbbP] 88
[{Pdc^aXcÏ Tbc PQb^[dT Tc _[db `dT YP\PXb ST Sa^Xc SXeX] 4[[T Tbc _^dacP]c
R^]caPaXÏT Æ _[dbXTdab aT_aXbTb Tc ]^cP\\T]c _Pa b^] P[[XÏT ST c^dY^dab Æ bPe^Xa
[{Pa\ÏT `dX \Î]T [Tb _dcbRWb ST YdX[[Tc (& Tc S P^ác (&! 0d [T]ST\PX]
STb R^d_b S{¯cPc [T SP]VTa _^da [P \^]PaRWXT eXT]c ÏVP[T\T]c STb d]XeTabXcÏb
X\_aÏV]ÏTb _Pa [T VPdRWXb\T Tc [T cXTab \^]SXb\T \PagXbcT 2{Tbc [T SÏQdc
STb ‘ P]]ÏTb ST _[^\Q ¡ d]T Ï_^`dT b^\QaT \Pa`dÏT _Pa [Tb PaaTbcPcX^]b
[Tb c^acdaTb [Tb R^]SP\]PcX^]b b^\\PXaTb Tc [Tb \TdacaTb `dT ]T
c `dT
R^]b^[XSTa b^] _^de^Xa TgTaRÏ T] b^[XcPXaT
3P]b d] R^]cTgcT ST RaXbT Tc ST R^]cTbcPcX^] X]cTa]T [P aTR^]`dÐcT
cTaaXc^aXP[T Sd BPWPaP Tb_PV]^[ _Ta\Tc Æ 7PbbP] 88 ST aTR^]bcadXaT [{X\PVT S d]
_Phb ePX]`dTda Tc S PbbT^Xa d] _^de^Xa bh\Q^[X`dT RT[dX Sd ‘ aÏd]X
RPcTda ¡
;P aÏRd_ÏaPcX^] Sd BPWPaP ^RRXST]cP[ Tc [{PeÎ]T\T]c S{d] ]^deT[ T]]T\X
[T 5a^]c ?^[XbPaX^ " PRRdbÏ ST ‘ caPWXa [P _PcaXT ¡ _Ta\TccT]c T] ^dcaT ST
RaÏTa d]T ]^deT[[T P[[XP]RT Pdc^da Sd caÚ]T 4]R^aT d]T U^Xb [T \PZWiT] bT
aTR^]bcXcdT RTccT U^Xb RX Pdc^da Sd \X]XbcÎaT ST [{8]cÏaXTda QXT]cÚc SXaXVÏ _Pa
[T ]^deT[ W^\\T U^ac Sd aÏVX\T 3aXbb 1PbaX ;T ]T^ \PZWiT] U^]RcX^]]T
_[db `dT YP\PXb b^db d]T [^VX`dT _PcaX\^]XP[T ;Tb _^bcTb b^]c SXbcaXQdÏb Pdg
_[db
SÎ[Tb cP]SXb `dT [Tb ^__^bP]cb PhP]c UPXc P[[ÏVTP]RT b^]c _Td Æ _Td
aÏX]cÏVaÏb SP]b [T \PZWiT]
;T _^X]c S ^aVdT ST RTccT Ïe^[dcX^] Tbc [T V^deTa]T\T]c ST [{P[cTa]P]RT
ST ((' SXaXVÏ _Pa d] P]RXT] R^]SP\]Ï Æ \^ac _Pa R^]cd\PRT [T b^RXP[XbcT
0QSTaaPW\P] H^dbb^d
;T SÏeT[^__T\T]c Sd _Phb [{Ï[PaVXbbT\T]c STb

" 5^a\PcX^] X]SÏ_T]ST]cXbcT bPWaP^dX `dX aÏR[P\T [P cT]dT S{d] aÏUÏaT]Sd\ bda [ Pdc^STcTa\X]PcX^]
Pd BPWPaP ^RRXST]cP[ Tc _a^R[P\T [P AÏ_dQ[X`dT PaPQT bPWaP^dX SÏ\^RaPcX`dT

91

Le Mondial des nations
R^]cTbcPcX^]b PX]bX `dT [Tb _aTbbX^]b Tc X] dT]RTb X]cTa]PcX^]P[Tb UPe^aXbT]c
d] cX\XST _a^RTbbdb ST caP]bXcX^] _^[XcX`dT `dX _aÏcT]S bT[^] [P U^a\d[T
ST 7PbbP] 88 R^]RX[XTa caPSXcX^] Tc \^STa]XcÏ D]T e^XT \Pa^RPX]T eTab
d]T SÏ\^RaPcXT Æ U^acT T\_aTX]cT aWÏc^aX`dT ]PcX^]P[XbcT \^]PaRWXbcT d]
_aÏcT]Sd _Pb T] PeP]c X]b_XaÏ T]R^aT d]T U^Xb _Pa d] _PbbÏ \hcWX
Ï ;T
?P[PXb ca^deTaPXc d] bdQbcaPc WXbc^aX`dT Tc b^RXP[ Pdg R^]bd[cPcX^]b _^_d[PXaTb
Æ [{^Rca^X ST Sa^Xcb Pdg UT\\Tb ^d Æ [{Ï[PaVXbbT\T]c STb [XQTacÏb _^da ]T RXcTa
`dT `dT[`dTb TgT\_[Tb 0d bTX] ST RTccT caP]bXcX^] \Pa^RPX]T [T a^X aTbcT
S^]R [P
VdaT RT]caP[T

Les éléments constitutifs de la nation marocaine
L’antériorité de la nation marocaine
D]T R^]eXRcX^] caÎb aÏ_P]SdT RWTi [Tb WXbc^aXT]b SP]b [T SXbR^dab ^U
RXT[ Tc
RT[dX STb _aX]RX_Pdg PRcTdab _^[XcX`dTb STb \ÏSXPb PX]bX `dT SP]b [{X\PVX]PXaT
R^[[TRcXU Sd _Phb Tbc `dT [P ]PcX^] \Pa^RPX]T _aÏRÎST [T \^deT\T]c
]PcX^]P[ 2^]caPXaT\T]c Pdg YTd]Tb ]PcX^]b XbbdTb ST [P SÏR^[^]XbPcX^] _^da
[Tb cWÏ^aXRXT]b ST [P ]PcX^] \Pa^RPX]T RT[[T RX TgXbcT ST_dXb [^]VcT\_b Tc
ÏRWP__T Æ c^dcT X]eT]cX^] ^d R^]bcadRcX^] ;P ]PXbbP]RT ST [{¯cPc \Pa^RPX]
SPcT bT[^] Tdg ST [P Sh]PbcXT STb 8SaXbbXSTb Æ [P
] Sd E888T bXÎR[T [^ab ST
[{PaaXeÏ ST [{Xb[P\ Pd <PVWaTQ [{>RRXST]c PaPQT "! ¦ _TX]T `dT[`dTb bXÎR[Tb
_[db cPaS [T <Pa^R Tbc SÏYÆ [{d] STb _[db VaP]Sb _Phb Pd \^]ST b_[T]SXST
Tc eXRc^aXTdg ‘ J L D] _Phb `dX ST_dXb [T G8T bXÎR[T PePXc bd SÏUT]SaT b^]
XST]cXcÏ Tc b^] X]SÏ_T]SP]RT b^deT]c V^deTa]Ï _Pa ST VaP]STb Sh]PbcXTb
Tc ST VaP]Sb W^\\Tb Tc S^]c [Tb aÏP[XbPcX^]b PaRWXcTRcdaP[Tb Tc Rd[cdaT[[Tb

VdaPXT]c _Pa\X [Tb _[db QT[[Tb Pd \^]ST ¡ ""
3T c^dc cT\_b [Tb WPQXcP]cb Sd <Pa^R ^]c [dccÏ R^]caT [Tb R^]`dÏaP]cb
_PacPVÏb STb eP[Tdab Tc STb RPaPRcÎaTb R^\\d]b TgXbcÏ T] cP]c `dT ]PcX^]
Tc _Td_[T d] _Phb S W^\\Tb [XQaTb b^d\Xb Æ [{d]X`dT Pdc^aXcÏ _^[XcX`dT Tc
aT[XVXTdbT Sd bd[cP] ;T <Pa^R  R^]caPXaT\T]c Æ [P ;hQXT Æ [ 0[VÏaXT ^d Æ

"! ;dVP] 1 7Xbc^XaT Sd <Pa^R STb ^aXVX]Tb Æ ]^b c^dab ?PaXb ?TaaX] 2aXcÏaX^] !
"" 5X[P[X 0 ;T <Pa^R Tc [T \^]ST PaPQT ?PaXb BRP[X ! ' _ !(

92

Maroc
[P Cd]XbXT  Tbc [{d] STb aPaTb _Phb ST [P aÏVX^] SP]b [T`dT[ [Tb >cc^\P]b
]T _PaeXT]]T]c _Pb Æ _Ï]ÏcaTa 0X]bX [P R^]cX]dXcÏ ST_dXb [P SXb_PaXcX^] ST
[{4\_XaT PQQPbbXST Tc [{PaaXeÏ STb P[\^aPeXSTb Pd _^de^Xa T]caT [T 8GT Tc
GT bXÎR[T Ydb`d{Æ [{Ï_^`dT PRcdT[[T Tbc \XbT T] aT[XTU <^WP\\TS E STeT]d
a^X P ÏcÏ RW^XbX R^\\T bh\Q^[T R[TU R^\\T aT[PXb PeTR RT _PbbÏ V[^aXTdg
bd__^bÏ R^\\T U^]ST\T]c ST [P ]^deT[[T R^\\d]PdcÏ _^[XcX`dT [P ]PcX^]
\Pa^RPX]T C^dcT XST]cXcÏ ‘ _ÏaX_WÏaX`dT ¡ Tbc bhbcÏ\PcX`dT\T]c \PaVX]P[XbÏT
Tc ^] _a^RÎST Æ [{X]eT]cX^] ST bh\Q^[Tb ]PcX^]Pdg [XÏb Æ [{Ï\TaVT]RT S{d]T
]^deT[[T Rd[cdaT QXT] RW^XbXT _Pa d]T Ï[XcT SP]b [T Qdc ST \Pa`dTa [Tb Ua^]cXÎaTb
S{d]T XST]cXcÏ ]PcX^]P[T X]cÏVaÏT W^\^VÎ]T Tc d]XU^a\T

Le Grand Maroc ou le Maroc inachevé, la question
territoriale
;T cTaaXc^XaT Tbc d] Ï[Ï\T]c SÏcTa\X]P]c [P QPbT bda [P`dT[[T bT bdbcT]cT [T
c^dc ]PcX^]P[ [P ‘ cTaaT _PcaXT ¡ ;Tb cTaaXc^XaTb aT\Xb P_aÎb [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT
]T bTaPXT]c `d{d]T _PacXT Sd <Pa^R R^\\T [T aTeT]SX`dPXc Æ [{Ï_^`dT [T
[TPSTa ]PcX^]P[XbcT Tc RWTU Sd _PacX ST [{8bcX`[P[ 0[[P[ 4[ 5PbbX BT[^] [dX [T
6aP]S <PVWaTQ [{T\_XaT PccaXQdÏ Pdg P]RÐcaTb STb <Pa^RPX]b [Tb P]RXT]b
bd[cP]b RWÏaX
T]b STbRT]SP]cb ST <PW^\Tc b ÏcT]SPXc Ydb`d{Pd TdeT
BÏ]ÏVP[ c^dc _aÎb ST 3PZPa Tc R^\_aT]PXc [T BPWPaP RT]caP[ P[VÏaXT] ‘ CP]c
`dT CP]VTa ]T bTaP _Pb SÏVPVÏ ST b^] bcPcdc X]cTa]PcX^]P[ cP]c `dT [Tb SÏbTacb
Tb_PV]^[b Sd bdS cP]c `dT [T BPWPaP ST CX]S^dU Æ 0cPa cP]c `dT [Tb R^]
]b
P[VÏa^ \Pa^RPX]b ]T bTa^]c _Pb SÏVPVÏb ST [Tda cdcT[[T ]^caT X]SÏ_T]SP]RT
ST\TdaTaP Q^XcTdbT Tc ]^caT _aT\XTa STe^Xa bTaP ST _^dabdXeaT [{PRcX^] _^da
[XQÏaTa [P _PcaXT Tc [{d]X
Ta ¡ "# ;P \XbbX^] R^]bXbcP]c Æ b Ï\P]RX_Ta Sd Y^dV
R^[^]XP[ \T]ÏT _Pa [Tb ]PcX^]P[XbcTb ÏcPXc S^]R X]R^\_[ÎcT
;P bd_Ta
RXT c^cP[T Sd cTaaXc^XaT aÏR[P\Ï _Pa 4[ 5PbbX SÏ_PbbPXc [Tb !
ST Z\! R{Tbc Æ SXaT `dPcaT U^Xb [T cTaaXc^XaT PR`dXb P_aÎb [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT 3T
c^dcTb RTb aTeT]SXRPcX^]b bTd[Tb RT[[Tb R^]RTa]P]c [{4b_PV]T UdaT]c aÏRd_ÏaÏTb
CPaUPhP Udc aT\XbT T] ($' Tc BXSX 8U]X P_aÎb d]T _TcXcT VdTaaT T] (%( ;T
BPWPaP ^RRXST]cP[ Udc PQP]S^]]Ï _Pa <PSaXS P_aÎb [P <PaRWT eTacT T] (&$
2T_T]SP]c [Tb ST\P]STb b^deTaPX]Tb Æ [{ÏVPaS STb Ô[Tb 2P]PaXTb b^]c _aTb`dT
"# 3XbR^dab S 0[[P[ 4[ 5PbbX Sd !& \Pab ($%

93

Le Mondial des nations
SÏ_PbbÏTb "$ cP]SXb `dT BTQcP Tc <T[X[[P PX]bX `dT [Tb Ô[^cb \ÏSXcTaaP]ÏT]b
aTbcT]c Pdg hTdg STb ]PcX^]P[XbcTb \Pa^RPX]b STb aÏbXSdb Sd _^de^Xa R^[^]XP[
[P STa]XÎaT UaPRcX^] Sd S^bbXTa cTaaXc^aXP[ Æ [{T]R^]caT ST [{4b_PV]T B^daRT
R^]bcP]cT ST R^] Xc PeTR [T e^XbX] XQÏaX`dT [Tda ‘ aÏRd_ÏaPcX^] ¡ ST\TdaT d]
Ï[Ï\T]c RT]caP[ Sd SXbR^dab ]PcX^]P[XbcT Tc ST \^QX[XbPcX^] "%
;P _^bXcX^] \Pa^RPX]T _Pa aP__^ac Æ [P aTeT]SXRPcX^] Sd cTaaXc^XaT ST [P
<PdaXcP]XT Tbc Tg_aX\ÏT [T YdX] (% _Pa <^d[Ph 7PbbP] ;T Udcda 7PbbP] 88
bXV]P[T `d X[ ]{Tbc _Pb SP]b b^] X]cÏaÐc `dT [Tb Pdc^aXcÏb Sd <Pa^R PS\X]XbcaT]c
RT _Phb Tc `d X[ b^dWPXcT SPeP]cPVT d] aP__^ac Ïca^Xc d]T ‘ d]X^] _Tab^]]T[[T ¡
S{¯cPc Æ ¯cPc 4] RT `dX R^]RTa]T [T BPWPaP RT]caP[ P[VÏaXT] PeP]c \Ð\T
[{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT ST [{0[VÏaXT T] (%! [T _aÏbXST]c Sd V^deTa]T\T]c _a^eXb^XaT
aÏe^[dcX^]]PXaT 5TaWPc 0QQPb bXV]T d] S^Rd\T]c bTRaTc PeTR <^WP\\TS E
R^]bXSÏaP]c R^\\T X]P__[XRPQ[T [T _aX]RX_T Sd aTb_TRc STb Ua^]cXÎaTb WÏaXcÏTb
ST [P R^[^]XbPcX^] 2T _PRcT Tbc aTUdbÏ _Pa [{0[VÏaXT X]SÏ_T]SP]cT [^ab`dT APQPc
[T aT]S _dQ[XR [T ! ^Rc^QaT (%" Tc aÏR[P\T [T BPWPaP RT]caP[ P[VÏaXT] RT `dX
SÏR[T]RWT [P ‘ VdTaaT STb bPQ[Tb ¡ 7PbbP] 88 R[Úc RTccT PUUPXaT T] UÏeaXTa ('
P_aÎb Pe^Xa SÏR[PaÏ `d{X[ ]{TgXbcT PdRd] R^] Xc Ua^]cP[XTa \Pa^RP]^ P[VÏaXT]
4] SÏ_Xc ST RTacPX]b _PacXb \Pa^RPX]b `dX ]{ÏRPacT]c _Pb RTccT aÏR[P\PcX^]
ST [Tdab _a^VaP\\Tb X[ ]T aTbcT ^U
RXT[[T\T]c `dT `dT[`dT # ZX[^\ÎcaTb

"$ ;T SXbR^dab ^U
RXT[ ]{X]e^`dT _[db [P b^deTaPX]TcÏ ST [{PaRWX_T[ Tb_PV]^[ R^\\T d] Ï[Ï\T]c
RT]caP[ ST [P `dTbcX^] cTaaXc^aXP[T X]PRWTeÏT 4] PccT]SP]c [P SÏ[X\XcPcX^] STb TPdg cTaaXc^aXP[Tb T]caT
[{4b_PV]T Tc [T <Pa^R Pdc^da STb Ô[Tb Tc STeP]c [P RÚcT Pc[P]cX`dT \Pa^RPX]T [Tb 2P]PaXTb aTbcT]c
]ÏP]\^X]b SP]b [{X\PVX]PXaT ]PcX^]P[ R^\\T d]T _PacXT X]cÏVaP]cT Sd a^hPd\T R^\\T [T \^]caT
[Tda X]R[dbX^] SP]b [Tb RPacTb STb QÈcX\T]cb ^U
RXT[b
"% ;P aTeT]SXRPcX^] STb eX[[Tb Pdc^]^\Tb Tc [Tb Ô[^cb \ÏSXcTaaP]ÏT]b b^]c Æ [P QPbT STb _[db VaP]STb
RaXbTb QX[PcÏaP[Tb ST RTb STa]XÎaTb P]]ÏTb T]caT <PSaXS Tc APQPc 4] YdX[[Tc ! " d]T ^_ÏaPcX^]
\dbR[ÏT ST [{Pa\ÏT Tb_PV]^[T _^da Tg_d[bTa ST [{Ô[^c ?TaTYX[ ;TÕ[P Pd <Pa^R STb Ï[Ï\T]cb STb
U^aRTb ST bÏRdaXcÏ \Pa^RPX]Tb
]Xc _Pa [P ad_cdaT `dPbX c^cP[T STb aT[PcX^]b T]caT [T V^deTa]T\T]c
ST 9^bÏ <PaÓP 0i]Pa P[^ab ?aT\XTa \X]XbcaT Tc [T A^hPd\T Sd <Pa^R 4] ]^eT\QaT ! & d]T
eXbXcT ^U
RXT[[T Æ BTQcP Tc <T[X[[P Sd a^X 9dP] 2Pa[^b bT caPSdXc _Pa [T aTcaPXc ST [{P\QPbbPSTda Sd
a^hPd\T Æ <PSaXS Tc [Tb R^]SP\]PcX^]b [Tb _[db UTa\Tb STb aTb_^]bPQ[Tb _^[XcX`dTb \Pa^RPX]b `dX
R^]bXSÏaPXT]c RT e^hPVT a^hP[ R^\\T d]T ‘ VaPeT PccTX]cT ¡ ?PaPS^gP[T\T]c RTb aTeT]SXRPcX^]b
cTaaXc^aXP[Tb ]{^]c YP\PXb ÏcÏ _^bÏTb R[PXaT\T]c ]X STeP]c [P R^\\XbbX^] ST SÏR^[^]XbPcX^] STb
=PcX^]b d]XTb ]X [^ab STb aT]R^]caTb T]caT [Tb SXaXVTP]cb \Pa^RPX]b Tc [Tdab W^\^[^VdTb Tb_PV]^[b
aTbcP]c d]T ePaXPQ[T ST cT]bX^] PVXcÏT Pd VaÏ STb R^]Y^]RcdaTb

94

Maroc
ST Ua^]cXÎaT Æ W^\^[^VdTa T]caT [Tb STdg _Phb T]caT >dPaZiXi Tc [P Ua^]cXÎaT
\Pa^RP]^ \PdaXcP]XT]]T "&
2{Tbc Pd ]^\ ST [{X]cÏVaXcÏ cTaaXc^aXP[T `d Tbc ^aVP]XbÏT [P <PaRWT eTacT bda
[T BPWPaP ^RRXST]cP[ P[^ab b^db ^RRd_PcX^] Tb_PV]^[T T] (&$ T] eTacd ST
[P`dT[[T 7PbbP] 88 STeXT]c [T a^X ‘ aÏd]X
RPcTda ¡ "' Tc R{Tbc Pdc^da ST RTccT
X]cÏVaXcÏ `d{^] e^Xc T]R^aT PdY^daS{WdX [T _Td_[T bT \^QX[XbTa R^]caT [Tb e^XbX]b
Tb_PV]^[ Tc P[VÏaXT] RT STa]XTa ÏcP]c R^]bXSÏaÏ R^\\T [T _aX]RX_P[ b^dcXT]
STb X]SÏ_T]SP]cXbcTb bPWaP^dXb Sd 5a^]c ?^[XbPaX^ ;P U^aRT bh\Q^[X`dT Tc
\^QX[XbPcaXRT ST [P `dTbcX^] cTaaXc^aXP[T aTbcT X]cPRcT _[db S{d] ST\X bXÎR[T
P_aÎb [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT 4] b^\\T Pdg hTdg STb ]PcX^]P[XbcTb [P `dTbcX^] ]T
bTaP aÏb^[dT `d{P_aÎb [P aÏRd_ÏaPcX^] STb ‘ _aÏbXSTb ^RRd_Ïb ¡ "( ST BTQcP Tc
<T[X[[P STb Ô[^cb \ÏSXcTaaP]ÏT]b b^db b^deTaPX]TcÏ Tb_PV]^[T STb i^]Tb
[X\Xca^_WTb PeTR [{0[VÏaXT Tc [P R[ÚcdaT Sd S^bbXTa bPWaP^dX <P[VaÏ [P cX\XST
^deTacdaT _^[XcX`dT [P `dTbcX^] cTaaXc^aXP[T `dX aTbcT d] S^\PX]T aÏbTaeÏ ST
[P \^]PaRWXT UPXc [{^QYTc S d] R^]bT]bdb ]PcX^]P[

Un lien mystique avec le peuple marocain
;P ]PcX^] \Pa^RPX]T cXT]c _Pa [T [XT] \hbcX`dT `dX b{ÏcPQ[Xc T]caT [T
b^deTaPX] Tc [T _Td_[T [P e^[^]cÏ Sd _Td_[T ÏcP]c [ Ï[Ï\T]c R^]bcXcdcXU ST
[P ]PcX^] ;P [dccT _^da [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT P S^]R X]bcPdaÏ d]T R^\\d]X^]
T]caT [T a^X Tc b^] _Td_[T SP]b d] TUU^ac _PacPVÏ Tc d] bPRaX
RT R^\\d]
;P ]^cX^] ST _Td_[T \Pa^RPX] R^]cX]dT Æ ÐcaT [{Ï[Ï\T]c R^]bcXcdcXU ST [P
aWÏc^aX`dT _^[XcX`dT ^\]X_aÏbT]cT Tc c^dY^dab [XÏT Æ [P
VdaT Sd b^deTaPX]
b^] X]RPa]PcX^] ;T _Td_[T bdac^dc [Tb UT[[PWb _PhbP]b P ÏcÏ SÏcTa\X]P]c
_^da UPXaT UPRT Pdg R^daP]cb \^STa]XbcTb ST [P b^RXÏcÏ _^bcX]SÏ_T]SP]RT 4]
TUUTc Pd [T]ST\PX] ST [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT Sd <Pa^R Sd UPXc ST [Tda Pbb^RXPcX^]
"& ?^da P__a^U^]SXa [P `dTbcX^] cTaaXc^aXP[T SP]b [P _T]bÏT STb ]PcX^]P[XbcTb \Pa^RPX]b e^Xa 3T[
?X]^ 3 ‘ 2TdcP h <T[X[[P [Pb _[PiPb ST [P SXbR^aSXP ¡ Wcc_) fff S^\X]V^ST[_X]^ R^\ X]STg
_W_.XS," ! ('" * ;PiaPZ A ;T 2^]cT]cXTdg cTaaXc^aXP[ T]caT [T <Pa^R Tc [{4b_PV]T 2PbPQ[P]RP
3Pa T[ :XcPQ (&# * Tc ;P\\^daX < ;T 2^]cT]cXTdg aT[PcXU Pdg Ua^]cXÎaTb cTaaTbcaTb Sd <Pa^R
2PbPQ[P]RP (&(
"' 4gcaPXc Sd SXbR^dab _a^]^]RÏ _Pa [T [TPSTa ]PcX^]P[XbcT [T % ^Rc^QaT (&$
"( 4g_aTbbX^] R^daP]cT SP]b [P aWÏc^aX`dT ^U
RXT[[T aT_aXbT _Pa [Tb SXaXVTP]cb _^[XcX`dTb Tc [{PVT]RT
ST R^\\d]XRPcX^] ÏcPcX`dT [P <PVWaTQ 0aPQT ?aTbbT <0? PX]bX `dT _Pa d]T Q^]]T _PacXT ST [P
_aTbbT ]PcX^]P[T

95

Le Mondial des nations
WXbc^aX`dT PeTR [{PS\X]XbcaPcX^] Sd _a^cTRc^aPc [Tb Ï[XcTb adaP[Tb Pd _^de^Xa
ÏR^]^\X`dT X]cPRc ÏcPXT]c SXbRaÏSXcÏTb AP_XST\T]c [P \^]PaRWXT R^\_aXc
`d{T] b{P__dhP]c bda T[[Tb T[[T _PaeXT]SaPXc Æ b{Ï\P]RX_Ta Sd \^deT\T]c
]PcX^]P[ 7PbbP] 88 P ]^cP\\T]c T\_[^hÏ [Tb _^_d[PcX^]b adaP[Tb Æ \PY^aXcÏ
QTaQÎaTb Tc R^]bTaePcaXRTb caPSXcX^]]T[[T\T]c
SÎ[Tb Pd _^de^Xa b_XaXcdT[
Sd bd[cP] \PZWiT]XT] _^da R^]caTRPaaTa [{X] dT]RT Sd [{8bcX`[P[ Tc PbbT^Xa
b^] Pdc^aXcÏ #
;P QTh{P bTa\T]c S{P[[ÏVTP]RT bXV]X
T RT [XT] T]caT [T a^X Tc b^] _Td_[T
BT[^] 8Q] :WP[S^d] RTccT X]bcXcdcX^] Tbc d] T]VPVT\T]c Æ [ ^QÏXbbP]RT * [T
bdYTc b{T]VPVT Æ R^]
Ta Pd a^X bTb PUUPXaTb Tc Æ [dX ^QÏXa SP]b c^dc RT `d{X[
UPXc # 2T aXcdT[ bdXc STb aÎV[Tb \X]dcXTdbT\T]c ÏcPQ[XTb ) [T b^deTaPX] PaaXeT
Æ RWTeP[ _^da \^]caTa b^] _^de^Xa Æ [P U^d[T STb ]^cPQ[Tb `dX [ PccT]S SP]b
[{PaÎ]T 2TccT RÏaÏ\^]XT S{P[[ÏVTP]RT Tbc RT]caP[T SP]b [P [ÏVXcX\PcX^] Sd
bhbcÎ\T _^[XcX`dT \Pa^RPX] Tc aP__T[[T [P
[XPcX^] ST [P \^]PaRWXT PeTR [Tb
_aT\XTab V^deTa]T\T]cb ST [{Xb[P\ Æ [{X\PVT STb STdg QTh{P `dX ^]c [ÏVXcX\Ï [T
_a^_WÎcT <PW^\Tc <^WP\\TS E Tc 7PbbP] 88 ^]c QXT] R^\_aXb [{X\_^acP]RT
ST RT _PRcT ST b^d\XbbX^] SP]b bP SX\T]bX^] R^]caPRcdT[[T Tc bh\Q^[X`dT
T] UPXbP]c ST RTccT RÏaÏ\^]XT d] PRcT UPbcdTdg Tc T] _aÏRXbP]c [Tb cTa\Tb
ST [P aT[PcX^] S{P[[ÏVTP]RT _^da Ï[PaVXa Tc R^]b^[XSTa [Tda _^de^Xa #! 3P]b
[P caPSXcX^] Xb[P\X`dT RT [XT] Tbc [{Ï`dXeP[T]c Sd ‘ Sa^Xc ST _Pca^]PVT ¡ `dX
aT]U^aRT [T bcPcdc ST bdYTcb ST BP <PYTbcÏ #"

La monarchie, pilier central de la nation
<Pa`dÏT _Pa bP [ÏVXcX\XcÏ Æ [P U^Xb b_XaXcdT[[T Tc cT\_^aT[[T VaP]SXT _Pa
[T \^deT\T]c ]PcX^]P[ ST _[db T] _[db ÏRPacÏT Sd _^de^Xa aÏT[ P_aÎb
[{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT [P \^]PaRWXT bT R^]bcXcdT R^\\T [T _X[XTa RT]caP[ ST [P ]PcX^]
;T b^deTaPX] \Pa^RPX] SXb_^bT S d]T caX_[T [ÏVXcX\XcÏ Æ bPe^Xa aT[XVXTdbT
T] cP]c `dT STbRT]SP]c SXaTRc Sd ?a^_WÎcT Tc 0\Xa P[ <^d\X]X] *
[XP[T T]
cP]c `dT \T\QaT ST [P Sh]PbcXT P[P^dXcT * Tc RWPaXb\PcX`dT Td ÏVPaS Æ b^]
# E^Xa ;ÏeTPd A ;T 5T[[PW \Pa^RPX] SÏUT]bTda Sd caÚ]T ?PaXb 5=B? (&%
# E^Xa 0[ <d`PSSX\ [{d] STb _aT\XTab ^deaPVTb ST b^RX^[^VXT ÏRaXc _Pa 8Q] :WP[S^d] T] "&&
#! E^Xa C^ih < <^]PaRWXT Tc 8b[P\ _^[XcX`dT Pd <Pa^R ?PaXb ?aTbbTb ST BRXT]RTb ?^ (((
#" E^Xa 4]]PYX < ;T BdYTc Tc [P <P\T[^dZ ) 4bR[PePVT _^de^Xa Tc aT[XVX^] SP]b [T \^]ST PaPQT
?PaXb ;Tb <X[[T Tc d]T ]dXcb ! &

96

Maroc
aÚ[T SP]b [P [dccT _^da [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT Tc [P R^]bcadRcX^] ST [{¯cPc \^STa]T
;{¯cPc \Pa^RPX] aTeT]SX`dT d]T [^]VdT R^]cX]dXcÏ WXbc^aX`dT S^]c [{X]bcXcdcX^]
\^]PaRWX`dT bT eTdc [P VPaP]cT d]T R^]cX]dXcÏ bh\Q^[XbÏT _Pa [P caX[^VXT
‘ 3XTd [P ?PcaXT Tc [T A^X ¡ ;P caX[^VXT U^]ST [ d]XcÏ ]PcX^]P[T
3P]b [T \PZWiT] [P _a^gX\XcÏ PeTR [T bd[cP] SÏcTa\X]T [{X] dT]RT Tc [T
_^de^Xa ST RWPRd] ;Tb [XT]b T]caT [T RWTU R^\_aXb R^\\T d] _ÎaT Tc b^]
T]c^daPVT b^]c eP[^aXbÏb Æ [ TgcaÐ\T B^db 7PbbP] 88 [T <Pa^R P Ïe^[dÏ eTab
d]T b^acT ST ]Ï^_PcaX\^]XP[Xb\T X[ UPdc R^\_aT]SaT [T _^de^Xa \PZWiT]XT]
SP]b [T RPSaT PS\X]XbcaPcXU cTRW]^[^VX`dT Tc \X[XcPXaT ST [{¯cPc \^STa]T
‘ 2TccT bXcdPcX^] ST UPXc ]^] bP]RcX^]]ÏT bhbcÏ\PcX`dT\T]c _Pa [Tb cTgcTb
^U
RXT[b \Î]T Æ R^]bcPcTa [{TgXbcT]RT S{d] RWP\_ _^[XcXR^ aT[XVXTdg R[^b
Tc WXÏaPaRWXbÏ ^ß [P \^]PaRWXT Y^dT [T aÚ[T S{d] PdcTda WÏVÏ\^]X`dT `dX
SÏcTa\X]T [P _[PRT `dT _TdeT]c h ^RRd_Ta [Tb PdcaTb UPRcTdab ) _PacXb _^[XcX`dTb
^d[Ï\Pb R^]UaÏaXTb bh]SXRPcb Tc VaP]STb UP\X[[Tb _^[XcX`dTb ¡ ##
<^WP\\TS E ÏcPXc caÎb R^]bRXT]c ST [{X\_^acP]RT STb bh\Q^[Tb _^da
R^]b^[XSTa [P [ÏVXcX\\XcÏ ST [P <^]PaRWXT 2 Tbc Æ [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT `dT [ ^]
e^Xc ]PÔcaT [P STeXbT ‘ 0[[PW 0[ FPcP]T 0[ <P[XZ ¡ 3XTd [P ?PcaXT [T A^X
`dX R[Úc [{Wh\]T ]PcX^]P[ 4] aTeP]RWT [T SaP_TPd  a^dVT _Pa ^__^bXcX^] Pd
Q[P]R STb Sh]PbcXTb _aÏRÏST]cTb Æ [P U^Xb bh\Q^[T ST [{¯cPc Tc ST [P Sh]PbcXT
aÏV]P]cT Tbc _aÏbT]c caÎb cÚc SP]b [{WXbc^XaT STb 0[P^dXcTb ;T caÚ]T T] cP]c
`dT bh\Q^[T ST _^de^Xa P__PaPÔc PdbbX SdaP]c [T aÎV]T ST <^WP\\TS E
ST \Ð\T `dT [T RPaa^bbT bP]V Tc ^a STb 0[P^dXcTb <^WP\\TS E ÏcP]c [T
_aT\XTa Æ [ dcX[XbTa #$ C^dc RTRX SP]b [T Qdc S{XST]cX
Ta [T _Phb [P ]PcX^]
\Pa^RPX]T Æ [P \^]PaRWXT P[P^dXcT ‘ ;T a^X \Pa^RPX] R^]U^]S [T _PbbÏ ST bP
UP\X[[T PeTR [{WXbc^XaT Sd <Pa^R Tc [{WXbc^XaT ST [{8b[P\ 8[ bT _aÏbT]cT R^\\T
_ÎaT Tc VdXST Sd _Td_[T \Pa^RPX] Pd STbbdb Sd UaPRPb _^[XcX`dT Ï[Ï\T]c
ST R^]cX]dXcÏ SP]b d] R^]cTgcT `dT [dX \Ð\T TbbPhT ST _TX]SaT T] cTa\Tb
ST SXbR^]cX]dXcÏ Tc X\_aÏeXbXQX[XcÏ 8[ X]RPa]T S^]R [P bTd[T eaPXT X]bcXcdcX^]

## C^iX < ‘ ;P \^]^_^[XbPcX^] ST [P _a^SdRcX^] bh\Q^[X`dT Tc WXÏaPaRWXbPcX^] Sd RWP\_ _^[XcXR^
aT[XVXTdg Pd <Pa^R ¡ SP]b ;T <PVWaTQ \dbd[\P] T] (&( ?PaXb 2=AB (' _ !!
#$ E^Xa ‘ ;Tb 0[P^dXcTb ) ?TcXcb bTRaTcb S{d]T Sh]PbcXT ¡ ;T 9^da]P[ 7TQS^\PSPXaT ]  "" Sd !(
SÏRT\QaT ! & Pd YP]eXTa ! ' __ &! (#

97

Le Mondial des nations
Pd <Pa^R B^] Pdc^aXcÏ Tbc Sd _Td_[T _PaRT `d{T[[T Tbc ST 3XTd \PXb X[ ]{Tbc
aTb_^]bPQ[T `dT STeP]c RT STa]XTa ¡ #%

L’islam, élément unificateur
8[ ]{Tbc _Pb _PaRT `dT [Tb SXaXVTP]cb Sd VaP]S _PacX ]PcX^]P[XbcT ST [{8bcX`[P[
b^XT]c ST YTd]Tb W^\\Tb \^STa]XbcTb 4] TUUTc [{TbbT]RT aT[XVXTdbT ]T Udc
_Pb U^]SP\T]cP[T _^da [T ]PcX^]P[Xb\T 2{Tbc bda RTccT P\QXVdÕcÏ `dT b{Tbc
bcadRcdaÏ [T ]PcX^]P[Xb\T \Pa^RPX] c^dc Sd \^X]b Pd ]XeTPd ST bTb RPSaTb
SXaXVTP]cb bda d]T R^]caPSXRcX^] P__PaT]cT T]caT \^STa]XcÏ _^[XcX`dT Tc
X]cT[[TRcdT[[T Tc _^XSb S{d] SXbR^dab PaPQ^ \dbd[\P] Æ eXbÏT _^[XcX`dT
;{Xb[P\ R^]bcXcdT d] Ï[Ï\T]c d]X
RPcTda _dXbbP]c Pd <Pa^R 1TaQÎaTb Tc
PaPQTb SXUUÏaT]cb _Pa [P Rd[cdaT Tc _Pa [P [P]VdT bT aTca^deT]c T] TUUTc SP]b
[P aT[XVX^] 0_aÎb [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT [{Xb[P\ bTac Æ aT]U^aRTa [P QPbT _^[XcX`dT
ST [P \^]PaRWXT Tc R^]bcXcdT d] \^hT] ST R^]caÚ[T b^RXP[ X\_^acP]c ‘ ;T
R^\\P]STda STb Ra^hP]cb Tbc T] UPXc [T _aT\XTa STb >d[Ï\Pb J L 8[ bT\Q[T
ÏeXST]c `dT [P <^]PaRWXT ]T eTdc [PXbbTa Æ PdRd] PdcaT PRcTda ST [P eXT
_^[XcX`dT [P _^bbXQX[XcÏ ST SÏQ^aSTa bda [{Xb[P\ ¡ #& ;P \^]cÏT _a^VaTbbXeT
S{d] R^daP]c Xb[P\XbcT S{^__^bXcX^] `dX cT]cT ST aT\TccaT T] RPdbT [{^aSaT
_^[XcX`dT ÏcPQ[X ]^cP\\T]c _Pa 0[ 0S[ FP[ 8WbbP]T YdbcXRT Tc QXT]UPXbP]RT
Tc ST [{Xb[P\Xb\T aPSXRP[ R^]caXQdT]c Pd aT]U^aRT\T]c ST [{Xb[P\ ^U
RXT[ Tc
STb \P]XUTbcPcX^]b ST [{Xb[P\ _^_d[PXaT

La sacralité de la langue arabe
8[ TgXbcT d] [XT] caÎb Ïca^Xc T]caT [T ]PcX^]P[Xb\T \Pa^RPX] Tc [{PU
a\PcX^]
Sd RPaPRcÎaT PaPQ^ \dbd[\P] ST [P ]PcX^] ;T _a^YTc ST [P d\\P fPcP]XhP
¯cPc ]PcX^] X\_[X`dT [{TgXbcT]RT S{d]T R^\\d]PdcÏ ST [P]VdT Tc ST
Rd[cdaT SÏ
]XT R^\\T PaPQ^ \dbd[\P]T ‘ ;{PccPRWT\T]c Æ [P [P]VdT PaPQT
`dX X]b_XaT c^dcTb [Tb _^[XcX`dTb S{PaPQXbPcX^] b{X]bÎaT SP]b d]T R^]cX]dXcÏ
Ï_XbcÏ\X`dT QPbÏT bda [P \ÏcP_WhbX`dT ST [{XST]cXcÏ dcX[XbP]c [T S^V\T ST
#% FPcTaQdah 9 ‘ ;P [ÏVXcX\PcX^] Sd _^de^Xa Pd <PVWaTQ ) caPSXcX^] _a^cTbcPcX^] Tc aÏ_aTbbX^] ¡
SP]b 0]]dPXaT ST [{0UaX`dT Sd =^aS (&& ?PaXb 2=AB (&' _ # "
#& ;ÏeTPd A ‘ 8b[P\ Tc R^]caÚ[T _^[XcX`dT Pd <Pa^R ¡ CWT <PVWaTQ ATeXTf e^[ % ]– ! ('
_

98

Maroc
[{PaPQT [P]VdT ST [P AÏeÏ[PcX^] [XÏT Pd RPaPRcÎaT \XaPRd[Tdg Tc X]X\XcPQ[T Sd
2^aP] ¡ #' ;P ‘ \Pa^RP]XcÏ ¡ bT R^]U^]S S^]R PeTR [{P__PacT]P]RT Æ [P aT[XVX^]
\dbd[\P]T Tc Æ [P [P]VdT PaPQT 4] T][TeP]c [T bdQbcaPc Rd[cdaT[ QTaQÎaT Sd
_Phb [{¯cPc X]Rd[`dT [{PaPQT Æ caPeTab [P b^RXP[XbPcX^] bTR^]SPXaT ÏR^[T UÐcTb
]PcX^]P[Tb \ÏSXPb TgXVTP]c d]T X]cÏaX^aXbPcX^] ST RTb bh\Q^[Tb ]PcX^]Pdg
8[b R^]SXcX^]]T]c [P ]PcdaT ST [{Tb_PRT SXbRdabXU ^ß b{PacXRd[T]c [P [ÏVXcX\PcX^]
Tc [P R^]cTbcPcX^] Sd _^de^Xa C^dc PRcTda b^RXP[ `dX eTdc aTbcTa Æ [{X]cÏaXTda
Sd RPSaT ]PcX^]P[ S^Xc cT]Xa R^\_cT ST RTb cPQ^db `dT [T _^de^Xa T] _[PRT
T]cT]S _a^cÏVTa b^deT]c Pd SÏcaX\T]c Sd aTb_TRc STb Sa^Xcb ST [{W^\\T Tc
ST [{XST]cXcÏ _aX\PXaT ST RWPRd]
¦ caPeTab [T `dTbcX^]]T\T]c ST [{WÏVÏ\^]XT ST [{PaPQT [T \^deT\T]c
P\PiXVW QTaQÎaT P aT\Xb T] RPdbT RTb U^]ST\T]cb _a^U^]Sb ST [{Tb_PRT
]PcX^]P[ \Pa^RPX] bX QXT] `d{PdY^daS{WdX [P `dTbcX^] XST]cXcPXaT STeXT]c d]T
`dTbcX^] caP]beTabP[T PQ^aSÏT _Pa ]^\QaT S{PRcTdab ST [P b^RXÏcÏ RXeX[T Tc STb
_PacXb _^[XcX`dTb 2Tb _aTbbX^]b R^]YdVdÏTb Æ d] R^]cTgcT aÏVX^]P[ ÏeÏ]T\T]cb
T] 0[VÏaXT SP]b [P :PQh[XT QTaQÎaT Tc X]cTa]PcX^]P[ aTR^]]PXbbP]RT STb Sa^Xcb
[X]VdXbcX`dTb Tc Rd[cdaT[b R^\\T STb Sa^Xcb ST _aT\XTa ^aSaT UPe^aPQ[T ^]c
_^dbbÏ <^WP\\TS E8 Æ aTR^]]PÔcaT [P SX\T]bX^] QTaQÎaT Sd <Pa^R #( 8[ P RaÏÏ
d] 8]bcXcdc a^hP[ ST [P Rd[cdaT P\PiXVW $ Tc X]ca^SdXc [P [P]VdT cP\PiXVWc SP]b
[Tb ÏcPQ[XbbT\T]cb bR^[PXaTb =ÏP]\^X]b [{PaPQT aTbcT [P bTd[T [P]VdT ^U
RXT[[T
ST [{¯cPc Tc [P R^]bcXcdcX^]]P[XbPcX^] Sd QTaQÎaT d]T RWX\ÎaT 2Tb Ï[Ï\T]cb
S^]]T]c [{X\_aTbbX^] `dT [T ?P[PXb TbbPhTaP bT[^] [P U^a\d[T caPSXcX^]]T[[T
ST R^^_cTa [P SXbbXST]RT P\PiXVWT T] Ï[PaVXbbP]c b^] X] dT]RT Pd bTX] ST
RTccT R^\\d]PdcÏ c^dc T] aT]U^]ÍP]c b^] Pdc^aXcÏ Tc bP [ÏVXcX\XcÏ $

La nation marocaine à l’aube du troisième millénaire
3T_dXb [Tb P]]ÏTb (" [P \^]PaRWXT \Pa^RPX]T bPXc [{X\_^acP]RT ST [P
]PcX^] R^\\T PRcTda Tc cT]cT _Td Æ _Td S X]cÏVaTa RTccT Ïe^[dcX^] T] T]

#' 2WTZa^d] < 9Tdg Tc T]YTdg Pd <Pa^R APQPc ¯SXcX^]b >ZPS (( _ %$
#( 3P]b b^] SXbR^dab S{0YSXa _a^]^]RÏ Æ :WÏ]XUaP [T & ^Rc^QaT ! [T a^X Pbbd\T [P R^\_^bP]cT
P\PiXVW SP]b bTb SX\T]bX^]b [X]VdXbcX`dTb Rd[cdaT[[Tb Tc WXbc^aX`dTb
$ E^Xa Wcc_) fff XaRP\ \P
$ 0[ePaPS^ 3 ‘ 0 XST]cXSPST ]^ <PVaTQ) > \^eT\T]c^ Rd[cdaP[ P\PiXVW ST <Paa^R^b ¡ CT\_^
4gcTaX^a ]– ! bTVd]SP Ï_^RP gP]TXa^ gd×^ ! % __ $" %!

99

Le Mondial des nations
UPXbP]c d] P[[XÏ ;P aTR^]]PXbbP]RT \^]PaRWX`dT ST [P ]PcX^] ]PXbbP]cT bT
R^]bcadXc PeTR T] _PaP[[Î[T d] T]R^daPVT\T]c ST [P
VdaT Sd a^X _Pa [Tb
]PcX^]P[XbcTb RT[dX RX X]RPa]P]c [{d]XcÏ ST [P ]PcX^] 8[ Tbc [T bTd[ PRcTda RP_PQ[T
ST VP[eP]XbTa c^dcTb [Tb R^\_^bP]cTb ST [P b^RXÏcÏ \Pa^RPX]T ;T \P]XUTbcT
ST [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT ST (## Tbc [{PRcT `dX PdcWT]cX
T Tc [ÏVXcX\T [P \^]PaRWXT
Pd bTX] Sd \^deT\T]c ]PcX^]P[ `dX [{X]bÎaT Pd RT]caT \Ð\T ST [P ]PcX^] Tc
aTR^]]PÔc b^] aÚ[T RT]caP[
0eTR [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT ^QcT]dT T] ($% [{d]X^] T]caT [P \^]PaRWXT Tc [T
\^deT\T]c ]PcX^]P[ Tbc aT\XbT T] `dTbcX^] CP]SXb `dT [Tb _a^VaTbbXbcTb
SÏUT]ST]c d]T aTSÏ
]XcX^] R^\_[ÎcT STb aP__^acb T]caT [P ]PcX^] Tc [P
\^]PaRWXT [Tb R^]bTaePcTdab b^]c _PacXbP]b S{d] aÏVX\T R^]bcXcdcX^]]T[
aT_aÏbT]cPcXU b^db [{ÏVXST Sd a^X 4] b{P__dhP]c bda [Tb 50A Tc [Tb bTRcTdab
[Tb _[db caPSXcX^]P[XbcTb PXSÏ _Pa [Tb SXeXbX^]b Pd bTX] ST [{8bcX`[P[ [T b^deTaPX]
eP P[^ab T] _a^
cTa _^da R^]b^[XSTa b^] Pdc^aXcÏ RT `d 7PbbP] 88 R^]cX]dTaP
P_aÎb bP \^ac 8[ ]{PdaP ST RTbbT ST aP__T[Ta `dT R{Tbc [P \^]PaRWXT `dX P
UPXc [T <Pa^R Tc `dT [P [ÏVXcX\XcÏ ST [P Sh]PbcXT 0[P^dXcT ]T SPcT _Pb ST b^]
T]VPVT\T]c SP]b [T R^\QPc ]PcX^]P[XbcT ;P R^]bcXcdcX^] ST (%! R^]bPRaT
RTccT e^XT a^hP[T aT]U^aRÏT T]R^aT _Pa [Tb SXUUÏaT]cTb RWPacTb \PV]Tb Ydb`d{Æ
[P STa]XÎaT ST ((% ¦ [P
] STb P]]ÏTb (& P_aÎb [P <PaRWT eTacT Tc [P
aÏRd_ÏaPcX^] Sd BPWPaP ^RRXST]cP[ [P _aÏcT]SdT R^]bÏRdcX^] ST [{d]XcÏ ST [P
]PcX^] ] Tbc `d{d] ]^deT[ PR`dXb R^]bT]bdT[ T] bP UPeTda
;{PRcdT[ _^de^Xa RWTaRWT d] R^\_a^\Xb T]caT [{WÏaXcPVT Sh]PbcX`dT
P]RTbcaP[ [T _PbbÏ V[^aXTdg Tc [T [TVb STb ‘ P]]ÏTb ST _[^\Q ¡ 3T_dXb (((
<^WP\\TS E8 RWTaRWT Æ Pbbd\Ta [T _^XSb ST `dPcaT bXÎR[Tb X]X]cTaa^\_db
ST Sh]PbcXT T] aÏR^]RX[XP]c [Tb <Pa^RPX]b PeTR [Tda _PbbÏ _a^RWT Tc T]
bT _[XP]c T] `dT[`dT b^acT Pdg ST\P]STb SÏ\^aP[XbPcaXRTb Tc S{^deTacdaT
eT]P]c ]^cP\\T]c ST [{ÏcaP]VTa * d] ]^deTPd R^]caPc _^[XcX`dT d]T ]^deT[[T
P__a^RWT SP]b [Tb aT[PcX^]b T]caT V^deTa]P]cb Tc V^deTa]Ïb SP]b [T RPSaT
S{d]T ]^deT[[T R^]RT_cX^] ST [{Pdc^aXcÏ ;P QPbT ST RTccT ]^deTPdcÏ ÏcP]c [T
R^\_a^\Xb WXbc^aX`dT T]caT [P \^]PaRWXT Tc [T \^deT\T]c ]PcX^]P[ X\_[X`dP]c
d]T Ï]XÎ\T aÏPSP_cPcX^] Sd \PZWiT] B^db RTccT aÏ]^ePcX^] ST UPÍPST b^acT
S{PSP_cPcX^] Æ [{Tb_aXc ST cT\_b Tc Pdg _PaP\ÎcaTb SÏ\^RaPcX`dTb T] e^VdT
X[ ] h P _^dacP]c VdÎaT ST RWP]VT\T]cb SP]b [P R^]RT_cX^] _PcaX\^]XP[T Sd
aÏVX\T Tc b^] U^]RcX^]]T\T]c

100

Maroc
B^db R^deTac S d] SXbR^dab \^STa]T Tc S{^deTacdaT [P \^]PaRWXT 0[P^dXcT
STeXT]c [P \Pa`dT S{XST]cXcÏ Sd <Pa^R Tc STb <Pa^RPX]b [ Ï[Ï\T]c RT]caP[ Sd
YTd _^[XcX`dT [ d]X`dT SÏRXSTda SP]b [Tb S^bbXTab [Tb _[db bT]bXQ[Tb Sd _Phb
[ PRcTda ]d\Ïa^ d] SP]b [P b_WÎaT ÏR^]^\X`dT Tc b^RXP[T 4[[T ]T UPXc _[db
[ ^QYTc ST R^]cTbcPcX^] \PÔcaXbP]c PdY^daS{WdX _[db `dT YP\PXb c^dcTb [Tb _XÎRTb
S{d]T ]PcX^] `dX P \Xb [T _Phb T]caT bTb \PX]b Tc `d{T[[T P U^aVÏT Tc PSP_cÏT
Æ bTb _a^_aTb QTb^X]b Tc aÏP[XcÏb P_aÎb [{X]SÏ_T]SP]RT ;P \^]PaRWXT PU
RWT
b^] RPaPRcÎaT \^STa]XbPcTda Tc SÏ\^RaPcXbP]c [P \PV]XcdST STb RWP]cXTab
^deTacb Tc ST bP ]PcdaT PeTR STb R^]RT_cb R^\\T ‘ \^]PaRWXT RXc^hT]]T ¡
^d ‘ \^]PaRWXT TgÏRdcXeT ¡ * [{^QYTRcXU ÏcP]c `dT <^WP\\TS E8 STeXT]]T
‘ [T aÏU^a\PcTda ¡ Æ [{X\PVT ST b^] VaP]S _ÎaT Tc b^] _ÎaT aTb_TRcXeT\T]c
‘ [T [XQÏaPcTda ¡ Tc ‘ [T aÏd]X
RPcTda ¡ ‘ 9T ST\TdaTaPX RWTa _Td_[T cT[
`dT cd <{Pb c^dY^dab R^]]d ) [T A^X ST c^db [Tb <Pa^RPX]b SP]b c^dcTb [Tdab
R^\_^bP]cTb Bh\Q^[T ST [{d]XcÏ ST [P ]PcX^] 9T ST\TdaTaPX [T SÏ_^bXcPXaT
ST [P b^deTaPX]TcÏ Sd A^hPd\T Tc ST b^] X]cÏVaXcÏ cTaaXc^aXP[T Tc [T VPaP]c
STb Sa^Xcb X]SXeXSdT[b Tc R^[[TRcXUb $! ¡

David Alvarado
Politologue et journaliste, consultant du CERSS (Rabat), IGADI (Bayona),
Cidob (Barcelone) et du Centre d'études nationales et identitaires de la UOC (Barcelone).

$! 2Xc <^WP\\TS E8 SP]b b^] SXbR^dab Sd CaÚ]T Sd " YdX[[Tc ! '

101


Documents similaires


presenzaafrica mondialdesnations davidalvarado 20110116 b
version hommes maroc octobre 2012
la migrations des femmes et les transferts de fonds
affiche tract conf dijon amdh atmf cnt ldh 07 11 14
revue unesco mars 2014 n 5
acte mondial


Sur le même sujet..