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Observatoire Metropolitain Hydrologie Urbaine PAP .pdf

Nom original: Observatoire Metropolitain Hydrologie Urbaine PAP.pdf
Titre: Observatoire Metropolitain Hydrologie Urbaine PAP
Auteur: Evens EMMANUEL

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Université Quisqueya
Laboratoire de Qualité de
l’Eau et de l’Environnement

Metropolitan Observatory in Urban
Hydrology of Port-au-Prince

Proposal of cooperation

B.P. 796
Port-au-Prince, Haïti
Téléphone : (509) 221 – 4516
Fax : (509) 221 – 4211
e-mail : ,

Port-au-Prince, octobre 2004

The bay of Port-au-Prince represents a narrow zone of 15 km wide. All the watersheds around the city
end at the bay, which becomes thus the natural receptacle of all rain and domestic untreated wastewater
(Emmanuel et al., 2004a). However, these waters carry along household wastes, sludge from pit latrine
and sewage matters, which contribute largely to the pollution of the bay (Emmanuel et Azaël, 1998). The
impact of urban wastewater on aquatic ecosystems is reported in the literature (Dyer, 2003). Indeed, the
discharge of contaminants in natural water bodies pose a significant concern to water quality and to the
health of aquatic organisms. The environmental hazards generated by wastewater on water quality is not
merely due to the varied types of pollutants that impact these systems, but also to the many ways that
pollutants can affect the health of aquatic organisms (Adams and Greeley, 2000). The marine ecosystem
of Port-au-Prince is thus liable to suffer locally very serious damages caused by the direct discharge of
noxious and toxic effluents (MTPTC, 1998).

Previous studies on Port-au-Prince untreated wastewater showed important concentrations (1300 mg/L)
of COD. Concentration of 1670 µgPb/L has been detected in Port-au-Prince urban wastewater. Since karst
is the main geological characteristic of the region, and there is any treatment plant for wastewater in
Haiti, there is a huge possibility for lead to be transferred into the groundwater. Indeed, the karstic
system allows a rapid and turbulent recharge and drainage into aquifer (Denić-Jukić and Jukić, 2003).
Especially as rainwater, bearing atmospheric particles of heavy metals (lead by example) from industries
or motor vehicles, is an important source of waters contamination (Cabrera et al., 1995). Indeed,
important concentration of lead ranged from 40 to 90 µg/L (Emmanuel et al., 2004b) were measured in
groundwater and 250 µgPb/L had been detected in a public drinking water tank (Angerville et al., 2004).
In order to protect human health and natural ecosystem against the harmful effects of rain and domestic
untreated water, it seems important to develop a new management system of urban water in Port-auPrince. In this context, the Laboratory of the Quality of Water and the Environment of Quisqueya
University proposes the implementation of an outdoor laboratory untitled “Metropolitan Observatory
of Urban Hydrology in Port-au-Prince”.

This aim of this observatory is to acquire reliable data on urban tropical effluents and to study their
impact on natural ecosystem, in order to provide results, knowledge, and methodologies to assess the
sustainability of urban water system and to propose some support for operational decision making.

A multidisciplinary approach will be developed in the following fields: Climatology, Hydrology,








Ecotoxicology, Risk assessment.

Research actions linked to end-users needs will be oriented on:
Hydraulic and pollutants loads in urban catchments during dry and wet weather;
Rainfall distribution;
Impact of discharges on soils, waterbodies & aquifers
Risk assessment of dredged sediments from the open channels of Port-au-Prince combined sewers
Development of strategies for sustainable urban water management

Instruments of observation
The experimental methods will be based on monitoring systems, with on-line monitoring sensors and
samplers, dedicated to the global assessment of rainfall and urban wastewater impact. Experimental
catchments in Port-au-Prince agglomeration will be selected in order to assess the impacts on:
Urban and peri-urban areas,
Public combined sewers systems,
Private separate sewers systems,
Retention and infiltration tanks (artificial refills),
Impacts on watercourses and aquifers.

The observatory will be coordinate by the Laboratory of the Quality of Water and the Environment of
Quisqueya University, in collaboration with FDS and FAMV of the State University of Haïti

Adams S.M. and Greeley M.S. (2000) Ecotoxicological indicators of water quality using multi-response
indicators to assess the health of aquatic ecosystems. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 123:103-115.
Angerville R., Emmanuel E., Rony F.J., Balthazard K., Joseph O., Perrodin Y. (2004) Assessment
of human exposures to lead in drinking water. Proceedings of XXIX Inter-American Congress of Sanitary
and Environmental Engineering, San Juan, Porto Rico, August 22-27, 2004. CDROM.
Cabrera C., López M.C., Gallego C., Lorenzo M.L. and Lillo E. (1995) Lead contamination levels in
potable, irrigation and waste waters from an industrial area in Southern Spain; The Science of the Total
Environment, 159:17-21.

Carré J.C. (1997) Etude de l’impact des peintures laques et vernis sur l’environnement et la santé.
Ministère de l’Environnement & OPS/OMS, Port-au-Prince, 50 p.
Denić-Jukić V. and Jukić D. (2003) Composite transfer functions for karst aquifers; Journal of
Hydrology, 274:80-94.
Dyer S.D., Peng C., McAvoy D.C., Fendinger N.J., Masscheleyn P., Castillo L.V., Lim J.M.U.
(2003) The influence of untreated wastewater to aquatic communities in the Balatium River, the
Philippines. Chemosphere, 52:43-53.
Emmanuel E. and Azaël A. (1998) Les eaux usées et le développement économique en Haïti : crises et
réponses. Actes de la Conférence Internationale de l’UNESCO 3-6 juin 1998 « l’eau : une crise imminente,
UNESCO PHI, ed. Zebidi, Technical Documents in Hydrology no. 18, pp. 279-285.
Emmanuel E., Perrodin Y., Théleys K., Mompoint M., Blanchard J-M. (2004a) Environmental


of untreated

urban wastewater on the

ecosystem of Port-au-Prince bay.

Proceedings of XXIX Inter-American Congress of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, San Juan, Porto
Rico, August 22-27, 2004. CDROM.
Emmanuel E., Perrodin Y., Fanfan P.N., Vermande P. (2004b) Impact of hospital wastewater on
groundwater quality in Port-au-Prince and human health risk assessment for drinking water consumer.
Proceedings of XXIX Inter-American Congress of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, San Juan, Porto
Rico, August 22-27, 2004. CDROM.
MTPTC (Ministère des Travaux Publics, Transports, Communication) (1998) Schéma directeur
d’assainissement pour la région métropolitaine de Port-au-Prince. Le Groupement SCP-GERSAR/SNCLAVALIN/LGL S.A, Port-au-Prince.

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