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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MANAGEMENT
N

MARITIME AND
INLAND WATERWAYS
OBSERVATORY
OF CAMBODIA

IN TR O DU C T I ON

Marine and inland waters are fundamental to all aspects of human and economic development, encompassing major sectors
in the world economy. According to UNEP, half the world's population lives within 60 km of the sea, and three-quarters
of all large cities are located on the coast. Seaborne trade accounts for 89.6% of global trade in terms of volume and 70.1%
in terms of value (Hoffmann J, and Kumar S., 2010). Furthermore, the world fish consumption increased from 9.9 kg per
capita in 1960 to 19.2kg per capita in 2012 (FAO, 2012).
The water resources are of particular importance for the countries in the Mekong region. The estimated length of the Mekong
River is 4,350 km (Liu S. et al., 2009) and it drains an area of 795,000 km2 (307,000 sq mi), discharging 457 km3 (110 cu mi)
of water annually (MRC, 2010). Sharing this common source between riparian governments is a major challenge and each
state should have a good idea about the economic opportunities, as well as the explicit and implicit value of its water resources.
Cambodia is one of the few countries in the world where the inland fisheries are more exploited than the Marine fisheries
and aquaculture. 86% of Cambodia’s Territory (156 000 Km2) is in the Mekong River Basin. The Tonlé Sap lake, situated
in the heart of Cambodia, is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia and is an ecological hot spot that was designated a
UNESCO biosphere in 1997. According to MRC, the lake is a major source of income and livelihood for about 1.2
million people.
The development of the maritime and inland waterway transport, and the infrastructure of the ports, is important for the
competitiveness of the country in terms of trade capacity. According to the international chamber of shipping, around 86%
of the total world trade is carried by sea. Since 2009, the container traffic through the Cambodian ports has increased
32.4% (World Bank, 2013). Important issues in water transport need a careful analysis, such as the sector’s value added, sustainability and performance, as well as the efficiency of the Cambodian ports compared to others in the region.
Considering these important issues, in 2013 the National University of Management launched the sub-project “Achieving
Research Sustainability in the National University of Management: Setting-up a National Inland Waterways / Maritime Socioeconomic Activities Observatory”.

|2|

THE OB SE RVATO RY
The sub-project of the creation of Socioeconomic Observatory is within the scope of the World Bank’s Higher Education
Quality Capacity Improvement Project (HEQCIP). HEQCIP aims to improve the quality of teaching, management, and research in project-supported entities, and pilot the targeting of disadvantaged students for enhanced access and retention.
The main goal of Maritime and Inlands Waterways Observatory of Cambodia is to provide reliable information
about water transport and fishing activities in order to improve knowledge and support decision makers, private companies,
NGOs and academic institutions. An international team of researchers, professors, experts and interns are working on data
collection, writing reports and creating partnerships with different stakeholders.
The Observatory has the scientific support of
the Nantes’ University (France) where the National Maritime and Coastal Observatory of
Gascogne’ Bay is based.This partnership
consists of scientific expertise, internship
programs and supervision by experts from
the University of Nantes.
The sub-project is implemented with the generous collaboration of the Department of
Higher Education (Ministry of Education,
Youth and Sport). Another official partner is
the Cambodian branch of Maersk, one of the
world’s largest shipping companies. A representative of the company gave a presentation
about the maritime transport issues on the
world, regional and local level to NUM’s PhD
students and researchers.

The signing of MoU with the University of Nantes by Pr. Olivier Laboux, President of the University
of Nantes and HE Dr. Hor Peng, Rector of NUM.

Moreover, the Observatory maintains good collaboration with numerous stakeholders such as Fisheries Administration, Ministry of Commerce, Phnom Penh Autonomous Port, Sihanoukville Autonomous Port, CMA-CGM, Ministry of Public
Works and Transport, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Planning, European Delegation, JICA, Open Development
Cambodia, FACT, CAMFFA and the French Embassy. Experts from these organizations attended many events and conducted
a number of continuous trainings in order to increase the research capacity at NUM and present the major challenges and
issues in the sectors of fisheries and water transport.

|3|

|4|
80

88
19
80
19
82
19
84
19
86
19
88
20
00
20
02
20
04
20
06
20
08
20
10
20
12

19

86

19

84

19

82

19

19

in thousand tonnes

Aquaculture type in Cambodia

100

80

60

40

20

0

Years

Brackishwater
Freshwater
Marine

Trophic Level

1950

Source : FAO 2014

1960
Inland waters

1970

1980

1990
2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1989

1988

1987

1986

1985

1984

1983

1982

1981

1980

1979

1978

1977

1976

1975

1974

1973

1972

1971

in thousand tons
700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

Marine areas

Trophic Level

4,4
4,2
4,0
3,8
3,6
3,4
3,2
3,0
2,8
2,6

2000

|5|

|6|

Quality of ports infrastructure in Southeast Asia (2014)

Total containers troughput (2005-2014)
400000
350000
300000
250000
200000
150000
100000
50000
0

2005

2006

2007

2008

209

PPAP, total containers troughput

2010

2011

2012

2013

PAS, total containers troughput

2014

Vietnam
Thailand
Singapore
Philippines
Malaysia
Myanmar
Cambodia
Indonesia
Hong Kong SAR, China
China
0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

|7|

A IM S   O F   T HE  OB S ERVATORY

Maritime and Inland Waterways Observatory of Cambodia is set as an independent research body attached to NUM,
dedicated to conducting regular analysis on the trends and development of the Water Transport, Fisheries and Aquaculture.
The aims of the Observatory are as follows:

• Consolidate the research at the National University of Management (NUM)
• Collect data from various sources and organizations
• Produce annual reports regarding the sectors of Fisheries and Aquaculture, and Water Transport
• Share data, information and reports with everyone
• Create partnerships with different stakeholders in terms of data collection, research proposal and
joint work on different projects

• Support and involve students and researchers by providing them with data and information
• Organize different conferences and workshops in order to develop the research capacity of NUM
The main objective of the Observatory is to collect and share data. Currently, we have very good collaboration with
major stakeholders in the sector of fisheries and water transport. They attended some of the conferences and workshops organized within the framework of the World Bank’s project. Moreover, the Observatory aims to play a key role in strengthening the research capacity at NUM

Conference on Maritime Issues, NUM, February, 21, 2015 H.E. Jean-Claude
POIMBOEUF and H.E. Dr. Yuok NGOY

|8|

PA RT NE R SHIPS
The Observatory is seeking partners in order to conduct
socioeconomic analysis of the sectors of Fisheries and
Water Transport. We will work on:

Data collection

Collection of micro and macro data. The private data and
information will be kept strictly confidential and will be aggregated. We will use their mean for our analyses.

Socioeconomic analyses

As an independent scientific center, the Observatory will
have the capacity to clearly transmit the important issues in
the relevant sectors to the decision makers. Our analyses
will be based on facts and reliable information.

Joint work on specific projects

In order to ensure the sustainability of the Observatory, we
are looking for organizations that are willing to work with
us on specific research projects. We will seek funding from
different international, public and non-governmental organizations in order to finance our future activities. Anyone
who has an interesting proposal or research project, and
considers the Observatory to be a valuable partner, is welcome to contact us.

The signing of MoU With Maersk Line Cambodia by Mrs. Lam Bui, country
manager of Maersk Line Cambodia and HE Dr. Hor Peng, Rector of NUM.

Facilitate the dialogue

The observatory aims to improve the cooperation between
the stakeholders in the sector of fisheries and maritime
transport by organizing many events with them. As an academic research center, we will provide reports based on
reliable data and information from our partners.

The team of the Maritime and Inland Waterways Observatory of Cambodia

We will highlight the major issues and possibilities in the relevant sectors. This information will be transmitted to the public
and international institutions.
The existence of Maritime and Inland Waterways Observatory is not possible without close partnership with the stakeholders.
Those who provide data and reliable information can expect many benefits in return such as:

Conduct specific surveys

In the future the Observatory will collect primary data in the field. Our partners may even solicit the research unit to conduct
specific surveys and analyses. If the Observatory’s team estimates that the proposal is relevant, a team of high qualified res
earchers will be assigned. Each one will have an appropriate academic background and professional experience.

Reliable Analyses

Our partners will be regularly approached in order to have a clear idea about their challenges, difficulties and opportunities.
Our regular reports will be adapted to their needs.

Cooperation with NUM and the University of Nantes

Furthermore, our partners could establish valuable contacts within the National University of Management in Phnom Penh
and the University of Nantes and propose specific bachelor and master degrees programmes. They will also have access to
human resources (Master internships, PhD or post-doctoral students, senior researchers) and they could hire highly qualified
interns and graduates from these universities.

Corporate image and social responsibility

Future partnerships will benefit the Observatory’s partners in terms of corporate image and social involvement. The project
aims to contribute to the sustainable development, economic growth, and efficient use of natural resources of Cambodia.
This is a unique Observatory in Cambodia, and even the larger South-East Asian region, and it will attract the attention of
media and international organizations. By their active participation, our partners will have the opportunity to clearly show
their commitment to the welfare and progress of Cambodia to a large audience.

|9|

P E R SP E C T IVE S

An international team of students, researchers and experts from the University of Nantes and the National University of
Management are committed to sustaining the Maritime and Inland Waterways Observatory financially and institutionally. To achieve this objective, the Observatory’s team will increase its human and scientific capacity to produce regularly reliable and useful reports on the sector of fisheries and water transport. In order to disseminate by interactive and
simple ways the collected data and reports, we will work constantly on the improvement of our website.
An important issue is finding additional funds from public, international and non-governmental organizations, however, in
order to finance our activities. The support of the stakeholders is key to the success of the Observatory. We will create more partnerships with different organizations in order to collect data and implement new research projects, case studies and primary data collection.
The Observatory aims to strengthen the research capacity of the National University of Management. More
Cambodian and international experts and interns will be involved in our activities. We believe that the development of the
research will increase the quality of teaching at NUM and improve the skills of students.
The Observatory will also analyse the issues of the fisheries and water transport in the entire Asian sub-region. We will
conduct country comparison through creation of composite indicators, dash-boards and other techniques in order to observe the trends in the long and short run. We hope that our activities will help contribute to the sustainable and inclusive
growth of the Royal Kingdom of Cambodia.

| 10 |

S OU R C E S
Data provided by the Fisheries Administration
Data provided by the Phnom Penh Autonomous Port
David S. “Illegal Fishing Battle Heats up, (2014)”. Phnom Penh Post: http://www.phnompenhpost.com/national/illegalfishing-battle-heats
Food and Agriculture Organization, Fish Stat: http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/software/fishstat/en
Hap, N. et al. (2012). “Quantitative Values of Fish in Relation to Other Natural and Agricultural Resources”. Inland Fisheries
Research Development Institute, World Fish Center.
Hoffmann J., Kumar S. (2010) “Globalization – the Maritime Nexus”, The Handbook of Maritime Economics and Business,
2nd Edition, Lloyds List: 35-65.
Mekong River Commission (2010). "State of the Basin Report, 2010".
S. Liu, P. Lu, D. Liu, P. Jin & W. Wang (2009). "Pinpointing source and measuring the lengths of the principal rivers of the
world". International Journal of Digital Earth: 80–87.
Sea Around Us Project data: http://www.seaaroundus.org/
Sihanoukville Autonomous Port data: http://www.pas.gov.kh/
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. “Review of Maritime Transport, 2014”, United Nations Publications,
Sales no. E.14.II.D.5,
World Bank Open Data: http://data.worldbank.org/

“A dream becomes a goal when action is taken toward its
achievement.” — Bo Bennett

| 11 |

MARITIME AND INLAND WATERWAYS OBSERVATORY OF CAMBODIA

STEERING COMMITTEE:





Dr. Hor Peng
Dr. Yves Perraudeau
Dr. Kang Sovannara
Dr. Ly Sok Heng

SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL:

RESEARCH UNIT:
















Dr. Hor Peng
Pr. Patrice Guillotrau
Pr. Thomas Vallée
Dr. Yves Perraudeau
Dr. Kang Sovannara
Dr. Ly Sok Heng
Mr. Hisham Mousar

Pr. Thomas Vallée
Dr. Yves Perraudeau
Mr. Nikola Kutin
Ms. Céline Francq
Mr. Nicolas Sonnette
Mr. Etienne Guignard

ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT:

IT UNIT:









Mr. Chea Rathanak
Ms. Chhy Channa
Mrs. Horn Saosamphors

Mr. Sok Monirath
Mr. Pierrick Jarry
Mr. Theo Cesbron

Contact:
miw_observatory@num.edu.kh
012568431
012286682
Adress:

National University of Management, St.96 Christopher Howes, Bulding F - 4th floor - Room 17,

Website:

Khan Daun Penh, Phnom Penh
www.miwobservatory.org


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