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People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
Ammar Thelidji University of Laghouat
Faculty of Letters and Languages
Department of English

Reasons for unsuccessful
English learning in Algerian
universities
Dissertation Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of
"License
License" in the English Language.

Submitted by:

Supervised by:

- Benaili Mohamed Reda

-Mr
Mr. Abdelkrim belhadj

2013/2014

Table of Contents
Introduction
1. Topic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

2. Subject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

3.Theme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

4.Rational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

5.Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

6.Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

7.Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

8.Review of literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

Chapter One: pedagogical factor
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.1. The

teachers effect on students achievement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2. The Students effect on their own

achievement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.3. Materials and curriculum effect on students achievement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. University

7

9

climate effect on students achievement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Chapter Two: social factor
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

2.1. Community

12

effect on students achievement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2. Parents

effect on students achievement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.3. Friends

effect on students achievement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

Chapter Three: psychological factor
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

3.1. Personality

effect on students achievement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

3.2. Motivation

effect on students achievement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

effect on students achievement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

3.3. Anxiety

Questioner of students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

Conclusion

........................................................

19

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

INTORDUCTION:
Topic :
English language teaching and learning has increasingly gained a relevant portion
in the educational systems all over the world during the last decades In Algeria, English
starts to be learned at age of 13, which is regarded by many scholars to be the critical
age for language learning. At the age of 18 , the new ‘Baccalaureat’ holders enrolled in
English departments normally spend a period of three years study to graduate and
obtain the English ‘Licence’ degree. During this period students are normally assisted
and trained to become either English teachers in middle Schools or to carry on post
graduate studies at University upon an admission test. The first two years of graduation
aim at consolidating the basis of the language already acquired in Secondary Schools.
Therefore, the modules students are concerned with deal mainly with the teaching of
the target language system and skills: listening comprehension ,reading comprehension
grammar, written expression, oral expression ,literature , ESP, Research Methodology,
phonetics, linguistics, in addition to the Arabic language and Frensh . Also british and
American civilisation and literature are taught in the second, and third year.To summ
up, english has effected the learning of students in every possbile aspect. Also ,the
Algerian universities have dealt with every aspect of various cultures.

Subject :
English language seems to be a challenging effort for arabic students whose goal is
mestring excellent English. One can easily notice that students in Algeria are much
influenced by different sources of attitudes. Students in university tend to have one or
more of the following weaknesses: Lack of academic skills, Lack of college survival
skills, Limited vision, Cognitive and linguistic incompetence, the lack of strategy use
and exploration, poor performances in the exams and so on. Deep and serious
investigations conducted by many scholars claim that there are different factors which

decides the success or failure of learners. Language acquisition and language learning
are among the topics that gave birth to a heated debate among Psychologists and
applied linguists. This predicament which effects the student performance can be an
obstacle for his success in university and cause an obstruction in his future
development.

Theme :
This paper examines the factors behind the low performance of a big number of
Algerian English learners at their universities despite their high motivation to learn that
language. we will address some of the primary factors that contribute to the
Unsuccessful English Learning in Algeria when attaining proficiency among 2L
learners. Some of them will be explicit and some will be implicit. According to some
researchers teaching materials, learning styles , syllabus outline are factors which has
much to do with unsuccessful language acquisition . On the other hand, others see that
pyscological factor like anxiety, lack of motivation , low self-confidence , pessimistic
Personality and so on , prevent individuals from learning a language . Also , socialists
say that Language learning is affected by other aspects such as society , parents ,
freinds , classmates , teachers , etc .we can see that psychological, social, and
Pedagogical factors plays a crucial role in language acquisition and Learning.

Rationale:
The purpose of this phenomenological study is to raise awareness of the
importance of the explicit and implicit socio-psychological Factors that influences
learning strategies for aiming to a better language achievement. What makes this study
significant is that identifying these factors has the potential to be useful in several
important ways. First, it can provide a foundation for helping students reflect their
own perceptions and expectations of university studies so that they can establish a
favourable learning environment. Second, it can provide a basis for helping lecturers
reflect their expectations of and about students so that they will be better informed

about ways they could facilitate student learning. Third, university administrators will
be able to help them enhance the influence of the positive factors. Which, minimizes
the impact of negative obstacles on student successfulness, and provide a learning
environment that will maximizes the chances those students to be successful in
colleges

Content:
With regard to purposes proposed for the current study, and in alignment with the
interest in studying the factors effecting students failure or success. This research
hopes to find answers to the following research questions:
1) What effect did teaching style, positive climate, collaborative learning,
parental support, and motivation and anxiety have on student ability to
learn?
2) What are the attitudes of the students towards learning English?
3) What is the relationship between the English success or failure and living
in Algerian society?

Hypothesis:
The leading hypothesizes to the making of this study are:
Ho1: The level of intelligence is not the only cause for the students deficiency. All of
pedagogical inconsistency, Social atmosphere, personal problems, and family
environment prohibited them from succeeding to their intellectual best.
Ho2: There is significant relationship between society and students academic
achievement.
Ho3: There is significant relationship between the psychological feature and students
academic accomplishment.

Methodology:
Based on the research literature and the actual situation of these less successful
students, a quantitative research is conducted and a questionnaire is designed. The
questionnaire in the present study consists its advantage in the descriptive statistics.
This study is concerned with first-year students at Ammar Thelidji University of
Laghouat. Fifty-two (52) of them were randomly chosen (20male and 32 female).
The student involved in this investigation are in the age group of 17 to 22 years old,
they are Baccalaureate holders from different streams (Life and Natural Sciences
,Humanities and foreign Languages) who learned the English language since
the first-year of foundation school, which makes a sum of seven-years before
entering university. As they come from government schools, they share roughly
the same educational background. Arabic is their mother tongue ،French is
their first foreign language and English is their second foreign language.
A two-section questionnaire was used to explore the students' attitudes and
opinions toward successful English learning. This question has been broken down
into 2 specific questions, Section A aimed at collecting background information
about the subjects (age, gender, specialty). Section B consists of 13 question of
reasons about language learning success and failure, which are arranged randomly.
The responses from the students will be analysed to sustain our hypothesizes and
then placed into categories. These categories were then used to create a set of 7
statements that described factors that might contribute to students' success and a
separate set of 6 statements that described factors that might contribute to students'
failure.

Review of literature:
As the present study has a socio-psychological and pedagogical direction, three
relevant approaches can be reviewed as the literature background. They are
sociological approach, Pedagogical approach and psychological approach. Researchers
have sought to identify possible causes of student failure. First, the Student failure is
defined as a situation in which the student cannot exploit his/her cognitive and
emotional resources resulting in a performance inferior to his/her capabilities (Gerou
1991; Kaila, Xanthakou & Andreadakis 1996). There are ample evidences in this field
that demonstrates the relationship between academic performance and various factors
that influences it such as: teaching strategies (Bartz & Miller 1991) , the students
motivation (Talbot 1990) , the students approach to studying (Meyer 1990) , the
interaction between students and the academic and the social systems of the university
(Tinto 1975) , cultural expectations (Ginsburg, 1992) , psychosocial factors
(mckenzie& Schweitzer 2001) and numerous other factors (Watkins 1984;Logan
1990; Jacobi 1991; Keef 1992; Minnaert & Janssen 1992) are likely to influence
students accomplishment at university . Furthermore , statistics from latest studies
reveals that the most important determinants are also among the non- school factors
such as: Gender , learners age , individual diversities , Community attitudes towards
English , Isolation and anxiety , cultural gap. All of this appears to have a strong
influence on academic success also as educational expenses, parental education,
income level, and housing condition have an effect on students achievement . These
previous studies are somewhat disjointed from each other, making it difficult to build
a soiled framework. What we proposed in this research is a comprehensive framework
including major recent educational literature studied in relation to academic success or
failure.

CHAPTER ONE: Pedagogical factors
Introduction:
This section focuses on a specific university climate and examines its relation to
students exposure to that distinct climate. The research and school communities
generally agree that university climate creates and exemplifies a particular set of norms
and values of a college. This climate influences teaching and learning programs and
practices. In addition, what teachers do in the classroom and how they interact with
students and other teachers can contribute significantly in the failure or success of the
students. Also, insufficient materials, unorganized curriculum, and lack of involvement
of the student can be the cause of university failure .This are important explicit factors
which have a great deal of contribution to the success or the failure of students in the
Algerian college.

1.1. The teachers effects on students achievement:
Students are not only influenced by their parents but also by their teachers.
Believing that these teachers are closer to them. Most of them experience positive
attitudes towards teachers who for instance, insert the first language, from time to time
in their teaching to foster the growth and development of the English language
learning through their own instruction in the classroom. The complex and multileveled
academic processes taking place in the classroom are widely influenced by factors like
reinforcement, feedback, stereotype imitation, transference or counter-transference
.Widdowson ( 1978, p.242 )(1)wrote that : “ The language teacher always has to know
about something other than language he is teaching. Traditionally, this knowledge
has been of the culture and literature associated with the particular language in
question. Thus, the English teacher is expected to know a good deal about British
and /or American institution, social customs, traditions and so on”. In addition to
positive attitudes, students sometimes show negative attitudes towards teachers. These

negative attitudes related to the teacher are so severe in university that many students
went to other universities or abandoned definitely their language learning. The teacherstudent relationship can make the learners be unsuccessful if the teacher has a Lack of
interest in students educational and scientific interest article. No positive spirit among
some teachers in guidance of students behaviours. Punish pupils by means other than
education, such as assigning some teachers to students over the duties of their
capabilities and the making of difficult exams and so on. In short, teachers personality,
their flexibility and ability to incorporate cultural norms and values, to be open to
social change as well as to new learning patterns. Their attitudes towards student
diversity, motivation or communication impediments can have an effect on the
students failure or success in the Algerian universities.

1.2. Learners effect on their own achievement:
Another factor that is well worth mentioning here is the learners performance,
which is thought to have a powerful effect on language learning. Brumfit (1979,
p.116)(2) mentioned

that : “The problem is that students and especially in the

developing countries , who have received several years of formal English teaching
frequently remain deficient in the ability to actually use the language ,to understand
its use , in normal communication , whether in the spoken or the written mode”. The
factures associated with the students success or failure which is controlled by the
learners extent of participation in university activities. Students deficiency, their
experiences, their methodology, as well as the degree of anxiety they experience are all
factors which leads to their failure. Also, low level of intelligence that the student get
for neglecting their studies and their inability to cope with their colleagues causes the
delay in the non-absorption and lack of understanding.

(1) : Widdowson , H.G (1978) .Teaching Language as Communication. Oxford University Press. Oxford
(2) : Brumfit, C.J. & Johnson, K .(1979). Communicative Approach to Language Teaching . Oxford University Press.
Oxford

In addition to all of the above, the occurrence of the absenteeism of students can lead
to a lack of knowledge, skills and inability to link pre-knowledge into new knowledge.
Additionally, instructional and classroom management techniques that work well with
some students do not necessarily work well on others. This failure of students is
sometimes done by themselves, which not enable them to concentrate fully in the
learning process

1.3. Materials and curriculum effect on students achievement:
Good lesson planning is essential to the process of teaching and learning . Content
should be of high quality and be culturally relevant. The difficulty of materials and
curriculum for students leads to lack of enthusiasm to education and escape from the
university. Teachers should be knowledgeable of the cultures in which their students
live so they can plan effective and engaging lessons . As a teacher, he must be
committed in spending the necessary time in this endeavour. It is also important to
realize that the best planned lesson is worthless if interesting delivery procedures,
along with good classroom management techniques, are not in evidence. There is a
large significance for classroom management in the students success or failure. These
students need an education that is founded in high standards and high expectations.
Curriculum alignment must exist to ensure that a rigorous curriculum and assessment
acompanny are aligned with the standers of higher education.

1.4. University climate effect on students achievement:
Pedagogical principles seems to have large impact on both teachers and learners
ability. Williams and Burden (1997, p.19) (1) consider that: “learning is influenced by
the situation in which it occurs”. Deficiency at this level influences negatively by
taking the teachers and learners motivation away. The Pedagogical deficiencies that
can be cited are as follows: Small number of hours devoted to English learning. Lack
of English postgraduate teachers. Lack of the correct application of the ministerial

Regulations relating to behaviour and attendance. Absence of coordination among
English teachers and Absence of teacher training in some universities. Large number
of learners in class and hours imposed to the teachers. The large class sizes they face
can make it harder to ask questions and generally mean they will have a less
interactive professor and learning environment. Less financial aid and lack of
audiovisual materials, book, computers and more strain on the support structures,
including advisors, tutors, computer labs and other equipment. Number of
examinations that makes the learners learns for the exam. No cooperation between the
collage administration and the students advisors and teachers in relation to the
behaviour of some universities, students are not working as a team. Thus, Objectives
of programs that do not correspond to the learners needs leads to the students revolt
and leaving instructions.

(1): Williams, M. & Burden, R.L .(1997). Psychology for Language Teachers a social Constructivist Approach.
Cambridge University Press. Cambridge

CHAPTER TWO: SOCIAL FACTOR
Introduction:
English learners attitudes toward university, peers, and the community can effect
their learning .We have established a bidirectional relationship between the parental
and social-contextual factors. Factors such as the quality home environment, and past
experiences with education are among the many factors that influences student
achievement. The present study also examines the influence of community culture on
student achievement. Adding up, the influence of the friends and their discouragement
or pessimism towards this target language. Factors specialized in areas of social life
can have an impact on the success or the failure of the university students.

2.1. Community effect on students achievement:
Each social class has its own limits, restrictions, expectations and stereotypes,
while it attempts to predetermine attitudes, values and social advancement for its
members. Self-concept refers to the internalization of students social image, developed
by social comparison of his/her achievement potential and affected by the acceptance
of the significant others. Positive self-concept increases effectiveness in university
becoming the driving force of personal and social development. While, negative selfconcept is considered a more valid prognostic factor of student failure. Class
restrictions are often mitigating by social networks, cultural influences, experiences,
context and compensatory education. The difference in academic performance among
students from different classes or groups (ethnic, racial, income) are referred to as the
achievement gap. In addition, Cultures of communities regardless of their location or
ethnicity provide the lenses through which school and leaning are viewed, valued, and
conducted . Students are not influenced only by their parents but also by their first
language. The speech sound that we articulate it as for word-for-word translation that,
some English learners translate literally from their mother tongue into English. The

traditions of the Algerian society does not promote English language as the same as
French. Thus, Culture surrounds us and provides the framework for our system of
values giving direction to all of our major life activities.

2.2. Parents effect on students achievement:
Parents are felt to be a crucial source of positive or negative attitudes. Their
positive attitudes towards the target language encourage and motivate their children,
but their negative attitudes do not. In some areas, parents and grandparents relate
foreign languages to historical events. English and mainly French are still considered
by some people to be the languages of enemy. This can be understood through some
individuals reaction and answer, “It is not my language” when one asks them why
they do not succeed in learning French or English. Carroll (1967, p.138) (1) indicates
that “One reason why some students reach low level of attainments in foreign
languages is that they have home environments that are not favourable to this”.
Although it is more likely that social-contextual factors exert a greater influence on
personal factors (parents influence on their childrens learning) than vice versa, it is
also possible that individuals personal factors can change the dynamics in socialcontextual factors like a student attaining good or improved grades can increase
parents expectations and aspirations for that child, which are positively associated with
student achievement . Also, parents income can play an enormous role on their
accomplishment. Students of poverty generally achieve lower levels than those of
middle and upper classes. The family involvement is one of causes of the social factors
that make unsuccessful English learning in Algerian universities.

(1): Carroll, J. (1953). The Study of Language: A study of Linguistics and related Disciplines in America . Harvard University Press.

2.3. Friends effect on students achievement:
An important element of this study is to determine how and in what ways
students social connections influence their academic performance. Friends are one
socializes with the most, while academic classmates are one turns to more for advice in
his studies. Peers who are friends as well as academic assistants contribute particularly
to the peer effect by combining the proximity of friendship and the ability to offer
academic assistance. Ryan (2001, p.75)

(1)

found that “Peers achievement can

influence other peers achievement”. High performers may transmit their influence to
classmates and dorm roommates with whom they spend time with or discuss academic
matters. However, we found that leaders of groups of friends and popular students are
not necessarily high academic achievers, and they tend to transmit their attitudes to
learning to those around them. Students with friends who promote irresponsible
behaviours encounter more setbacks. Students tend to socialize with A-graders only to
get help, while they prefer to make friends with those whose academic performance is
similar to their own. C-graders are often the most popular among students themselves.
Many surveys of research demonstrates that the influences of peers appears to be an
important social context that should not be overlooked with academic achievement.

(1): Ryan, A. M. (2001). Child Development and achievement. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

CHAPTER Three: psychological factors
Introduction:
Language learning involves a number of affective and psychological factors,
feeling, and attitude of the learner. Affective aspects of language learning may
influence the learners' performance, positively or negatively. Thus, a right
understanding of effect, by teachers, in foreign language learning can lead to more
effective learning and teaching. Many recent findings argue that psychological factors
like anxiety that is considered as a natural phenomenon that all Human beings
experience, and whose degree differs from an individual to another can affect the
learners ability. Secondly, Personality has the same effect on learners by being a factor
with the aim of explaing differences in second language. Finally, findings also state
that Motivation constitutes a critical factor responsible for students personal
involvement in the educational process. Learners need to be motivated. Issues of
motivation, personality and anxiety are the key factors of this Chapter.

3.1. Personality effect on students achievement:
Learning a second language varies greatly from individual to individual. Many
researchers believe that personality have an important influence on students success or
failure in language learning . First year of college is often a major transition. In some
cases, students are not mentally, emotionally or academically ready to succeed in
college classes. Some lack the necessary motivation and work ethic. Others struggle
with the emotional difficulties that come with being on their own. Colleges often offer
personal counsellors who work specifically with students trying to balance academic
life with personal life challenges. Researchers claim that extroverts showed to be better
in oral communicative Speech, and have lower levels of anxiety thanks To their good
physiological equipment to resist Stress. The success of extroverts in oral
communicative speech and the one of introverts in listening comprehension, reading,

and grammar can be explained by Johnson (2001,p.140)

(1)

descriptions of extroverts

and introverts personalities: “The typical extrovert is sociable, likes parties, has many
friends, needs to have people to talk to, and does not like studying by himself. He
craves excitement, takes chances, often sticks His neck out, acts on the spur of the
moment, and is generally an impulsive individual. He…Always has a ready answer,
and generally likes Change…The typical introvert, on the other hand, is quiet,
retiring sort of person, introspective, fond of books rather than people, except with
intimate friends. He tends to plan ahead…and distrusts the impulse of the moment.
He does not like excitement, takes matters of everyday life with proper Seriousness,
and likes a well ordered mode of life…”. Therefore, the Characteristics of both types
of individuals can affect their learning to the better or worse.

3.2. Anxiety effect on students achievement:
Anxiety is a very important variable in learning foreign languages .It is one of the
most negative psychological hinders for many EFL learners. Many researchers find
that anxiety has potential negative effects at different levels because it can be an
emotionally, cognitively, and physically a serious obstacle to a better functioning of
the learners competences and capacities. Gardner, Tremblay and Masgoret (1997,
p.125)

(2)

found that: “Language anxiety is negatively related to achievement in

second language. It is associated with problems in listening Comprehension,
vocabulary learning, low grades in language courses or a Combination of these
factors”. Moreover, the effects of anxiety can influence both communication process
and language learning. Horwitz and Cope (1991, p110)

(1)

confirmed that anxiety

typically centres on listening and speaking. Speaking in the classroom is frequently

(1): Johnson, K. (2001). An Introduction to foreign language learning and teaching. Longman .Third edition.
(2): Gardner, R. C. & Tremblay, P. F. & Masgoret, A. M. (1997). Towards a full model of second language learning: An
empirical investigation. Modern Language Journal.

difficult for anxious students, even though they are good at responding to a drill or
giving prepared speeches. Ur wrote in this respect (1996, p. 121) (2) : “Learners are
often inhibited about trying to say things in a foreign language classroom, worried
about making mistakes, fearful of criticism or loosing face, or simply shy of the
attention that their speech will attracts”. For this reasons, language anxiety and its
effect on second language learning shows a correlation between anxiety and the
failure of students in universities.

3.3. Motivation effect on students achievement:
Motivation is one of the important aspects of second language acquisition.
Motivation is a kind of desire for learning. It is very difficult to teach a second
language in a learning environment if the learner does not have a desire to learn a
language. Taken into consideration from that aspect, Reece & Walker (1997, p225) (3)
expresses that: “Motivation is a key factor in the second language learning process.
A less able student who is highly motivated can achieve greater success than the
more intelligent student who is not well motivated”. It is strongly believed that
motivation is much affected by learners attitudes. In other words, positive attitudes
make the learner attain success and the opposite is true. Factors such as the mood of
the classroom, support of classmates, and the teachers behaviour were often mentioned
by students as having an effect on their motivation. A relaxed atmosphere, where
students can take risks and make errors without fear of embarrassment or negative
repercussion, seems to be important factor to many learners. On the negative side,
students can feel frustration and failure when they do not grasp the represented subject,
or the teacher methods that will hinder their motivation. Therefore, motivation plays a
driving force to enhance the level FL learners and that it plays an important factor in
the success or failure of students.
(1) : Horwitz, E. & Cope, J. (1991). Foreign language classroom anxiety .Prentice hall.
(2) : Ur, Penny. (1996). A Course in language teaching, practice and theory. Cambridge Press .Cambridge
(3) : Reece, I. & Walker, S. (1997). Teaching, Training and Learning. Business Education Publishers. GreatBritain.

Bibliography
1. Brumfit,C.J. & Johnson,K.(1979). Communicative Approach to Language Teaching. Oxford.
University Press. Oxford

2. Carroll, J. (1953). The Study of Language: A study of Linguistics and related Disciplines in
America. Harvard University Press.

3. Gardner, R. C. & Tremblay, P. F. & Masgoret, A. M. (1997). Towards a full model of second
language learning: An empirical investigation. Modern Language Journal.

4. Horwitz, E. & Cope, J. (1991). Foreign language classroom anxiety .Prentice hall.
5. Johnson, K. (2001). An Introduction to foreign language learning and teaching. Longman .Third
edition.

6. Reece, I. & Walker, S. (1997). Teaching, Training and Learning. Business Education Publishers.
Great Britain.

7. Ryan, A.M.(2001). Child Development and achievement. Cambridge University Press.
Cambridge.

8. Ur, Penny.(1996). A Course in language teaching, practice and theory. Cambridge Press
.Cambridge

9. Williams, M. & Burden, R.L. (1997). Psychology for Language Teachers a social Constructivist
Approach. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge

10. Widdowson, H.G.(1978). Teaching Language as Communication. Oxford. University Press.
Oxford


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