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Titre: Human and Environmental Dangers Posed by Ongoing Global Tropospheric Aerosolized Particulates for Weather Modification
Auteur: J. Marvin Herndon

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Human and Environmental Dangers Posed by
Ongoing Global Tropospheric Aerosolized
Particulates for Weather Modification
Article in Frontiers in Public Health · June 2016
DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2016.00139

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Original Research
published: 30 June 2016
doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2016.00139

H

J. Marvin Herndon*
Transdyne Corporation, San Diego, CA, USA

Background: U.S. military perception of nuclear warfare led to countless unethical
nuclear experiments performed on unsuspecting individuals without their informed consent. As evidenced here, subsequent perception of weather warfare has led to exposing
millions of unsuspecting individuals to toxic coal fly ash with no public disclosure, no
informed consent, and no health warnings.

Edited by:
Judi Krzyzanowski,
Krzyzanowski Consulting, Canada
Reviewed by:
Otto Andersen,
Western Norway Research Institute,
Norway
Yue-Wern Huang,
Missouri University of
Science and Technology, USA
*Correspondence:
J. Marvin Herndon
mherndon@san.rr.com
Specialty section:
This article was submitted
to Environmental Health,
a section of the journal
Frontiers in Public Health
Received: 05 April 2016
Accepted: 16 June 2016
Published: 30 June 2016
Citation:
Herndon JM (2016) Human and
Environmental Dangers Posed by
Ongoing Global Tropospheric
Aerosolized Particulates for
Weather Modification.
Front. Public Health 4:139.
doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2016.00139

Methods: Three methods were used: (1) comparison of eight elements analyzed in rainwater samples, thought to have leached from aerosolized coal fly ash, with corresponding
coal fly ash laboratory leachate; (2) comparison of 14 elements analyzed in air filter dust
with corresponding elements in coal fly ash; and (3) comparison of 23 elements analyzed
in fibrous mesh found after snow melted with corresponding elements in coal fly ash.
results: The rainwater element ratios show that the aerial particulate matter has essentially the same water-leach characteristics as coal fly ash. The air filter dust element
ratios occur in the same range of compositions as coal fly ash, as do element ratios in
fibrous mesh found on grass after snow melted. The fibrous mesh provides an inferred
direct connection with the aerosolizing jet aircraft via coal fly ash association with the jet
combustion environment.
conclusion: Strong evidence for the correctness of the hypothesis: coal fly ash is likely
the aerosolized particulate emplaced in the troposphere for geoengineering, weather
modification, and/or climate alteration purposes. The documented public health associations for ≤2.5 μm particulate pollution are also applicable to aerosolized coal fly ash. The
ability of coal fly ash to release aluminum in a chemically mobile form upon exposure to
water or body moisture has potentially grave human and environmental consequences
over a broad spectrum, including implications for neurological diseases and biota debilitation. The ability of coal fly ash to release heavy metals and radioactive elements upon
exposure to body moisture has potentially grave human health implications including
cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory diseases, reduced male fertility, and
stroke. The fibrous mesh data admit the possibility of environmentally disastrous formation of methylmercury and ozone-depleting chlorinated-fluorinated hydrocarbons in jet
exhaust. Geophysical implications include atmospheric warming and rainfall retardation.
Keywords: geoengineering, coal fly ash, aerosol particulates, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Alzheimer’s
disease, Parkinson’s disease, neurological disorders, chemically mobile aluminum

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Dangers Posed by Weather Modification

INTRODUCTION

Nevertheless, through application of forensic-science methodologies and with sound observations and scientific reasoning,
crucial aspects of the covert tropospheric spraying activities can
be discerned. For humanity’s sake, the public health and environmental implications of the current on-going, global-scale,
covert tropospheric spraying are herewith disclosed for public
discussion, research, and verification.
A profound dichotomy exists between the technology,
practice, terminology, and public disclosure of geoengineering
so that public discussion of its implications for public health is
minimized. The academic community describes geoengineering as a possible future intervention in the upper atmosphere
(stratosphere) to counteract anthropogenic global warming.
The stratosphere is the region where volcanic eruption gases
have been observed to cause global cooling. There is relatively
little convection in the stratosphere so volcanic ejecta can stay
suspended in the stratosphere for a year or more (16). Academic
scientists postulate future geoengineering in which substances
such as sulfuric acid or titanium dioxide are sprayed into the
stratosphere in order to block a portion of incident sunlight
(17). Various methods have been proposed for emplacing geoengineering substances into the stratosphere including shooting
the substances from guns or releasing them from balloons or
high-altitude jets (18). The stratosphere is the region harboring
the ozone-layer that protects us from the ultraviolet component
of sunlight (19). Within the academic perception of hypothetical
geoengineering, public health concerns arising from geoengineering are also hypothetical, something that may become
important in the future if and when stratospheric geoengineering is put into practice.
In contrast to the presumption of academic geoengineers, covert
government/military geoengineering activity has occurred over the
past 70 years and has intensified since the end of the Cold War and
the discovery of global warming as a national security issue (20).
Currently, geoengineering is taking place in the troposphere (lower
atmosphere) over a large number of countries, including the United
States, Canada, the European Union countries, England, Australia,
and New Zealand (14). The academic community has been hesitant
to publically acknowledge military geoengineering activity even
though there is abundant observational evidence for its existence (8,
14). Since the mid-1990s, there have been numerous observations
of aerial spraying of particulate matter in the troposphere. Figure 2
shows some recent examples of the particulate trails; however, this
is a minuscule sampling. There are numerous websites devoted to
exposing aerial spraying to the uninformed public.2–14

In a civilized, humanitarian society, public health responsibilities
include revealing threats that arise from both biological and anthropogenic causes. Global-scale naturally caused public health threats
have long existed, are generally well known, and have been the subject
of scholarly research. Far-reaching human-caused threats to public
health, on the other hand, have mainly occurred since World War II
and are typically the result of deliberate military activities conducted
secretly. Public disclosure of military-originated public health dangers by scientists has galvanized public outrage against such activities
in the past. The Manhattan Project gave rise to the nuclear arms race.
Unethical nuclear experiments were performed involving unsuspecting individuals, sometimes numbering in the thousands, without
informed consent. For example, pregnant women, told they were
receiving vitamins, were instead given radioactive iron; newborn
infants were injected with radioactive iodine-131 (1–4). Atmospheric
detonations of nuclear devices were generally undertaken without
regard for the health of unsuspecting residents downwind (5).
Atmospheric nuclear testing in the United States ended as a consequence of the public outcry over civilian public health disclosure of
the risks associated with strontium-90 uptake by children (6).
Modern commercial weather modification technology began
with the 1946 discovery that clouds, seeded with silver iodide or dry
ice, could be caused in many instances to yield rain or snow (7). That
weather modification method is widely used for agricultural and
other commercial purposes. Ski resorts frequently use it to increase
the likelihood of snow. Insurance companies use it to cut their risks
when guaranteeing certain weather conditions for commercial
projects or to minimize potential losses caused by hail storms.
The military has long dreamed of controlling the weather for
strategic purposes (8). The early military applications of weather
modification were aimed at deliberately causing rainfall at a
specific time and place by cloud seeding with substances such
as silver iodide or dry ice. Reportedly, the U.S. seeded clouds to
squeeze rain out before they reached Cuba in order to ruin the
Cuban sugar cane harvest (9). From 1967 to 1972, Operation
Popeye involved cloud seeding with the intention of extending
the monsoon season over the Ho Chi Minh Trail to impede transport of troops and supplies during the Vietnam War (8, 10). The
success of these weather modification activities provided impetus
for the subsequent government/military technological interests,
expressed in a 1978 U.S. Senate document (11) and described in
the 1996 U.S. Air Force document: “Weather as a Force Multiplier:
Owning the Weather in 2025 (12).”
After the Vietnam War, military weather modification became a
secret global-scale activity buttressed by a campaign of disinformation. Like its nuclear-warfare predecessor, weather modification or
geoengineering continued to be covertly developed and practiced,
especially over the past two decades (13). That geoengineering activity poses global-scale public-health dangers due to the nature of the
principal substance being sprayed into the lower atmosphere, troposphere (14), where it mixes with the air we all breathe (15) (Figure 1).
The government not only hides the known (and unknown) health
risks but also misleads the public about its geoengineering program
and the nature of the aerosol substances it employs.1

http://globalskywatch.com
http://www.cielvoile.fr
4 
http://www.geoengineeringwatch.org
5 
https://chemtrailsnorthnz.wordpress.com
6 
http://www.endgeoengineering.com
7 
http://stopsprayingcalifornia.com
8 
http://socalskywatch.net
9 
http://byebyebluesky.com
10 
http://www.tankerenemy.com
11 
http://weatherwars.info
12 
http://www.sauberer-himmel.de
13 
http://www.canadaskywatch.com
14 
http://www.guardacielos.org
2 
3 

http://NuclearPlanet.com/AFD-051013-001.pdf

1 

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Dangers Posed by Weather Modification

FIGURE 1 | Schematic representation of atmosphere layers at mid-latitudes showing typical regions of cloud formations and passenger jet traffic.

The physical basis for particulate aerial spraying is to control
weather and climate by inhibiting rain. The idea behind cloud
seeding is to aid the nucleation of rain, ice, or snow whereas the
idea behind aerosolized particulate spraying to inhibit rainfall is to
interfere with the nucleation process. The methodology is known
from pollution studies (21) and is described by NASA15: “Normal
rainfall droplet creation involves water vapor condensing on particles in clouds. The droplets eventually coalesce together to form
drops large enough to fall to Earth. However, as more and more
pollution particles (aerosols) enter a rain cloud, the same amount
of water becomes spread out. These smaller water droplets float
with the air and are prevented from coalescing and growing large

enough for a raindrop. Thus, the cloud yields less rainfall over the
course of its lifetime compared to a clean (non-polluted) cloud of
the same size.”
The government/military solution to inhibit the fall of rain
is to deliberately add an aerosolized pollutant to the region
where clouds form to interfere with raindrop nucleation. The
intentional addition of particulate pollution not only inhibits the
fall of rain but also warms the atmosphere (by absorbing solar
energy) and limits loss of heat radiated by Earth. Consequently,
the particulate pollution creates an artificial increase in air pressure, which can block the movement of an oncoming weather
front thus further keeping the sprayed area from experiencing
rainfall (22, 23). Subsequent settling of the pollutant matter on
ice sheets may serve as solar heat collectors and aid in melting

http://nuclearplanet.com/NASA_Particulates_Effect_on_Rainfall.pdf

15 

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Dangers Posed by Weather Modification

FIGURE 2 | Images of deliberately produced particulate pollution trails. Photographs by Patrick Roddie, with permission.

the ice (24). The harm to citizens, plants, and other biota comes
not only from decreased precipitation but also from the toxic
content of the pollutant substance widely utilized to retard the
fall of rain (25).
The composition of the aerosolized particulate matter, often
referred to as “chemtrails,” to distinguish them from contrails,
has been a closely guarded secret, and accompanied by a disinformation campaign. For example, in 2005, the U.S. Air Force
distributed a document entitled “Contrails Facts”, which asserted
in part: “The ‘Chemtrail’ hoax has been investigated and refuted
by many established and accredited universities, scientific organizations, and major media publications. There is no such thing as
a ‘Chemtrail.’ Contrails are safe and are a natural phenomenon.
They pose no health hazard of any kind.”
But as Abraham Lincoln famously said, “You can fool all the
people some of the time, and some of the people all the time, but

Frontiers in Public Health | www.frontiersin.org

you cannot fool all the people all the time.” On February 11, 2016,
a bill was introduced into the General Assembly of the State of
Rhode Island (USA) that would demand public disclosure and
health and safety evaluations of any geoengineering activities
(26). On March 11, 2016, a mass-tort environmental proposed
Class Proceeding (“Proceeding”) was brought in the Federal
Court of Canada on behalf of all affected Canadians in respect
of Aerial Discharges performed directly or indirectly by Her
Majesty the Queen and/or her instrumentalities, in Canadian air
space, and which Aerial Discharges are alleged to compromise
cognitive function, contribute to other neurological disorders,
damage property and the environment, among many other heads
of damage (27).
The aerial graffiti superficially resembles contrails, which are
ice crystals formed from aircraft exhaust, but there are profound
differences. Contrails only form in very humid environments,

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Dangers Posed by Weather Modification

with temperatures low enough for the saturation vapor pressure
with respect to ice, and with sufficient moisture content in the
exhaust gases. Moreover, the ice crystals that form contrails
sublimate, disappearing by evaporation to form invisible gas on
a time scale ranging from seconds to minutes (typical) to a few
hours (extremes of cold and humidity) (28, 29).
The author has lived in San Diego, California (USA) for more
than 40 years and as a trained scientist keenly observes the sky.
For many years before the near-daily particulate spraying, the sky
overhead was a rich azure blue color, frequently without clouds.
In the warm dry air above San Diego, jet contrails are a rare sight
that disappear in a matter of seconds to minutes, becoming invisible gas. Figure 3 shows six images of the San Diego sky that not
only illustrate the nature of the now-pervasive particulate spraying but clearly provide the basis to refute the Air Force’s published

statement. Videos of aircraft spraying particulate matter into the
San Diego sky are referenced here.16–20
All of the photographs that comprise Figure 3 were taken on
days with no natural clouds in the San Diego sky. The top left
image of Figure 3 shows a section of rich azure blue San Diego
sky with little evidence of particulate spraying. The top right
image shows two trails crossing in the same region of sky, hence
in similar environments, but one abruptly ceases, while the other
does not. That is not the behavior of contrails, which would
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tp2wWuqfbi0
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Gjw_7c7GzA
18 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ty1cDrUYwYg
19 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b1zNJzCXHZQ
20 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RbwbhzCgGYw
16 
17 

FIGURE 3 | Photographs of the sky above San Diego, California (USA) taken in 2014–2015. Top left: note the mainly blue sky, with a just small amount of
white haze. Top right: spray stopped in mid-flight, which is uncharacteristic of jet contrails. Middle left: heavy spraying produced artificial overcast of an otherwise
cloudless blue sky. Middle right: heavy spraying changed the blue sky to overcast with a brownish hue. Bottom left: numerous particulate trails unlike paths of
normal air traffic. Bottom right: note the white haze caused by micron and sub-micron size particulates, which is uncharacteristic of jet contrails, ice crystals that
rapidly disappear by evaporation. The blue stripe copied from the top left image shows the contrast. Before the heavy aerial spraying began, San Diego skies were
usually the color of the blue stripe and often without cloud cover. The warm dry climate above San Diego prevents the formation of persistent jet contrails, which are
ice crystals.

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Dangers Posed by Weather Modification

have behaved similarly, but rather the operation of particulate
sprays where one was shut off or ran out of feedstock. Note
the wispy cirrus-like “clouds” in the background. Soon after
the particulate trail is laid, it begins to diffuse initially forming
cirrus-like artificial clouds, which then further diffuses to form
a white haze in the sky. The middle left photograph was taken
after heavy spraying throughout the day produced an artificial
overcast. The middle right photograph shows even heavier
spraying that produced artificial overcast with a brownish hue.
The lower left shows multiple particulate trails over a recognizable location in San Diego that is uncharacteristic of normal jet
traffic patterns. The lower right image shows the typical white
haze produced by the particulate sprays. The blue strip at the
top of the image, from the top left photo, shows for comparison
natural un-polluted San Diego sky. Jet contrails do not produce
white haze in San Diego skies.
Even without knowing the identity of the specific particulate
matter being sprayed into the air we breathe, we may infer the
potential of major adverse health risks from aerosolized particulates because they are similar in size to air pollution particles the
health effects of which have been extensively studied (30). For
aerosolized particulates to remain suspended for some period
of time before settling, the particles must be micron (μm) or
submicron in size (31). As known from epidemiological studies,
pollution particles with similar diameters, ≤2.5  μm, referred
to as PM2.5, have been found to be associated with increased
hospital admissions (32), morbidity and premature mortality
(33–35), risk for cardiovascular disease (36) and lung cancer
(37), lung inflammation and diabetes (38), risk for stroke (39),
Alzheimer’s disease (40, 41), onset of asthma (42), renal function in older men (43), low birth weight (44), and reduced male
fertility (45).
The author published the first paper in the peer-reviewed
scientific literature that provided initial evidence that the main
substance being aerosolized for military tropospheric geoengineering is coal combustion fly ash (14). The purpose of the present
paper is to provide considerably more scientific evidence that the
aerosolized particulate matter is coal fly ash, and offer considerably greater insight to the public health risks and environment
impact of this multi-component aerial pollutant.
Industrial coal burning produces four kinds of waste products:
(1) heavy bottom ash that settles out; (2) micron and sub-micron
size particles, called coal fly ash that would go up the smokestack
unless electrostatically captured and stored as is presently mandated in Western nations (46, 47); (3) boiler slag; and (4) flue
gas desulfurization product (gypsum). Of these, coal fly ash is
by far the most toxic substance. When coal formed it trapped a
great variety of toxic elements. Much of coal’s toxic component is
released upon burning and incorporated in coal fly ash, making
coal fly ash a toxic nightmare capable of releasing many toxins
upon exposure to water (48). These toxins include aluminum
in a chemically mobile form, which is implicated in human
neurological diseases (49–51) and biota distress (52, 53). “Forest
die-offs and reduced survivorship or impaired reproduction of
aquatic invertebrates, fish, and amphibians have been directly
connected to Al toxicity. Indirect effects on birds and mammals
also have been identified (54).”

Frontiers in Public Health | www.frontiersin.org

Coal fly ash is a major industrial waste stream for Western
nations’ coal-fired electric utilities. Notably, coal fly ash has the
appropriate grain-size distribution for aerosolized tropospheric
spraying or else it is relatively simple to further separate an extrafine component using cyclone classifiers (separators). Huge quantities of coal fly ash are readily available worldwide at extremely
low cost. Moreover, electrostatic trapping and processing facilities, as well as transport infrastructure, are in place and generally
out of public view. The author submits the following hypothesis:
coal fly ash is likely the principal aerosolized particulate sprayed
in the troposphere by jets for geoengineering, weather modification, and/or climate alteration purposes.
The objectives of the author’s research are fourfold: (1) to provide further scientific evidence as to the correctness of the hypothesis that coal fly ash is likely the aerosolized particulate sprayed
in the troposphere for geoengineering, weather-modification,
and/or climate-modification purposes; (2) to reveal some of the
adverse human public health consequences and the antagonistic
consequences on Earth’s environment and biota; (3) to provide
evidence that, in addition to being directly discharged into the
atmosphere, coal fly ash may be exposed to jet fuel combustion
environment prior to being dispersed; and, (4) to suggest that
ozone-destructive chlorinated-fluorinated hydrocarbons and
toxic methylmercury (CH3Hg) may be produced when coal fly
ash is exposed to the jet fuel combustion environment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The methodology is threefold: (1) compare the element ratios
analyzed in rainwater with corresponding element ratios
analyzed in the leachate of coal fly ash laboratory leach experiments (48, 55); (2) compare the element ratios analyzed in dust
collected outdoors by high-efficiency particulate arresting
(HEPA) air filters with corresponding element ratios analyzed
in samples of coal fly ash; and (3) compare the element ratios
analyzed in fibrous matter collected on grass after snow melted
away with corresponding element ratios analyzed in samples of
coal fly ash.
Since at least 2002, individuals have collected post-spraying
rainwater for chemical analysis (see footnote text 2–5). Usually
only aluminum analyses were requested, but sometimes also barium, and more rarely strontium were also included in the analysis
request. In 2015, the author published the first paper showing that
for those three-element rainwater analyses, the ratios Al/Ba and
Sr/Ba compare favorably with similar ratios from analyses of the
leachate from laboratory coal fly ash leaching experiments (14).
Here, the author compares three separate San Diego (USA) postspraying rainwater analyses for Al/Ba, Sr/Ba, Fe/Ba, Ca/Br, S/Br,
Mg/Br, and B/Br with corresponding coal fly ash leachate ratios.
Since at least 2008, a few individuals have trapped air-borne
particles on HEPA filters and had the dust analyzed. Here,
the author compares the analytical results from four samples,
expressed as element ratios relative to barium, with corresponding ratios from analyses of coal fly ash.
Occasionally fibers, sometimes referred to as “spider webs,”
are observed descending from above, swept along by the wind,

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Dangers Posed by Weather Modification

Rainwater

trapped on vegetation, and on the ground;21–24 some observers have
speculated that these originated from aerial spraying. Recently,
such fibers were found on grass as snow was melting away and
were collected and analyzed. Here, the author compares those
analytical results, expressed as ratios relative to barium, with
corresponding ratios from analyses of coal fly ash.

Before the near-daily aerial spraying in San Diego, California
(USA), where the author has resided for more than 40 years, on
many days of the year the skies were blue, cloudless and without
the white haze that is the consequence of the aerial spraying; now,
the visual effects of the spraying are clearly evident (Figure 3).
The author collected San Diego rainwater samples in February,
May, and December 2015 for analysis. San Diego is ideal for
rainwater sample collection as there are no coal-burning facilities nearby or in the path of prevailing winds and there are no
heavy industries to cause air borne pollution in San Diego. The
residence-time for smokestack particulates in the boundary
layer, a few days at most, is too short for coal fly ash to arrive
from China via low-level transport, which takes longer than
10 days (56). Further, the observed aerial particulate density, at
times sufficient to cause artificial overcast (Figure 3), is related
to observed aircraft spraying activities, and is not present in the
absence of aerial activity.
The rainwater samples were sent to two commercial state-ofCalifornia certified laboratories, Babcock Laboratories, Inc., and
Basic Laboratory. Their analytical results, by inductively coupled
plasma mass spectrometry, were consistent to within 2–10%.
Figure 4 shows the San Diego rainwater analytical element ratios
for comparison with corresponding ratios of the average values
and ranges of the Moreno et al. (48) laboratory leachate results for
23 European coal fly ash samples and the range of American coal
fly ash leachate data of Suloway et al. (55). The European coal fly
ash samples were leached using distilled water (pH = 7.00). After
leaching for 24 h the pH of the 23 laboratory leachates ranged
from 6.40 to 12.54. Comparable data are not available for the

RESULTS
Coal fly ash is trapped and confined in Western countries because
it contains numerous toxic elements including aluminum, arsenic,
barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, thorium,
and uranium among others. These elements are readily released
by contact with water. Moreno et  al. (48) conducted leaching
experiments on 23 different coal fly ash samples from European
sources (Spain, The Netherlands, Italy, and Greece), which they
analyzed for 33 elements. They leached 100 g of each sample in
1  liter of distilled water in a 2-liter bottle for 24  h. They then
analyzed the filtered leachate solution of each for 38 elements.
No reason was given for the greater number of leachate analyses.
These data provide the primary standard for comparison of the
analytical results for rainwater, HEPA filter dust, and fibrous matter reported here. An additional comparison is made of the range
of compositions and range of leachate values of 12 American coal
fly ash samples, ten of which come from the Illinois Basin (55).
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qpysApXRXYE
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KJMgYdExWjQ
23 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q5T4KcM5GB4
24 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8KLU2kATAvQ&feature=youtu.be
21 
22 

FIGURE 4 | Analyzed element ratios in San Diego rainwater samples taken in February, May, and December of 2015 shown for comparison with the
range of corresponding element ratios and average values from laboratory coal fly ash leachate of 23 European (48) and 12 American coal fly ash
samples (55). Previously published (14) rainwater Al/Ba and Sr/Ba ratios from Internet postings are shown for comparison.

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Dangers Posed by Weather Modification

different locations. Note in Figure 4 that the Internet-posted
rainwater Al/Ba ratios (14), determined on samples from the
United States, France, and New Zealand, are quite similar to the
San Diego rainwater Al/Ba ratio and span a range less than the
corresponding leachate range of the 23 European coal fly ash
samples. A similar observation may be made with respect to the
published rainwater Sr/Ba ratios. Indeed, each of the seven San
Diego rainwater ratios of the three data sets is remarkably similar to the corresponding European leachate average and range.
Rainwater samples absent aerial spraying would be desirable
as blanks, but the near-daily, pervasive spraying makes such
samples impossible to obtain.
Do the data shown in Figure 4 prove that the aerosolized substance is indeed coal fly ash? Not necessarily, as incontrovertible
proof is difficult to obtain, except in mathematics. But the data
of Figure 4 do show that some substance in the atmosphere is
capable of being leached by rainwater and that substance has for
eight elements similar leach characteristics to coal fly ash.

American leach experiments as the pH was constantly adjusted
during the experiment to maintain a value of 5.00. Figure 4 also
includes for comparison the analytical rainwater results from
Internet sources (see footnote text 2–5) published by the author
(14, 57). Plotted data are shown in Tables 1–3.
Ranges of variations are observed in the compositions of
coal fly ash (48, 55). These variations arise not only from differences in coal type, in chemical compositions and mineral
constituents of the coal from the various locations, but also
arise from fly ash characteristics and from boiler configurations and prevailing physical conditions during the burning
process. Despite those variable factors, there is nevertheless
an overall compositional consistency. Not surprisingly, overall
compositional consistency appears to be the case as well for
leachate compositions leached from coal fly ash samples from
TABLE 1 | Analytical ICP-MS data for San Diego rainwater samples.

Aluminum
Barium
Boron
Calcium
Iron
Magnesium
Strontium
Sulfur

February 2015
μg/liter

May 2015
μg/liter

December 2015
μg/liter

41
5.3
18.2
1600
38
800
7.2
540

26.3
3.2
9.1
1200
14
800
6.3
815

88.9
10.1
48.2
3300
78
2700
19
1860

Al
Ba
B
Ca
Fe
Mg
Sr
S

HEPA Air Filter Dust

Citizens throughout Western nations, concerned about the
particulate spraying they observe in the troposphere, have taken
numerous samples other than rainwater. Some instances, such as
soil samples, are too complicated to draw meaningful conclusions.
In many instances, though, too few elements were ordered in the
analyses. Individuals in Los Angeles and Montebello, California
(USA) in 2011, and in Phoenix, Arizona (USA) in 2008 and 2009
were exceptions. During times of intense aerial spraying these

The differences between samples primarily reflect various amounts of dilution.

TABLE 2 | Tabulation of Internet-posted ICP-MS analytical data plotted in
Figure 4.
Aluminum
μg/liter
14
68
28
280
7.3
400
620
44
368
2190
1010
700
650
219
188
140
118
88.7
66.9
60
33.2
27.2
58
20.2
8
7.8

Barium
μg/liter

Strontium
μg/liter

Al/Ba
Ratio

Sr/Ba
Ratio

13
33
5
32
0.84
39.1
95
5.8
6
43
8
23.9
10
257
7
47
3.9
4.1
2.1
10
3.9
1.6
2.5
4.7
9
0.93

110
190
8.9
54
0.89
30.1
59
3.4
3

1.08
2.06
5.6
8.75
8.69
10.2
6.53
7.59
61.3
50.9
126
29.3
65
0.85
26.9
2.98
30.3
21.6
31.9
6
8.5
17
23.2
4.3
0.9
8.4

8.46
5.76
1.78
1.69
1.06
0.77
0.62
0.59
0.5

TABLE 3 | Analytical ICP-MS data for HEPA filter dust and fibers.

Aluminum
Antimony
Arsenic
Barium
Beryllium
Cadmium
Calcium
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Iron
Lead
Lithium
Magnesium
Manganese
Molybdenum
Nickel
Potassium
Selenium
Silicon
Sodium
Strontium
Titanium
Vanadium
Zinc

Data sources (see footnote text 2–5).

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Al
Sb
As
Ba
Be
Cd
Ca
Cr
Co
Cu
Fe
Pb
Li
Mg
Mn
Mo
Ni
K
Se
Si
Na
Sr
Ti
V
Zn

Los
Angeles
μg/filter

Montebello
μg/filter

Pheonix
2009
μg/g

Pheonix
2008
μg/g

Fibers
μg/g

5030
29.9
4.66
344

1200
4.19
1.07
57.9

39000
26
48
2100

12800

4600

1.7
30600
48
14
172
17300
56
15
9900
487
4
34
2700

1.25
40400
28.2

1.69
28.4
5.46
387

4.2
0.696
42.1

105

26

12.4
17.6

1.5
6.01

3.8

1.08

29
727

5.43
119

1200
178
1900
46
1100

556

197
16800
50.5
10600
562
33.8
7930
1020
6370
245
31.2
593

40
100
0.2
0.35
7400
56
3.2
150
10000
15
3000
370
1.7
13
4700
940
410
47
280
14
170

Sample weights unspecified in reports.

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citizens ran HEPA air filters out doors for 3 months during times
of intense aerial spraying to capture air borne dust which they had
analyzed for 14 chemical elements by state-certified laboratories.
The laboratory results were posted on the Internet, but led to no
immediately conclusions other than that a number of toxic elements were evident.
Having had the experience of comparing post-spraying
rainwater analyses to laboratory-produced coal fly ash leachate,
the author decided to compare the HEPA air filter analyses with
corresponding analyses of non-leached coal fly ash samples
(48,  55, 57). As in the case of San Diego, there were no coal
burning facilities and no polluting heavy industries nearby or
in the path of prevailing winds for the Los Angeles, Montebello,
and Phoenix areas where sample collections took place. As noted
above, the residence-time for smokestack particulates in the
boundary layer, a few days at most, is too short for coal fly ash
to arrive from China via low-level transport, which takes longer
than 10 days (56).
Figure 5 shows the comparisons of the four sets of analyses of
HEPA air filter dust, normalized to barium, with corresponding
ratios of the average and range of European coal fly ash compositions from Moreno et al. (48) and from a suite of 12 investigated
by Suloway et  al. (55) that includes ten from the Illinois Basin
(USA), one from North Dakoda (USA) and one from Minnesota
(USA). Even though coal fly ash varies in composition according
to location, the data presented in Figure 5 show the great similarity between the four samples of HEPA filter dust and coal fly ash
compositional ranges. That great similarity is further evidence
in support of the following hypothesis: coal fly ash is likely the
principal aerosolized particulate sprayed in the troposphere by

jets for geoengineering, weather modification, and/or climate
alteration.
It follows logically that if aerosolized coal fly ash is the progenitor of the rainwater content of aluminum, barium, strontium,
and other elements by leaching, as evidence suggests (Figure 4),
then coal fly ash should be found trapped on HEPA air filters
(Figure 5) as the tropospheric air at spray-altitudes mixes with
the air we breathe (15).

Fibers Found after Snow Melted

In the spring of 2015 a citizen in Laona, Wisconsin (USA)
noticed that immediately after snow had melted a fibrous, sticky
mesh, initially flexible and sticky, covered the underlying grass
(Figure 6). Upon drying over a period of 24 h, the white fibrous
mesh became brittle; subsequent addition of water decomposed
the fibrous mesh into a black gelatinous mass. Samples of the
brittle white fibrous mesh were analyzed by inductively coupled
plasma mass spectrometry at Northern Lake Services, Inc. in
Crandon, Wisconsin. Of the 26 elements detected and measured
in the fibrous mesh, 23 had been measured by Moreno et al. (48)
in the non-leached coal fly ash European samples. Of the 22 element ratios relative to barium that are common to each data set,
11 are common to element ratios measured in HEPA air filter
dust and are shown with those ratios in Figure 5. Considering the
compositional variability in coal fly ash from different sources, it
is reasonable to conclude that the fibrous mesh ratios are essentially indistinguishable from ratios measured in the HEPA air
filter data and in turn are essentially indistinguishable from ratios
measured in non-leached coal fly ash. Figure 7 is a comparison of
the remaining 11 fibrous mesh ratios with corresponding ratios of

FIGURE 5 | Analyzed element ratios of dust collected on four high-efficiency air filters shown for comparison with the range of corresponding
element ratios and average values for 23 non-leached European coal fly ash samples (48) and element ratio ranges of 12 U.S. coal fly ash
samples (55). Also shown, 11 of 22 element ratios of fibrous mesh (Figure 6); remaining 11 element ratios are shown in Figure 7.

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FIGURE 6 | Photographs of fibrous mesh observed atop grass just as snow had melted showing its initially “sticky” nature. Photos by Robert West,
with permission.

FIGURE 7 | Remaining 11 of 22 analyzed element ratios of fibrous mesh found after snow had melted (Figure 6) shown for comparison with the
range of corresponding element ratios and average values for 23 non-leached European coal fly ash samples (48) and element ratio ranges of 12
U.S. coal fly ash samples (55). See Figure 5 for the other 11 of 22 element ratios of fibrous mesh.

the average and range of European coal fly ash compositions from
Moreno et al. (48) and American coal fly ash composition ranges
published by Suloway et al. (55). The great similarity observed in
the data plotted in Figure 7 further reinforces the assertion that
the composition of the white fibrous mesh is essentially identical
to that of coal fly ash.
Coal fly ash is electrostatically trapped as a powder that ranges
in color from tan to dark gray depending on composition, which
is consistent with observations of the dust trapped by HEPA air
filters, which is further consistent with the hypothesis that coal fly

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ash is sprayed from jet aircraft. So, how might one account for the
strikingly different appearance of the fibrous mesh morphology if
indeed it is, as evidence indicates, essentially identical in composition to coal fly ash? For the reasons and observations described
in the next section, the author posits potential circumstances in
which coal fly ash is sometimes exposed to jet fuel combustion,
which usually leads to aerosolized coal fly ash, but occasionally,
depending physical variables, leads to the production for fibers
instead. Viewed this way, the fibrous mesh provides an inferred
direct connection with the aerosolizing jet aircraft and also admits

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the possibility for further investigation of environmentally disastrous formation of methylmercury (CH3Hg) and/or the production of ozone-depleting chlorinated-fluorinated hydrocarbons in
the jet exhaust.

may combine with several organic complexes, especially oxalic,
humic, and fulvic acids. The metal may also combine with inorganic anions including sulfates, fluorides, phosphates, bicarbonates, or hydroxides, depending on their relative concentrations.
Biological activity and toxicity vary with composition and pH.
Generally, sulfates are less toxic than hydroxide or organically
bound aluminum; however, aqueous trivalent aluminum is considerably more active chemically and biologically (64). Soluble
aluminum is toxic to plants in a variety of ways, including
formation of root lesions (65) that may weaken the plant, making it vulnerable to disease, or may kill it outright. Coal fly ash
leaching studies reveal that even distilled water can solubilize
aluminum, but details of the mechanism have not been disclosed
(48, 55). The author posits that aerosolized coal fly ash directly
settled in soil or brought down in rainwater is damaging plants
both from soluble aluminum toxicity and from pH changes (14).
Exposure to air pollution particulates, not necessarily coal fly
ash, in sizes ≤2.5 μm in diameter – often designated PM2.5 – is
especially detrimental to human health (66). Although the specific mechanisms are not well known, epidemiological studies are
beginning to reveal some of the adverse consequences of such
exposures. As noted above, exposure to PM2.5 has been shown to
be associated with increased hospital admissions (32), morbidity
and premature mortality (33–35), risk for cardiovascular disease
(36) and lung cancer (37), lung inflammation and diabetes (38),
risk for stroke (39), Alzheimer’s disease (40, 41), onset of asthma
(42), renal function in older men (43), low birth weight (44), and
reduced male fertility (45). One may therefore reasonably conclude that aerosolized coal fly ash, at least the PM2.5 component,
is harmful to human health.
Coal fly ash occurs with grain sizes down to ~0.1  μm in
diameter (67). In principle, extracting an ultra-fine fraction of
coal fly ash is relatively simple and inexpensive using cyclone classifiers (separators). Certainly, such an ultra-fine fraction would
be advantageous for aerial spraying due to added loft time. But
there is a serious downside: the toxic elements of coal fly ash tend
to be concentrated in the ultra-fine fraction (55). It is not known
whether this mechanism for producing ultra-fine enrichment is
being used for the covert tropospheric emplacement, but if it is,
then that component would be even more toxic than typical coal
fly ash.
The toxins in coal fly ash make that substance especially injurious to human health. The small particle size of aerosolized coal fly
ash (PM2.5) enables particulate intake through inhalation, ingestion, and induction through eyes or skin (68). When inhaled,
PM2.5 particles can penetrate and become trapped in terminal
airways and alveoli, and retained for long periods of time. Here, it
can cause inflammation and injury through antagonistic contact
(69), through in  situ toxin release by body moisture (70), and
through ionizing radiation from uranium, thorium, and their
radioactive daughter products found in coal fly ash (71). Coal fly
ash has been described as being more radioactive than nuclear
waste (72).
Coal fly ash is able to liberate a host of toxins through
exposure to body moisture (70), including aluminum, arsenic,
barium, boron, cadmium, chromium, lead, lithium, selenium,
strontium, thallium, and thorium and uranium with their

DISCUSSION
The analytical results reported for rainwater (Figure 4), airborne
particulates collected on HEPA air filters (Figure  5), and the
fibrous mesh (Figures 4 and 6) stand as evidence that coal fly ash
is the principal material emplaced in the troposphere for ongoing, covert geoengineering, weather modification, and/or climate
alteration. For more precise information, future experiments
should sample airborne particulates at the altitude in which they
are being dispersed into the atmosphere. Alternatively, the nature
of the substances being sprayed into the air people breathe may be
sought through the process of judicial discovery in legal proceedings such as recently initiated in Canada (27).

Biotic and Public Health Consequences of
Tropospheric Spraying

The ultra-fine particles of aerosolized coal fly ash do not long
remain at the altitudes they are emplaced in the troposphere. The
particles mix with and pollute the air people breathe (15) and
contaminate the soil with toxic, soluble aluminum. The coal fly
ash also causes pH changes in the soil. Aluminum is an abundant element in Earth’s crust, but typically it is tightly bound to
oxygen and other elements. Earth’s biota evolved without adapting defense mechanisms for soluble aluminum compounds.
Tropospheric aerosolized coal fly ash poses environmental
health threats from aluminum similar to those posed by acid
rain, but without necessarily requiring an acid environment. The
pH of coal fly ash varies and can be acidic or basic depending
on its coal source. Eastern USA bituminous coal fly ash, for
example, has been found to be acidic with pH in the range of
4.3–4.9 (58), whereas coal fly ash from the Western USA tends
to be more basic, with pH in the range 8.16–12.4 according to
one study (59). Uncontaminated natural rainwater has an acidic
pH of about 5.7 due to interaction with atmospheric CO2 (60);
however, an acidic pH is not a required to leach toxins from coal
fly ash. In the experiments on European coal fly ash samples by
Moreno et  al. (48), distilled water led to aluminum extraction
while other chemicals extracted led to leachate pH values in the
range 6.2–12.5.
Before action was taken to prevent acid rain (61), chemically
mobile aluminum, which is soluble in water, was released into
the environment from geological sources, such as mine tailings,
and caused serious adverse effects on forests. Forest die-backs
in North America were attributed to aluminum toxicity. These
blighted forests included balsam fir, Fraser fir, loblolly pine, red
spruce, slash pine, and sugar maples (54). Whereas reductions
in NOx and SO2 emissions have seriously reduced the acid rain
threat, there is a global decline in large old trees (62) and particularly in the Western USA (63). The biochemical–­geochemical
cycling of aluminum is complex. Its dissolved form is most readily assimilated by living organisms. Once in solution, aluminum

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radioactive daughter products, and other toxins. Each one
of these can have adverse human health consequences, but in
combination their synergistic effects may be even more deleterious. Moreover, Haber’s Rule or some more general concentration
versus exposure-time relationship may be expected in certain
instances where a lower concentration for a long time exposure
is approximately equivalent to a higher concentration exposure
for a short period of time (16).
The extent of physiological damage from tropospheric coal
fly ash is a function of a variety of factors including concentration and exposure duration, as well as the individual’s age,
physical condition, and individual susceptibility. Generally,
the most at-risk individuals are pregnant women, children, the
elderly, and those with compromised immune and respiratory
systems. The fetuses of pregnant women exposed to inorganic
arsenic from coal fly ash are at risk as arsenic can crossover the
placenta. Arsenic can be involved with hypertension-related
cardiovascular disease (73), cancer (74), diabetes (75), respiratory diseases (76), and stroke (74). Moreover, arsenic is just one
of the numerous toxic elements of coal fly ash that are released
by water and by body fluids. Another component, chromium
VI, which comprises an estimated 10% of the chromium content
of coal fly ash, is not only cytotoxic for lungs and kidneys but
is also a carcinogen with the ability to cause lung cancer (77).
These examples are just snippets of a vast array of debilitating
conditions that can potentially arise from human exposure to
aerosolized coal fly ash.
Although aluminum is abundant in Earth’s continental crust,
comprising about 8%, it is tightly bound within minerals, and
thus is essentially insoluble, i.e., immobile. But coal fly ash is
an unnatural product whose aluminum is not so tightly bound.
Aluminum in coal fly ash can be extracted in a chemically mobile
(soluble) form by water or in situ by body fluids (70). Aluminum
is implicated in neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s, autism
spectrum disorder (ASD), Parkinson’s, and attention-deficit
disorder (ADHD) (49, 51, 78–80), all of which have increased
markedly in recent years. Moreover, aluminum is thought to
reduce fertility in men (81) and is implicated in neurological
disorders of bees and other creatures (82–84).
As might be expected of a covert operation, there have been
no public disclosures identifying the principal substance being
sprayed, no informed consent, no health warnings, and no serious investigation of the adverse health consequences. The data
described here, however, provide strong evidence that the main
aerosolized substance being sprayed is coal fly ash; public health
inferences can be drawn from extent literature, some of which is
cited herein. These citations only provide glimpses of the potential
risks involved, but they are sufficient to suggest the possibility of
a multi-dimensional global public health crisis, a slow pandemic
in the making.

troposphere: (1) blowing or pumping the powder through nozzles; and (2) dumping large quantities of the powder for the winds
to spread. The evidence of a fibrous form of coal fly ash disclosed
here presents the possibility of a third dispersing mechanism, one
that may pose yet further public health risks.
The author can envision no practical reason for coal fly
ash to be deliberately converted into an aerial fibrous form.
Moreover, the fibrous form is only sporadically observed,
which suggests it is the result of the occasional failure of a
specific dispersing mechanism for particulate spray. This fiberproducing mechanism is different in that it involves a heat
source, necessary to liquefy the material that generates fibers, a
progenitor matrix that may contain additives in addition to coal
fly ash, and a motive-mechanism for elongating the liquid into
fibers. One known mechanism for producing fibers is to inject
a liquid into a blowing stream of air, which causes elongation
(85, 86). In principle, fluid drops of coal fly ash and its additives when subjected to the high speed jet combustion exhaust
under appropriate physical conditions may be lengthened to
form fibers. Two potential processes come to mind that might
result in coal fly ash being exposed to jet fuel combustion
temperatures: (1) the coal fly ash powder, which may contain
dispersion-assisting additives, is injected into the proximity of
the jet engine combustion chamber, or (2) the coal fly ash is
suspended in the jet fuel, possibly added along with a surfactant
at the refinery or fuel distribution center.
The exposure of coal fly ash to the jet fuel combustion environment has further – and perhaps unanticipated – global public
health consequences.
As is well known, coal fly ash contains mercury (87–91) in
concentrations of 0.1–1.1 μg/g, which may be expected to pollute the environment with mercury as the aerosolized coal fly
ash settles to the surface or is brought down by precipitation.
Mercury is readily volatile; the possibility should be considered
that at elevated temperatures in the presence of copious hydrocarbons, such as are found in the jet fuel combustion environment,
conceivably, toxic methylmercury (CH3Hg) might form, and be
released into the environment. This could explain the methylmercury recently discovered in California fog (92). To the author’s
knowledge, this explanation has not been previously considered,
and the author could not find either experimental verification or
theoretical justification in the scientific literature. Experimental
verification should be relatively straightforward. In addition,
those who measure methylmercury in fog might look for other
toxic gases that might have been produced from coal fly ash at
elevated temperatures in the presence of copious hydrocarbons
in the jet fuel combustion environment. One possibility that
comes to mind is arsine, AsH3, but there may be others; this is an
unexplored potential area of investigation.
Coal fly ash contains readily volatile chlorine, ca. 200 μ/g (93),
and fluorine, ca. 225  μ/g (94). At elevated temperatures in the
presence of copious hydrocarbons, such as are found in the jet
fuel combustion environment, conceivably chlorine and fluorine
might react to form chlorinated-fluorinated hydrocarbons capable
of damaging Earth’s ozone layer (95, 96). This could explain the
observed post-Montreal Protocol emissions of those ozone-layerdamaging compounds (97). But, as in the case of methylmercury,

Potential Unforeseen Hazards Inferred
from Fibrous Mesh

From observations, photographic and video evidence, patent
literature, and airline pilots’ statements there appears to be
two main methods for dispersing the particulate matter in the

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Dangers Posed by Weather Modification

experimental verification is extremely important because of the
potentially profound implications.

particulate emplaced in the troposphere for geoengineering,
weather modification and/or climate alteration purposes. The
rainwater element ratios show that the aerial particulate matter
has essentially the same water-leach characteristics as coal fly ash.
The HEPA air filter dust element ratios occur in the same range
of compositions as coal fly ash, as do the element ratios in fibrous
mesh found on grass after snow melted.
The documented public health associations for PM2.5 particulate pollution are also applicable to aerosolized coal fly ash, which
is similar in grain size. These associations include increased hospital admissions, morbidity and premature mortality, low birth
weight, lung inflammation and diabetes, risk for cardiovascular
disease, lung cancer, lung inflammation and diabetes, risk for
stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, onset of asthma, renal function in
older men, and reduced male fertility.
The ability of coal fly ash to release aluminum in a chemically mobile form upon exposure to water or body moisture has
potentially grave human and environmental consequences over a
broad spectrum, including implications for neurological diseases,
reduced male fertility, neurological disorders of bees and other
creatures, and biota debilitation.
The ability of coal fly ash to release heavy metals and radioactive elements upon exposure to body moisture has potentially
grave human health implications over a broad spectrum, including, but not limited to, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes,
respiratory diseases, and stroke.
Toxic methylmercury and ozone-damaging chlorinated-­
fluorinated hydrocarbons, the author posits, may be produced
from certain types of tropospheric spraying that places coal fly
ash in the jet-fuel combustion environment. Experimental verification is warranted.
From a geophysical perspective, coal fly ash sprayed in the
troposphere warms the atmosphere, blocks heat from Earth radiating back into space, and retards rainfall, which can artificially
elevate atmospheric pressures that can block incoming weather
fronts, further leading to drought conditions. If anything this
activity contributes to global warming, the purpose of this
covert activity is unknown to the scientific community and to
the public. The time has come for the scientific community and
especially the environmental science and public health communities to understand that a multiplicity of toxic substances
is being sprayed into the air breathed by people in many parts
of the world and that it will adversely affect virtually all life on
Earth.

Geophysical Considerations

Within the academic community, there has been some debate as
to whether substances emplaced high in the stratosphere will have
the intended result of cooling Earth to counteract global warming
(18). There is no debate, however, in the open scientific literature
on the efficacy of the ongoing covert tropospheric emplacement
of aerosolized particulate matter. There should be. Geophysical
considerations provide a basis for that discussion.
Although there is no open (unclassified) scientific literature
on aerosolized coal fly ash, there are some published articles on
the effects of carbon/soot particles. Although coal fly ash may be
less efficient than carbon black, generally its effects are similar.
Coal fly ash sprayed into the troposphere is expected to inhibit
radiation from Earth into space and to heat the atmosphere (98).
Coal fly ash particles, settling atop glaciers, will aid in their melting (99).
In copious amounts aerosolized coal fly ash particles, like
other pollution particulates, will inhibit rainfall by preventing the
smaller water droplets from coalescing and growing large enough
to form raindrops (see footnote text 15). Moreover, coal fly ash is
hygroscopic. Having formed under anhydrous conditions, it traps
water droplets, further inhibiting rainfall. Furthermore, the particulate pollution heats the atmosphere (by absorbed solar energy)
and retards heat loss form Earth; consequently, this produces an
artificial increase in local atmospheric pressure, which blocks
incoming weather fronts, additionally limiting rainfall. Rather
than cooling Earth, aerosolized coal fly ash enhances global
warming. It also has potentially devastating effects on habitats,
including agriculture, from changes in natural weather patterns,
from changes in soil pH, and from multiple toxic substances that
derive from the coal fly ash.
For at least 15  years, covert weather/climate modification
activities have been taking place that involve spraying pollutant
particles into the troposphere as observed by many thousands of
individuals (see footnote text 2–14). Yet none of the consequences
of this near-global weather/climate modification activity has been
taken into account by any of the climate change models evaluated by the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC), which calls into question their validity.
As a weapon aerosolized coal fly ash can be used to cause
droughts and concomitant livestock deaths and human starvation. Worse, as discussed above, coal fly ash is a multi-component
environmental public health hazard, a slow pandemic that may
already be evident in the observed increase in neurological
diseases.

AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and
approved it for publication.

CONCLUSION

FUNDING

The research results reported here provide strong evidence for
the author’s hypothesis: coal fly ash is likely the aerosolized

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Only internal funding, no extramural funding.

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Conflict of Interest Statement: The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be
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