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aAsqamu uniG n timuz$a
HAUT COMMISSARIAT A L'AMAZIGHITE

Mouloud FERAOUN

Mmis n igellil
Ungal

Tasuqilt si tefransist

Moussa OULD TALEB
Tazwert n Youcef MERAHI

HCA, 2004

Titre original : Le fils du pauvre ©

Tazwert
Atan yewwev-ed lweqt anda temlal tasa d
win turew. S tezmert d waffud n Moussa Ould
Taleb, ungal n Mouloud Feraoun, ”Mmis n igellil“,
yu$al ar laûel-is. Amek ?
Ayen $ef wayeg d-yemmeslay wungal agi d
tameddurt n weqbayli i yelêan daxel u$erbaz n
uôumi, d ayen ye$ra, d ayen yevran d wamek
isebbel babas taôwiêt-is i wakken mmis - Furulu a d-issukes tawacult-is si yir liêala nni deg aydeg
ttidiren, d amek iwala lferq i yellan gar-as d uôumi,
d amek yessawev i wakken ad yelmed tamusni s
tutlayt tabeôôanit mebla ma yettu tutlayt ines
tanaûlit.
Mouloud Feraoun ye$ra geddac n yedlisen i
d-yefkan tamu$li tucmitt $ef tmetti tazzayrit. Mi ar
a nwali ayen d-uran fellane$ “les Gauthier d
Raymond Martial”, a nefhem abrid n tira i yevfeô
wemyaru nne$ i wakken a d-yesbin udem n tidett
n t$erma n tmetti taqbaylit.
Asmi i d-yessuffe$ Mouloud Feraoun ungal
agi ines s iûurdiyen-is (à compte d’auteur) di “Les
Cahiers du nouvel humanisme”, aîas n yemyura
izzayriyen i s-yennan belli amyaru yagi iweooeh
tamu$li-s ala $er temnaî n tmurt n leqbayel ;
nnan-as da$en belli ungal agi yura-t bab-is i
lmend n iôumyen maççi n izzayriyen. Ayagi mazal
a t-id-qaren aôiva, maca Mouloud Feraoun
isbeggen-ed, s tutlayt i yessen nezzeh, s yiwen
u$anib d afessas, tilawt n tmetti taqbaylit.
Assagi, s tsuqilt agi, Moussa Ould Taleb
yefka tagnitt i yal yiwen degne$ i wakken a n$er,
ne$ a nεiwed ta$uri, s teqbaylit - tutlayt nne$

tayemmatt - i wungal agi “Mmis n igellil”. Tutlayt i
yessexdem Ould Taleb d taqbaylit nni timserreêt,
i yezmer ad yefhem yal yiwen. Yessexdem di$en
kra n wawalen imaynuten (les néologismes),
maca asexdem nnsen yella-d s tegzi d
tiêôci n tira. D$a di tagara n wedlis, Ould Taleb
yefka-d yiwen n umawal amecîuê i wakken ad
iεiwen ame$ri (le lecteur).
Mass Mouloud Feraoun ilul di tefsut n 1913
u yettwan$a, s ufus azegga$, l’OAS, ass n 15 mars
1962 netta d xemsa yeôfiqen-is. Yenna uqbel
tamettant-is :
“Zemre$ ad mmte$ ass-agi ne$ ad ttwan$e$
s ôûaû azekka. Ëûi$ belli bbi$-d aciddi deg yiwen
wegdud amnayfi i yesεan lhiba tameqrant ar a
yeqqimen s lhiba tameqrant”.

Youcef MERAHI

Mouloud Feraoun

Ixf I

Tawacult

1

Mmis n igellil

Tawacult

A nxeddem $ef wiyav
alma d tewser nne$,
asmi a d-yawev lajel,
lamana a tawev babis. Din a s-nini belli
neôwa
lmerta
di
ddunit, aîas i nettru,
aîas i neswa n
tmeréuga. Ahat a n$iv
bab-nne$ ?
Tchekov

2

Mouloud Feraoun

Amerray mi ar a d-ikcem tamurt n Leqbayel
a s-teεoeb, ur yezmir wul-is ad yeqqim d
asemmav. Tamu$li ines d tin yessefôaêen, ccbaêa
ines am ucewwiq yezzuzunen. £ef aya i seεεun
ciîuê n leênana $ef leεwayed imezda$-is.
Ur yelli d zzux imi ulac tardast n tmurt ur
yedhin sser, yal ti$ilt tettak acbi $er weltmas, d
ccna yellan di ta i yellan di tahin. Ulac ssebba i
waken ur nettaf ara di tmurt n Leqbayel ayen
nnéer akkmani anda nniven.
Sureft-a$ a yiêewwasen, acku tusam-d att
merêem, tusam-d att kksem lxiq. Tcaxem deghabay sεant t$altin nne$ akk d sser dyettqudduôen degsent. A d-takim di targit mi ar a
tu$alem s ixxamen nnwen a kken teîîef tidett zdat
wemnaô.
Nekkni s leqbayel, neéra belli neznuzuy
ccbaêa n tmurt nne$. Nêemmel win a yeffren
leεyub-is s ucuffu n uqendur. Nêemmel win a$-dicekkôen, xas akken neéra tuddar nne$ $urwen ur
sεint ara ccan imi d-ttakent udem n tid yesqaccew
laé, tugna n tid yeôwan lêif.
Tizi n taddart n sin igiman imezda$.
Ixxamen-is jgugglen wa deffir wa deg yiwet n ti$ilt
am ye$san n wejgu n weεrur n lewêuc uzermezruy
: mitin lmitrat di te$zi. D ameccaq n webrid
yettawin $er tuddar nniven i d azniq ines
amuqran, win yessufu$ s abrid ukeôôus iôuêen $er
temdinin.

3

Mmis n igellil

Tehri n wezniq teqqim akken deg mevqan
deg i yettwaéeôôeb s leêyuv deg yiwet n tama :
azal n setta i$allen. Degmi d-bennun sya u sya,
ççan-as-d, dermen-d segs, kemnen-t, yettu$av di
lêebs-is. Ad ikkuffer limmer ulac sya $er da, $ef
yidisan-is, kra izerban issufu$en $er lexlawi.
Amek i teb$iv ad tbeddev fell-as ne$ ad
telêuv deg-s, wezniq yellan d azrib ? Amek a stessuv, abrid nni xaîi ? Deg unebdu, ççuôen d
a$ebbaô di sin, di tegrest yugar-it deg waluv imi dttemlilin akk deg-s l$aci. £ef annect-agi da$en i
yezga yumes. Ma d izerban nni ttaken acbi $ures
imi d arraw-is.
A nnmeyyez ger sin izerban yemqabalen,
yiwen yerra $ef yeffus, wayev yerra $ef zelmev.
Anda ma llan, yettim$ur wemviq-nni. Wissen d
zzheô yeffren isem-is, ne$ d leb$i deg teswiεt-a ur
a$ tekfi ara ad tt-id-nessefru ? Akken yeb$u yili,
imezwura nne$ ur bnin ara din : aqli-kken-id deg
wemôaê amuqran n taddart, “Amôaê ivebbalen”,
d win i d tajmaεt nne$. Ulac am nettat. Adrum
ufella ittasem deg-s.
Zzint-as-d teslavin s-ya u s-ya isenden $ef
leêyuv n yexxamen, ulint-ed $ef lqaεa s lqedd
ivaôôen n wemdan, tehri nnsent azal n sin i$allen,
win ib$un yeqqim fellasent, ama d argaz ama d
aqcic. Yiwet degsent tseqqef; tedduri. Deg
unebdu, ur tt-ikeççem yiîij ; di tegrest ur tt-ittêaz
ugeffur. D tin i d taslaî yelhan imeôôa, temsel u
tecrureq ; beqqun akk ad qqimen degs. Ma s-dtekkev s-ufella i tejmaεt, tin tezga-d $ef zelmev,

4

Mouloud Feraoun

terra udem-is $er yiwet n tezribt yesεan lewhi n
εecrin n lmitrat d-iqqeôôeε yiwen wexxam.
Taddart tebva $ef tlata iderma, yal adrum s
tejmaεt-is, yal tajmaεt $ures tidekkanin n yeéra d
teslavin imeslen. Akkmani tiddas llant, ttujeôvent
$ef teslavin. Maca yiwen ur yezmir a d-yini tella
tejmaεt yifen “amôaê ivebbalen”.
Llan di$en sin leowamaε. Maca, ur yuli ara
ccan nnsen am tjemmuyaε. Si beôôa ma tentwaliv, kifkif-iten d tize$wa i tent-id-isuman. D acu,
zzdaxel, ti$er$ert nnsen temsel, leêyuv nnsen
sel$en s loir ; d imellalen, d ilmawen, d
isemmaven. Im$aren yettéallan din amzun akken
kkan-d di leqrun nni n zik.
Lqahwa tezga-d di beôôa n taddart, di laεzib.
Win yeb$an ad iôuê, ilaq-as ad yeffe$ akin i
tnezdu$in.
Kra n tnezdu$in ulint-ed melmi kan s lmend
n uûurdi d-yettwaêellan di Fôansa. Ssuf$ent-ed
udem nnsent amaynut akk d lqermud nnsent
azegga$ ger ufercec n tiyav. Cemtent, nfaq s
ulame$ nni d uzlig. Tugna nnsent ur telti$ $er tin n
taddart. Tabaε yiwen ur yecrih yissent. Mebεid
ttbanent-ed am ccwami timellalin ireggmen di
tyessetmatin nnsent igan s wakal. Neéra zdaxel
gant am tidak akk nniven. Uklalent aεekki :
“Adaynin n Mnayel s-ufella mellul d acebêan,
zdaxel yeççuô d le$ber d isredyan”.
Zzux ttiεewji i deg nekkat yak, nekôeh win
yessem$aren iman-is, ahat imi nettemyili i meôôa.

5

Mmis n igellil

£ef akken d-qqaren, imezwura nne$
dduklen s tmara. Öôwan lmerta n tudert n “yal wa i
yiman-is” iwakken a s-d-ssuksen kra ne$ kra i
tdukli. éidet tmeddurt ma yilin loiran, acku
ttemyafen
:
ttemyervalen,
ttemêamin,
ttemsaεafen. Ssifsusen taεkwemt ; akken teb$u
tili ccedda ma ra s-zzin rennu-tt. Ttagwaden îîiq
am tmettant, keôhen-tt am qevran. Tikwal yettili
akka cwiî umennu$, cwiî n leεyav ger kra $ef lmal
ma yekcem tafarka n yiwen, $ef llufanat, atg…
Maca ferrun m’ara yili lfeôê ne$ lqeôê. Neqqar : “D
loiran i rreêma maççi i nneqma”. Öôeêma nne$, d
ôôeêma n ddunit maca maççi d times.
£as akken yal adrum yekka-d seg yiwen
uéar, ulac fellas, imi yiwen ur yettarra ddehn-is
$er wannect-a. Si zik ttilint tme$riwin ger iderma.
Ass-a amezruy n taddart yu$al amzun n yiwen
wemdan. Ulac win d-yufraren s-nnig wayev.
Nettfeîîin garane$ kra yellan. Izlan, icewwiqen
ttmucuha sduklen asaven nne$ : ama yella d
améiw am wa$zen, d ushil am Bôiôuc ne$ d uêôic
am Oeêêa.
Limmer ad-neddem adrum at wadda, a tnaf yekka-d seg yiwen umi qaren Maéuz. Wagi
yeooa-d seddus n warrac. Frurxen, fkan-d xemsa
n twaculin, yal yiwet tebbi isem n wergaz, zzdint d
adrum. £ef aya i sen-nessawal : At Rabaê, At
Sliman, At Musa, At Lεeôbi akk d At qasi. Ma d
Ibaciren, jedditsen d imenfi d-yusan si Oeôoeô. Ur
sεin ara s wacu ar a zzdin lqedd s uéar nnsen.
Seg-ul nnsen, êeqren iman nnsen cwiî, maca tura

6

Mouloud Feraoun

yiwen ur d-yecliε degsen, ula d nutni ttmeyizen
amzun kkan-d si Maéuz. Tikwal ma tibrik tegnitt
ne$ ma yil uba$ur di tqaεett, yettili win sen-dyessekkefalen tiqdimin.
S nnig iéuran agi yellan zik d yiwen nne$ i$yesduklen ass-a, Leqbayel imesdurar yiwet lêala
nnsen, yiwet tmeddurt nnsen. “Yiwen uεekkaz
akk i$-yewwten”. Ur d-yettban igellil wala
ameôkanti.
D tidett llan sin yeswiren n tmeddurt : anda
llan wid yufan iman nnsen : ççan - swan - lsan ; d
wanda wid, ass-a aten-id-iwali yiîij, ass-a aten-ididel wagu. Yeskeεbubuc-iten laé, yettsumu
degsen, izeggi-ten am yifer. Ttawven $er lqaε n
lbir, tt$aven bab nnsen yettwali-ten-id. Maca ur
yezmir yiwen ad ibvu garasen ne$ ad ifaq i tmeéla
nnsen s umata.
Imeôkantiyen d wid yesεan tiferkiwin :
azemmur, tineqqlin, azal n xemsa wussan n
tyerza d waman di tferka-s i tebêirin. Di tejmaεt
ma d-addren l$ella n yiwen m’ara d-yawev lawan
n tyerza, yettban-ed wa yecôeh wudem-is, wa
amzun yesqev ne$ yusem. D acu, deg-ceôfan
nne$, yibbwas n tyerza s tyuga n yezgaren,
yugaren cwiî kan akraren, drus n wakal. Amuqran
deg meôkantiyen n Leqbayel $ures azal n waggur n
tyerza. Yessuzur ta$uct-is di tejmaεt, amzun degwexxam-is i yella. Akka i y$il, l$aci teddun-as di
leb$i.
Iwakken as-fken leqder wa d isεu lhiba, imi
d tigi id-yettbanen di trika-s, yettak leεtab i yiman-

7

Mmis n igellil

is am win wer nesεi tabruyt. Mi ara yawi imestujaô,
ixeddem annect nnsen, yettlusu am nutni, itett
garasen anagar i$ublan ur ibeîîu yara yidsen.
Ad tafev $ures lmal : tayuga n yezgaren,
tafunast, kra n wakraren d wulli, a$yul ne$
aserdun.
Tanezdu$t-is tezmer ad tesεu sin yexxamen
mqabalen (lewhi n înac i$allen di tehri d rbaεîac di
te$zi), taxxamt ne$ snat i mmis amenzu ne$ i
ynebgi. Lebni n tnezdu$in imeôôa yiwen-is : aéru d
ube$li n wakal, ssqef s u$anim d lqeômud.
Ti$er$ert tessun-as tala$t, zzuzuren-as s ufella
ibruyen n loir d cwiî n win yufafen, tedzentt
mmzintt. Ma tili akken d tamaynutt tettecruruq,
yettcebbiê wexxam. Ma d leêyuv sel$ent-tten
tilawin ukessar, azal n sin i$allen $ef lqaεa, s loir
yemzin, rennunt-as yiwen uzirig qqaren-as
taεmamt, ula d win s loir maca ur yemzi yara; ma
usawen, d tumlilt alama d ssqef. Ur d-ttafent ara
tumlilt akk i sen-t-ilaqen alama cerwent-ett
merri$et, acku d cc$el nnsent, yu$al asent tikwal
d a$bel tikwal d ise$. Asla$ yettnalas yal aseggas
ne$ sin ne$ tlata, ayagi yemxallaf ger ssεaya n
bab-is.
II
Tanezdu$t nne$ tezga-d deg-ixef ugafa n
taddart, deg wezrib n wadda. Adrum nne$ d
« Imaéuéen », tawacult nne$ qqaren-as « At Musa ».
∑emmi d baba ismawen nnsen yiwen
Remvan, wayev Lewnis maca deg wedrum
8

Mouloud Feraoun

sawalen-asen « arraw n Caεban », ur éri$ ay$er.
Nutni deg wasmi d-kkren d igujilen, lad$a baba ur
d-issawev ara jeddi, weroin t-yessin. Limmer kan
sen-sawalen « arraw n Tasaεdit » $ef setti. Laεmum
d xwal nnsen smenyafen, ahat, ad leqmen isem n
Caεban iwakken a d-sbeggnen i l$aci belli igujilen
agi sεan ansi d-frurin, u di sin yidsen ad îîfen
amviq di lufeq n taddart, ama di lfeôê ama di
lqerê, n winna akken yemmuten. Am win yeb$an
a d-yini : « ulac win d-teooa t$alaî ». Di tazwara,
tamu$li-yagi s wazal-is. Di taggara, arrac kkren-d,
u$alen d irgazen. Isem ten yezdin iêeôôem-iten
ciîuê, acku yiwen ur sen yessawal s yismawen
nnsen, u$alen amzun d yiwen yerna ur ttemcabin
ara.
∑emmi, umi sawale$ baba Lewnis yesεa
taksumt d tamellalt yerna rrqiq wudem-is.
Yettêadar u yessizdig iman-is dayen kan. Ula d
askad ines s uεekki. Ttwali$-t ger wallen-iw yezga
s uqendur amellal d waεmam yennev $ef uqerru-s
akken meûwab lêal. Ïîaxeîîa imi a t-id-meyze$ s
ugelzim deg ifassen-is, ibges ta$eggaî m tefzimin
tiwra$in. Tikwal akka yeggar afus-is, maca maççi
seg wul, itteggid kan cc$el-is. D tajmaεt i yernan
fellas. Ssnen-t medden d bu tidett u d bu wurfan.
Awal-is qeîîiε, taêsift-is am weclim yeddem wavu.
Asmi yella d ileméi, yufrar-ed ger tezyiwin-is
imeôôa. £ef ayagi i yeîîef aêric amuqran deg-ul n
yemma-s. Darani d amenzu. Setti têemmel a dtesmekti belli iêuma-tt-id di ttôebga n Remvan.
Tam$art tame$bunt, teéra leεmeô tettkil fellas.

9

Mmis n igellil

Iban am yiîij uzal belli d netta i têemmel aîas.
Tefka-yas tafekka ackitt. D tin i d tarzeft-is
tamezwarut. Tesbanay-ed iman-is di mmis
amenzu : acmumeê, udem, ta$uct yiwen nnsen.
Remvan di tama nniven yettemcabi swa
swa ar Caεban. D lmektub, ahat, i yeb$an att
isebbeô imi s-d-yefka ger ifassen-is ayen i s aywali udem n babas. D allal ushil swayes a dyesmektay win t-id-yeooan. Remvan d imsibrik
ciîuê, yeohed, wezzil yerna zzur $ef gmas. Akken i
d afellaê n tmurt nne$, yebren u yekkunner. « Ma
d udem-is d Caεban kkes-it ffer-it » i d-teqqar
setti : anyir abelbav, tinzert tamecîuêt, ticenfirin
tireqqaqin d leênak. Yesεa anexzuô n babas d
yiwet n lεadda, iteqqen tiî tazelmaî ma k-idimiqel. Asmi yella meééi, ayen teεrev setti astekkes lεadda nni, εeddi keç. Tikli ines d taéayant
am tin n yilef ivaôôen mfarraεen. Mi yefka
aqqeddim a s-tiniv d amennu$ i $er iteddu, ne$
$er taεkumt a tt-id-yerfed. Setti terra-t am ubelbul
kan ur n neîîeq ur n smenîaq, ur yelli d win
icerven. Maççi d açeqlal am gmas. D asusam u d
imsetêi. Yettarra kan $er wul-is. Ur yedduqes ara,
ééay ula di lec$al-is. Amzun tura deg wengir-is
tfellaêt, netta da$en iqbel-itt. Xas akken zzur-it
ivudan-is, yekkat tajewwaqt dayen kan, maca ala
tizya-s i yeéran. Iêemmel aîas yemmas d gmas, d
acu yettaoa leêmala nni deg-ul-is amzun akken d
lεib. Tasa-s tettergigi fellasen maca ur sen dyeskanay ara. S ôôkuz i yettahay $ef t$awsiwin d
l$aci, dd$el ulac. D acmamaê, rnu $ures lehduô n

10

Mouloud Feraoun

wem$ar azemni. Ar ass-a kra di taddart ttaddren-d
imeslayen-is. S umata, êemlen-t di taddart am
gmas acku d bu tidett ula d netta u yernu yekôeh
ccwal.
Asmi d-lule$, εemmi d tikli a d-yessiwev
xemsin iseggasen di lεemô-is, baba ôebεin. £ursen
di sin dderya.
Ëlima, tameîîut n εemmi, n at ufella. D
tameîîut taçaôant, d tuwεiôt u zuret ta$uct-is.
Allen-is berqent u tikli ines am wemcic. Bih-bih,
te$vel-ed lbeq $ef setti, almi itt tetthabi, tu$al-as
d izem deg wexxam. Yeεyu yekkat-itt baba
Lewnis, akken tugi a tterr avar, ur tettaggad
yiwen. Acengu ines d baba, tekôeh-it am dda,
limmer tettaf ur tt-tettwali yara imi ifaq i txidas-is.
Akken ma nella deg wexxam neéra belli tebbi
daεwessu n tem$art-is, $ef ayagi i s-nettawi u
nettbibbi timeréuga ines.
Yerna d setti i tt-id-ixevben. Babas n Ëlima,
yellan d amddakul n jeddi, yedda d aεsekôiw $er
tmurt iberkanen. Mi d-yu$al di Mada$ecqer,
yebbi-d yides adrim. Setti t$ill-it d amerkanti, tufa
u$ur a tsenned cwiî arraw-is. Teffe$-as tirga
mxalfa, tamsalt texdem tendem degs. Am$ar
amcum yerked di nûib n yellis, ur yerni ara cwiî
yesssufe$ taôwiêt. D acu id-yeooa ? yiwet n cciεa
iôuccen s wewra$ yurez usekref n leêrir azegzaw,
d-ye$lin, di tagara, ger ifassen-iw.
Yemma n at Musa am nekkni, d yellis n
yiwen di leεmum nne$ ibeεden. Ula d nettat s
leêsab i tt-id tebbi setti. Jeddi Ëmed, uqbel ad

11

Mmis n igellil

yemmet, yeooa-d yiwet n texxamt d lexlawi i tlata
yessis. Yeooa-yasen-t-id da$en yiwen n lka$ev.
Ibeîîen, yennev deg beênuq, yeffer di tbuqalt
ufexxaô, berrik cwiî maca iûeêêa, ar tura mazal-it.
D lka$ev n tikci n wayla-s i yessis. Yemma
tecfaya-s-d mliê. Maca, ccix t-id-yesse$ren,
yessefra-yasent-id i teqcicin belli ttalasent l$ella
kan di tferkiwin. Maççi d awôat i lebda. Lqavi i tyuran, ahat, ur yefhim ara asirem n jeddi, yedda
di leb$i i watmaten-is. Ulac u$ilif imi yemma d
yessetmas ur tent-id-ttawven ara leεmum nnsent.
Llzen s tferkiwin nniven. Asmi ar a mmtent, ad
rnun ad ddmen mebla ccwal ayen d-yeqqimen.
Jeddi Ëmed yeooel. Yeéra ulac u$ur a
sendent yessis. Maca ikukra a sent-yefk lxlawi
ines uqbel ad yemmet, yali dayen a tent-yesdarin
$ef timmu$bent. Yugad $ef ssεaya-s, d l$erv zzat
uûeggad, ger ifassen nnsent. Yugi, $er tagara n
ccib-is, ad yessimes ôôuê-is $er at Musa, ne$ at
îîafaren s wawal. Ur s-yefki yara wul-is ad iwali
wiyav ççan ayla-s, xas ad ilin d ivulanis ne$ d
arraw n yessis. Ah! Limmer yiwen deg warrac at
Musa yu$ yiwet di yessis, tili ad tennefsusi
teεkumt, ad frunt temsal di tudert-is. Ur b$in ara anagar, arraw n Caεban, ilem uvεif ! - yeεzem
niqal a sen yeîîef tuêsift. Maca deg wussan ines
ineggura, imeyyez, yufa menyif a sen-d-yeoo akalis akken ur εezlen ara yessis, ue tteff$ent ara di
tesqamutt n twacult tamuqrant.

12

Mouloud Feraoun

- Nek ad ôuêe$, i yettxemmim. Yiwen ur syeqqar ççi$ lêeq n watmaten-iw. Tura i yiraw
nnsen, ise$ n lεaô. Ad fernen.
Ilaq ! iban am yiîij uzal, at Musa fernen. D
tacvaî n nnif i ddurin. Ur b$in ara a tent-ssimsen
tulles. Di tazwara, am$ar ifeveê-ed ôôwand-is ; imi
yeεrev ad yefk axxam-is d yiwen di lexlawi-is i
yessis. A$ellet t$ellten s nnig wul-is. Iêun Öebbi,
lqavi yefhem tamsalt. A lxiô ! ma d ayen nniven,
iban webrid-is, maççi d ayen yeffren.
- £urwamt, rremt avar, qarεemt iman
nnkunt $ef lêeôma, i sent-nnan i teqcicin. Cwiî n
tucva, n tiεewji a$ icemmet, ad yessimes isem
nne$ di taddart. Tiyita ad teqseê, lem$ivat ulac.
Aqla-kent di leεnaya nne$. Lêumt qbala. Ayen
nniven, ur d a$ d-tuqiε degs.
Di leεwayed n zik, yiwen mi ar a i$ellet win n
uéar-is, ittnefk fellas ad yerfed tigujilin, d netta ar
a tent-yefken ad ddunt s ixxamen nnsent u ad
irezzu fellasent am yessis. At Musa îîuqten u
ttemyasamen aîas iwakken ad vefôen leεwayed n
tjaddit. B$an imeôôa ad weôten u fkan awal, akken
llan, belli yiwen ur tent-yeooi, ar d ad bedden
fellasent. Ïîfen akk deg wawal nnsent imi yessefked kan ad garen tamawt $ef teqcicin time$bunin.
Nutenti, mi walant ttwaqurεent, mi
ttεeggiven fellasent leεmum d warraw nnsen,
llzent, acku $illent εuzzen-tent, êurben fellasent.
Akken yeb$u yili, smenyafent aya wala tatut d
tiririt di rrif teîîafaô timêuqranit. D tullas yessnen
nnfeε nnsent, êeôcent. Ur llint d tid yettneqlaben

13

Mmis n igellil

am tata. Unfent i leεmum nnsent a tent-kelxen, a
tent-ççen, awi-d kan ur tent-ssufu$en ara seg
wegraw u ad îîfent deg yisem nnsent.
Ger sut Musa, setti tasaεdit tezga teggar
tamawt i tgujilin, êninet fellasnet u temmalasent
ala iberdan yelhan. Ur εeîîlent ara u$ent tanumi
yides, ttcawaôent-ett di kullec.
Tamenzut degsent d Favma, ur tessawev
ara εecrin iseggasen di leεmeô-is. Imiren Remvan
werεad yezwio. Setti terra-ten ger wallen-is a ten
tezdi. Favma ur telli d tin icemten : meééiyet di
lqedd, tevεef u warra$et cwiî, udem-is $ezzif,
tiênakin-is reqqiqit. Maca $ures yiwet n tmu$li
teççur d leênana. Ur tesεi tikli nni n nnefxa n
tezyiwin-is. D tushilt u d nniya. S nnig seksu, ur
tessin ad tenniwel ayen nniven. Setti teôwa
lemêan iwakken as tesseqbel Remvan. Favma,
segmi teéra belli tteoa nni n yilef teççur d tazmert i
lxedma u teffer degs tiêrci tedda di leb$i i
tem$art. terra-d di lmizan ad yili d lewkil i
yessetmas. Tεedda tme$ra di sser kan akk d
sshala. Laεmum feôêen u cekkôen meôôa Lewnis d
Remvan imi bbin tigujilin ddaw leεnaya nnsen.
Favma d Ëlima msekôahent am wemcic d
u$erda, akka i d tinuvin. Ur cukke$ ara setti tlum
kra n wass $ef yemma. Tislit tedder di tili n
tem$art-is. Tam$art meskint tufa-d iman-is di
tegnitt ur nesεi ixef. “Ul-is yebva $ef sin, yeb$a
Ësen yeb$a Lêusin”. Têemmel Lewnis ugar
Remvan, tesmenyif Favma $ef Ëlima. £ef ayagi,

14

Mouloud Feraoun

ahat, i qqimen baba akked εemmi di dduks, ur
bvin ara, u setti tesselêa axxam mebla maêyaf.
Neéra yak belli l$aci teddun s lqis, xeôsum
ayen icudden $er tkufit. Yiwen ur yettanef i
wdeggeô d usexseô. £ef annect-a, yal tawacult
$ures aqerru iwumi tetta$ awal. Isufar $ef ufus-is,
d netta id-itekksen, d netta i yettvebbiren $ef
tu$in d uzenzi ilaqen. Terûa fellas tagust umeûruf.
Sevlamen-t tikwal s ubuddu yettbuddu cwiî imanis, maca d tismin kan i d-ihedôen. Yuli ccan n win
ne$ tin a yilin d aqerru $ef wexxam-is. Imeslayen
lqayen d isefra d-ttawin fellas rran-as nnûib.
D tam$art i ywulmen i tukksa. £urne$ d
setti. Ikufan, ur tesεiv win ten-ittmassan. D nettat
i ten-itellin, d nettat i ten-ittemdalen. Ttega-s
lebyan i u$ummu nnsen, cwiî kan akka ad ttisfiq.
Tislatin-is érant d acu tent-yeggunin limmer a tenmasent. Takanna d ayla-s. tettali akken a dteddem tazart, a d-teççar a$erbal n teméin, a dtεemmeô zzit ne$ a d-tegzem abruy n tassemt.
tesεa lmizan n yiman-is, leêsab-is weêdes u tceffu
d ayen ur tettamnev. Yiwen ur yezmir att
yessεeddi fellas.

Tilawin ttnawalent, setti tbeîîu. Mi yeftel
seksu yebba, a t-id-tεemmeô, anagar aksum i
ybeîîu mmis amenzu : d cc$el n wergaz. Imi
aksum netta$-it-id kan di leεyudat ne$ mi ara tili

15

Mmis n igellil

tmecôeî, êseb d nettat i $-yettqewwiten, am
wefrux nni yettaken lquv i warrawis.
D tidett, d cc$el iêwaoen aîas n tmusni d
leεqel, acku nekkni s leqbayel ur nettεummu yara
di trika. Maca, imi taεkumt ters $ef tuyat n win
muqqren, n win yessnen amek a yeddu i ddunitis, nethenna u yekkes we$bel $ef nûib n at
wexxam, u nettkel fellas ad yexdem lwaoeb-is.

III

16

Mouloud Feraoun

Lule$-d deg seggas n 1912, sin wussan
uqbel amervil n fuôaô. - Kkaten-d at zik yiwet n
temεayt $ef ussan imenza n waggur n fuôaô : yiwet
n tem$art teb$a ad tεekki $ef waggur n yennayer
tenna-yas :
- Teééek a εemmi yennayer ! i$iden-iw
ff$en.
Yu$al yennayer issuter di fuôaô yenna-yas :
- Ttxilek a εemmi fuôaô
Övel-iyi yiwen wass d aôeîîal
I$iden n tem$art
A ten-rre$ akk d ticullav.
Lad$a assen yewwet-ed yiwen ugeffur ! yugar i dittalin di lqaεa i d-i$ellin deg genni. Ur teswawi
alarmi temmut tem$art tame$bunt akk d lmal-is.
deg wassen ttkukrun medden asemmiv n tagara n
yennayer -.
Imi d nek i d aqcic amenzu deg wexxam,
setti tettêarab felli d ayen kan, tessawev almi dsnulfa isem : Furulu. Yekka-d seg wemyag
« FFER ». yettusemma yiwen ur yezmir a yi-wali,
ammer tiî, alama zegre$ amnaô n tebburt $ef
ivaôôen-iw.
Ad twehmem limmer a wen-d-ini$ belli
isem agi, xas akken d amaynut $urne$, ur ttsetêi$
ara yess ger tezyiwin-iw imi lli$ ênine$ u d ushil.
Deg wasmi d-ccfi$, akken b$u$ nuda$ di lmux-iw,
afe$-d leêmala akk d nniya zgant $er yidisan-iw.
Tugna d-ye$lin akka ger wallen-iw d tin n weqcic
amectiîuê di lêaôa nne$, yeqqim $ef yiwet n
17

Mmis n igellil

tbuqalt yennegdamen, Cabêa, yellis εemmis
tetturar yides « zelle$mani », a s-d-tesseêsab $ef
tvudacin-is tiéidanin imeôôa ar a yeçç. Akka i
ttwali$ iman-iw, s yiwet n tqenduôt m tqelmunt, d
tamecîuêt, d tamellalt ; tikli n ddac-dac ma d
lehduô ugare$ iéiwec. Akken kan sεi$ tlata
iseggasen.
Baba akked εemmi d igellilen am widak
yellan deg wezrib. Imi d tullas kan ay sεan, ufi$
iman-iw deg wexxam nne$ d ayen kan, ife$ îîaqa
n tezyiwin-iw imecîaê ger watmaten nnsen.
Ëlima, tameîîut n εemmi, limmer tettaf ur
yi-tettwali yara. Maca yemma, yessetma, xwalti tiysetmatin n yemma
êmlent-iyi aîas ; baba
iteddu-yi di leb$i ; setti, imi d nettat i d lqibla n
taddart, tesseôwa-yi tiéidanin i s-d-ttaken sya u
sya, i nneqma n Ëlima. ∑emmi, yessnen azal n
wergaz u yeéran d acu yeswa di tejmaεt, d acu
teswa tegmatt, iêemmel-iyi am mmis. Xedmen s
nnig lmuêal i ttôebga inu.
Maca, ilaq a d-ini$ belli teffe$-asen tirga
mmxalfa ; ur bbiven ara s iswi nnsen : d aqcic
awêid deg wexxam, $ursen, yura deg qerru-w a drre$ lhiba i twacult.
D taεkumt ééayen i uéeméum am nek, i
wekεur d iyi-cban ! yiwen ur s-d-yusi di lbal belli d
ayen nniven ahat iwumi wulme$ u asirem nnsen a
t-yawi wavu.
Zemre$ ad wwte$ yessetma mebla cceêa,
yiwen ur d i-d-yeqqar ay$er, yessis n εemmi da$en
tikwal tta$ent ti$rit deg-ufus-iw : ilaq ad lemde$

18

Mouloud Feraoun

amek a berne$ lbunyat-iw ! zemre$ ad sxesôe$
awal i win iyi hwan deg wexxam, ama meqqer
ama meééi, ttarran-t d nnecôaêa. Tikerkas dgi i dlulent, tukerva $uri i tu$, leêya deg udem-iw
tesfev. Annect-a yakk iwakken a d-ff$e$ d uwεiô.
Yal wa yeéra lewεaôa imawlan tettaoa-d aqcic
amaggad, uêdiq u sellawen am lalla. Maççi d
tamusni ur sεin ara ne$ d imenzayen lqayen i
xuûûen warraw n Caεban : jeddi ad fellas yeεfu
Öebbi.
Faqe$ s lqima inu mi wwve$ xemsa
iseggasen, ssuture$ izerfan-iw u ttεeddi$ tilas.
U$ale$ d εezôayen i wetma tamecîuêt, tugar iyi s
sin iseggasen. Ssawale$-as Titi. Yeqqim-as-d ar
ass-a. Ma di lqedd, ur d i-tugar ara ; tettemcabi
$uri d ayen kan ; d amendil-is akk d temzurt nni
ines tamecîuêt i s itt-ttaεqalen. Wwte$-tt, regme$tt, sluqbe$-tt, am weclim yeddem wavu, ur d as-dtuqiε ara yakk, tesεa yiwen ûûbeô ur tettaev $er
tizya-s. Ssa$en-as tanumi belli ti$in-is n wawal d
amerwas u addud inu d azref. Yal tikkelt mi
teccekta felli a tt-id-ççen : « Maççi d gmam ? ffôeê
tesεiv-îî ! am t-iêrez Öebbi ! ssfev imeîîawen-im,
εeddi suden-it ».
Si têilett agi, tawinest « a m-t-iêrez Öebbi »
tezga tedda-d yal mi ar a d-tader gmas, teqqel-as
am lêemdu di téallit. Tett$av-iyi ma s-sle$ tettru
yas i yemma :
- d gma, a yi-t-iêrez Öebbi, i yi-ççan amur-iw n
weksum.

19

Mmis n igellil

- d gma, a yi-t-iêrez Öebbi, i yi-s$ersen amendiliw.
Ih a wetma ! yu$alen ass-a d lal n wexxam,
ddeεwa inem teffe$. Öebbi iêrez-am yir gmam
nni !
Baya, wetma tamuqrant, s wudem nniven i
d-$evle$ fellas lbeq. Nettat tezmer i yiman-is u
teéra d acu i texdem. Tettêami yemma di cc$el
akka tikwal. Teêôec, tewεeô u tesεa ta$ennant ; mi
d-tenna awal d win. Tebbi-d leqder i yiman-is s
yi$il-is. Baya, tebbi-d fellas ayi tessedhu u a d ayi
teggar tamawt. Nek ur bri$ ara i ymeééu$en-iw.
Bih-bih faqe$ belli s leεyav d imeîîawen zemre$ a
d-awi$ ayen b$i$. Qqlen d wid i d imrigen-iw.
D acu, tikli-agi nndemme$ degs, acku t-tett
kan deg wexxam. Di beôôa, i b$u$ ru$, i b$u$
snexxefte$, ulac. Timezwura i yi-d-yennan belli
medden akk ur tent-rri yara tmara a yi-ddun di
leb$i, d yesis n εemmi. Yu$ lêal, yemmatsent, iyi
keôhen am dda, tenjeô-asent-id abrid.
- Wagi maççi d gmatkunt. Kunemti ur
tesεimt ara.
S dd$el i thedeô, d ssem i d-iteff$en degmis. Mazal ta$uct-is teééenéun deg imeéu$en-iw,
tamu$li-s eqqim ger wallen-iw. Ëulfa$ am akken
u$ale$-as d acengu.
Ula deg wezniq, llan sin loiran nne$ d
tizyiwin-iw, d acu nutni îîucnen felli, qevεen-iyi
layas s wayen mi zemren.

20

Mouloud Feraoun

Deg imiren, bbi$-d tikli nniven, tin yeff$en
felli. U$ale$ d asusam, d ushil, sseêmale$ imaniw ; ttêezzize$ i wuwεiô, ttake$ u ôeîle$ mebla
cceêa i win ay i d-yessutren ta$awsa. Imawlan-iw
ttfaqen cwiî cwiî. Yeftutes usirem i rran deg-i.
Izem nnsen deg wexxam yu$al d awtul di beôôa.
Tugdi a s-tiniv yess i d-lule$ ; mi ff$e$ i
wezrib nne$ ad ttergigi$ am yifer. Yella yiwen
weéru n tnica, d win i d tilist. Mi yi-yefka akin,
teddu$ ddaw tecvaî n wakli ; d ameddakul-iw.
Imeddukal-is d imeddukal-iw, icenga ines d
icenga inu ; akken i s-yehwa i xeddme$. Yettêamid felli u tikwal d netta i yettna$en deg webdil-iw.
Ma d-nu$al s axxam, refde$ iman-iw akken kan a
d-nεeddi i tilist nni i yuran felli. Yetta$-iyi awal u
iteddu-yi di leb$i, u Öebbi yeéra acêal i s-tteddu$
di nneqma.
Mi ar a nexdem ilellucen, d nek i
yettvebbiôen u ayen a d-nessufe$ ilaq ad iyi εoeb.
Tikwal, ma yi-d-ôôsel, ttôuzu$ akk ayen $ef
imeêêen. Ad yettsummu ivudan nni ines ifedren
u ad yessusem amzun kra wer yevri, acku yeéra d
awal-iw a iεeddin, ur ttu$ale$ ara degs.
Iôuê am win yennu$nan mi yfaq d yiman-is
belli ife$-t di tiêeôci. Ula d nek, ilaq a d-ini$ belli di
beôôa yugar-iyi ddreε, yugar-iyi tissas. Nemlal,
nemwata. £ef tikelt i neffe$ deg ijufaô n
tyemmatin nne$. D tajmaεt nne$ i nekcem d
tamezwarut, syin d tid nniven n taddart, tagara
$er lakul.

21

Mmis n igellil

Ur éri$ amek, ur éri$ melmi i d-tlul leêmala
garane$. Seg wasmi d-ccfi$, Furulu netta d Wakli i
ttemzu$aren. Deg yiwen wezniq i nezde$, iban din
i nemyussan. Aîas yidene$ i d-nekker akken d
tizyiwin, maca tadukli nne$, yiwen ur yezmir a dyini ay$er tdum. Tayuga am nekkni ulac-itt.
Akli d uzyin am teqcict maca asmuncef ines
yugar cciîan. Ur yesεi leênana akk d sshala inu.
Efk-as tavsa, aεekki d umennu$ teooev-î. Ula d
imuqranen ur ten-yettaggad ara, maca teqnen
allen nnsen imi yeççuô d sser. Maççi d nutni i
yeqqaren : “uzyin êemle$-t, aberkan yet$iv-iyi !”
Leêya tettwasfev deg udem-is, leêq-is d nek umi
t-yerna. £ef annect-a i yi-êemlen ula d nek. £ures
ivaôôen d ifessasen annect-ilaten ; izga yeqqar-ed
laqen i umennu$ d trewla. Ayen i yi-ttwakkesen
yella $ures, ayen t-ixuûûen a t-id-yaf $uri. D ayagi i
yeévan leêmala garane$.
Ur ccfi$ ara acêal i neqqim iwakken a nissin
azrib nne$ u a nemyussan d warrac akk ized$en
degs. Akken yeb$u yili, tiremt tamezwarut
nessεedda-tt mebla cceda. Llan kra yetta$en ti$rit
s$ur menwala, win yeddan yesîenîen-iten ; llan
widak $ef tt-tahayen, cwiî uεekki ad yeçç times ;
llan da$en wiyav mi ten-t-sluqbev ad brun i
ymeééu$en nnsen ad kkren di tqaεett. Nekkni
leεmeô d a$-yevri wannect-a. Newwet alarmi i dnesbeggen iman nne$. Tta$en-a$ awal : Akli s
ddreε, nek s tiêôci.
Cwiî cwiî, u$ale$ ttawve$ $er tejmaεt
weêdi, tikwal ttaée$ akin alama d lqahwa i deg

22

Mouloud Feraoun

zgan wid i leqqven lebwant. Cabêa, yellis n
εemmi, mi yi-d-tenna qqim a nurar akken, s zzux i
s-qare$ $uri cc$el di beôôa, maççi d axxam i yi-dyefnan ; ttarra$ iman-iw d argaz zzat-es, lad$a
nettat ad tebru i uqerru-s, ad tessusem.
Yura di lbext-iw, yal tikelt a êeqre$ Cabêa,
ad afe$ di beôôa win a yi-êeqren, ne$ win a
yeggalen dgi ur kcime$ tajmaεt. Din din a dberne$, ur nettεeîîile$ ara. Lad$a ad êrurde$ $er
gara-s d teqcicin nniven ad qime$ a nurar. Ur sent
malle$ ara tihudit-iw, ttefre$-tt deg wul-iw;
sedhuye$ iman-iw akken ad ttu$ ti$rit d-u$e$.
Weroin sen nni$ i ymarrawen-iw a d-êamin
felli mi ar a yi-d-yawev yiwen d tizya-w : ma
zemre$-as a nenna$, ma ulac ad tteîîfe$ d
tarewla. Deg wexxam êekku$-asen mi ar a yili$
kan d amernay, ma sdubzen iyi ne$ u$ale$ $er
deffir ur éerren ara. Acku, anagar yemma, yiwen
ur s-yettak wul-is a yi-d-yefk afus. Tamezwarut a
ten-i$iv akk lêal, syin ad gallen dgi ad mceççawe$
d wefna nni inu. Tεedda felli maççi d tikelt maççi
d snat, lad$a akked εemmi. Ma rni$-t, atan ad i yiêemlen imeôôa, a d-vsen $uri. Ma yella
yessexbabev-iyi, terwi $ef Furulu, ad teddun felli
a s-tiniv uvne$ ajeooiv.
Kerhe$ tiswiεin agi am qevran. Yiwen ur ttt$ave$, anyir nnsen yekres am akken b$an ad i yirnun tiyitwin. Awah ! d yemma kan i wumi
tettergigi tasa felli, deg udem-is kan i deg d-tufrar
leênana ; tayri ines $uri tugar kra yellan.

23

Mmis n igellil

Ma d-yini awal εemmi ur yettu$al ara degs,
am umesmaô di lluê. £ures tlata n wudmawen
umennu$ i yellan u yal yiwen yesεa abrid i yimanis. Yezmer ad yili wefna meééi, annect-iw ne$
yugar-iyi.
Tura, ma yili d win meééiyen yettanef-iyi
ttake$-as ti$rit, d acu kan ilaq-iyi ad rewle$ u ad
fre$. Ma usan-d imawlan-is ad berrin dgi, ad yerr
iman-is a yi-ttnadi maca ur iyi ttaf ara ; Lad$a ad
yessedhu winna u ad yeggal dgi zzatsen anagar
ma ur d iyi îîif.
Ma d win yellan annect-iw, ur iyi ttunefk ara
ad agade$. £ur εemmi teqveε, s umeééul-is
igzem-itent-id : ugare$-t tazmert imi t-ife$ akken
tette$ ne$ “babas weroin yewwit adebbuz” - mmis
umaggad ur yesserwal mmis n at Musa, ne$ da$en
“d mmis n taooalt” - iban ur yekkat ara uzzal, ne$
tagara, d mmis n wedrum acengu, tu$alin ar deffir
ulac.
Mi ar a sife$ imeslayen-is, ttafe$ azgen ines
ur yesεi i$isi. D ayen i yi-ssawven ad sεu$ cwiî n
tissas.
Netta da$en ur yettanef ara i win meqqren a
yi-d-yawev ne$ a yi-d-yewwet. Imiren i d-ttarra$
ttaô-iw degs. Qqare$-as-d akk ayen yevran yidi ;
ssawave$-as-tt-id teêma ter$a. Yiwen meqqer felli
a yi-kkes talabilit, s tazla s axxam : imeîîawen,
ileddayen, axlul. A s-ini$ anwa kan, dda Lewnis
atan yekker, tiééifin, asu$u. Ma yefka Öebbi yufa
aqcic nni, yiwen ur s-t-i-ttekkes ger ifassen-is, kra
ibeqqayen, nek zgi$ deg ijufaô-is s usennexfet.

24

Mouloud Feraoun

Awah ! εemmi d argaz lεali, $as di kra n teswiεin
yugar llufan. Acêal iberdan i t-ssuzle$ $ef txidas ur
nesεi lmeεna ! Wissen ahat isuref-iyi, ass-a, mi
yewwev $er wanda a nawev meôôa, azekka.
èri$ belli ur s-yelli yara di lbal i baba Lewnis ad iyefk ttôebga tuzligt, ur yesxeseô ara ùmi yeb$a a dyessufe$ dgi argaz. Maca iêemmu aîas u yettarra
îîerr $ef wiyav. S umata, ur ufi$ ara $er temsirinis. Di îîiq akk d ccedda i d-yettifrir bu yiles di bu
gernin. Alarmi d asmi d-teêdeô tegnitt tamcumt i
faqe$, xas akken meééiye$, ayen teswa sshala.
Yiwen wass deg wussan n Öebbi, di lexôif,
l$aci yakk u$alen-d di tferkiwin nnsen, wa iêucced i yezgaren-is, wa yeksa, yal wa d acu t-yebbin.
Iîij yeûûenûen. Tislavin n « wemôaê ivebbalen »
ççuôent d irgazen, usan-d ad steεfun ; wa yeééel,
wa yeqqim yettmeslay d wiyav. Ssne$-ten imeôôa.
Bussaεd n Aεmaô, s tûelbuεt-is igan am tvellaεt,
yeîîef tinna yeddurin, iéeméumen uêeccad
ççuôen taslaî. Ikessu yiwen uqecwal. Qqime$-d
$er tama-s, d netta i yi-ççuôen tiî. èri$ iêemmel
arrac imecîaê. Udem-is tesberkit tewser, allen-is
berqent ; ttbanen-d yedmaren-is deg imi
uqendur-is ççuren d icaεîufen. Uée$ $ures, ur tugade$ ara. Aqerru εeryan ; tacacit-is yekkes-itt,
isers-itt, yerra degs iccew ines yeççuren d
cemma. Ka-ka a s-iwwet iôeffiε. Yeîîef talqaεtt nni
uqecwal ger ivaôôen-is am lkkellab, akken i seshel i useqεed. Ikesu u ineooeô kan akken.

25

Mmis n igellil

Smuqule$-t amek ixeddem ; caxe$ degs.
Ttaée$ $ures ur faqe$, almi yi-d-iêuz s udem-iw s
yiwen uéeméum uêeccad.
- Aé akin a mmis n Remvan, muqret teslaî !
- Xaîi, ad qime$ da. B$i$ ad wali$.
- Öuê ad turarev d tizya-k. Tebbiv-d akk
izan yellan s udem-ik d wallen-ik.
- Anda i yi-hwa ad qime$. Yak ula d nek
ttalase$ di tejmaεt agi !
- Dayen, dayen. D acu, $urek kan a k-inêaze$.
Menwala yeéra belli yettalas di tejmaεt, am
llufan am wem$ar. U yernu, nesmektay-asen-t-id i
ymuqranen s wuger n tem$er n yimi tiéeîî.
Bussaεd yellumet, yessusem, yerra ddehn-is $er
uqecwal-is, yettkemmil.
Iéeméumen nni uêeccad ttemyekcamen s
leêôis. Tikwal kan akka alma yeôôez yiwen. Lad$a
a d-yeddem lmus nni ines uqviε ad yegzem ixef
nni d-yeôzen. Ur éri$ amek i d-tusa : Ëulfa$ s
lêamu di timmi-w i d-tevfeô teqôeê d unezlulef am
tuqsa n wareé. D lmus-is i yi-d-yesenta deg
wenyir-iw. Rri$ afus-iw s-lem$awla, yeççuô-ed d
idammen. Din su$e$. Irgazen akk kkren-d, uzlend $uri. Nekk ttu$u$,, ttjellibe$ am loen ger ifassen
n wem$ar amcum i yeb$an a yi-d-yer deg wenyir
cwiî n cemma. Wayev yennev-iyi-d deg uqerruyiw abeênuq d-icerreg deg uqendur ines ajerbub.
Idammen neggin, nekk rennu$ asu$u. Bussaεd
yu$al d awra$, tekfa fellas ddunit. Lmus ye$li-yas,

26

Mouloud Feraoun

aqecwal ur nekfi yennugdam ; netta εerqent-as,
yesteqsay m ur muqret ara tiyita.
- Cwiî ur s-d-sfiv tiî-is !
- ∑eggne$-as-d ? d netta i d-yuéan $uri.
Tevra-d, tevra-d. d acu teb$iv a s-xedme$ ?
- Ad tegrev tamawt. Aêlil. Wissen tura
amek a t-id-mmagren imawlan-is. Öuê s axxam a
Furulu, ôuê ! in-as i yemmak a k-terr i$i$den
ucettiv.
Teddu$ s axxam idammen ttceôcuôen, cwiî
ur yebbi izi$er-iw. Inigan akken ma llan ugin ad
amnen Bussaεd ame$bun yettgallan s ûellaê d
iεessasen ar d cciîan i tt-id-yebbin, maççi s leb$i-s
imi d i yi-êemmel am yiwen deg warraw-is. Maca,
akken yb$u yeggul, yiwen maççi yedda yides,
tthuzzun kan iqerray nnsen, $ave$-ten imeôôa. Ur
nezmir a ncukk degsen, ne$ a s-nini belli b$an ad
smentgen times.
Amezwaru i d-mmugre$ $ef wemnaô n
tebburt d winna akken ur ilaq ara lmektub a d-iger
di teswiεt nni. D baba Lewnis i d-yeslan i su$aniw. Yemma tedda-d deg igerzan-is.
Walan-d udem-iw yeççuô d idammen,
taεmamt i yi-d-qnen di tejmaεt tu$al akk d
tazegga$t.
- wi k-igan akka ? i d-yenna baba Lewnis.
- n$an-iyi mmi ! i tu$was yema s wayen
tesεa di ta$uct-is, am win a isu$en « abbuh ».
Ttarra$-asen-d awal s usennexfet. ∑emmi
yexôeb wudem-is.
-£iwel ini-d anwa ? Ay$er ?

27

Mmis n igellil

- D Bussaεd n Aεmaô.
- S uεemmed ?
- Ih, yeb$a ay-ine$. Ugaren imeîîawen
lehduô.
Baba Lewnis yesfezwi am terûaût. Ur inuda ur
ittnadi ad iéer amek tevra. Yerra-d ger wallen-is
Bussaεd, n wedrum nniven, d amenza$, yebbi-d
lmus, yemme$ $ef mmis n gmas ur nebni fellas.
Yeb$a ad imêu tawacult n at Musa, ad ine$
aneggaru deg warraw-is, ad igzem axalaf
amecîuê… Yeîîef-itt d tazla, azduz deg ufus-is.
Ulin-as wurfan s aqerru ; yerkem ; di temsalt n
nnif ur yein yiwen. Yeédem ad yesken i medden
amek i tga lêeôma n twacult. Ilaq a d-yerr ttaô : d
tin i d tirrugza.
Yemma tevfeô-it, tezzu$er yides akk at
wexxam. Ïîfen-tt akk d tazla. warεad nebbiv $er
tejmaεt mi tenhewwal liêala : asu$u, rregmat.
Ttu$ ti$rit nni i yu$e$. yu$al-iyi d tugdin, ttargagi$
am yifer. Amôaê idemmek di l$aci a s-tiniv d
aweîîuf. Ggri$-d weêdi. Anda tella yemma ? anda
yella εemmi ? deg yiwet di tebbura n tejmaεt
tban-iyi-d terbaεt n yergazen ttemdeggaren,
εeqle$ yiwen ger leεmum n Bussaεd mi yeôjem,
aéru nni yemmeôdex. Yiwen yu$was. εemmi
nniven yesseêlelli taεekkazt, yeédem $er
tlemmast, yemme$ $er lqaεa ireed-ed yiwen : d
baba Lewnis.
Deg-yiwet n tezribt, tulawin ssekrent-ett
garasent, d ççeqlala d umennu$ ur nesεi sse. Ula

28

Mouloud Feraoun

d nutenti gant yiwet n tusna taberqact i deg dtifrar tebrek imendyal d tezwe$ n lefwavi.
Tajmaεt s-immal teççaçaô, yiwen ur yeîîif
ti$meôt. Lkeôh ized$en ulawen yeffe$-ed, tiqdimin
yettnadin kan tasebba keflent-ed. Teêma. Cwiî
kan akka yebbev-ed Lamin. Yuli $ef teslaî. £er
tama-s, yiwen wemôabev, yethuzzu amendil n
leêrir awra$.
- A s-d-tas deεwassu i win a yernun ameslay
ne$ tiyita, i yedεa wemôabev nni, s leεyav d
wurfan.
Imiren kan, yefra umennu$ ger yergazen,
ma d tilawin, ttemyettakent tiyita taneggarut, ulac
tin yeb$an a d-teggri degs. Ul-iw yekkat a s-tiniv
tura ad yetterveq, imetman kfan deg-imi-w,
ta$uct-iw d icenfiren-iw qquren. Ivaôôen-iw
cekklen, iéri-w yekkaw. Wala$ yemma, uzle$
$ures, acebbub-is akk yerwi, amendil-is ye$li,
tettnadi a t-id-teddem degmi yi-d-twala teooa-t,
teîîef-iyi-d di tettust teddez-ed iberdan-is.
Ameééu$-is yettqudduô d idim, setti wis anta i dtessençew, yeççuô akk ufus-is d anéaden, Baya
tebbi-d yides tafawett n lfuva n εini, tameîîut n
Bussaεd. Limmer tafent ur êebbsent ara, b$an-t
ad rrnun-t amceççew, êmant d ayen kan.
Sεeégent-iyi s lqub d rregmat i ssawavent i tcunga
nnsent, ula d nutenti ttarran-asent-id s wayen
ssnent.
Simi necem s axxam, at wezrib nne$ meôôa
ççuren-d lêaôa, refden-d yidsen εemmi ur
yettwaεqal ara. Yettwafeooeô s weéru deg uqerru,

29

Mmis n igellil

yettwet s lmus deg beôdi. Ula d dadda Qasi, yu$
kra n tyitwin s uεekkaz. Ma d adrum n Bussaεd,
ççan ti$rit uklalen : Bussaεd yessexcawet-it baba
Lewnis, zzu$erent s axxam ur yeéri anda yedda,
gmas, yufeg usevsu ines, wiyav yal wa amek i tent
yu$ : allen cuffent, udmawen xebcen, lêaûun…
Banent-ed akk degsen ccwami umennu$ ;
idammen ttqudduôen, iqendyaô qersen, iεumam
fsin, mi sersen baba Lewnis $ef yiwen ulemsir,
yemma teççuô-asen-d tabuqalt n waman iwakken
ad ssirden.
- Xaîi, xaîi ! i d-yenîeq yiwen. Anefet-asen
akka i yfeddixen, anefet-asen akka i ydammen a
ten-id-afen iôumyen.
- A k-nesserkeb $ef zzayla, i d-yedda deg
wawal amezwaru dda Qasi, a k-nawi $ur lqavi
tura.
- Ula d nutni d ayen a xedmen, ilaq-a$ a ten
nezwir, i d-ileqqem ameslay yiwen nniven.
Yal wa d tamusni-is, yal wa yettmeyyiz
akken iwala, yettak-ed tidmi-s ; maca, imeslayen
nnsen izde$-iten webruy ukukru. D yir tagnitt.
Ugaden i d-tessegray. Kra sqerdcen, ulac tifrat f i
ters nniya ne$ tin yeççuôen tiî. Fkan awal a du$alen tameddit a d-glun s wid nniven. Fellasen
ad dduklen am yiwen. D tagmatt i d-isawlen ; At
Musa mgal At Rabeê, isenned $ef udekkan,
yeqqim. D ileméi yeddan d yiman-is, u yernu “d
tacôaft”.
Imeôôa rran iman nnsen ttun $ef wacu i dtusa, amzun maççi d nekk i d madakci. Maca tella

30

Mouloud Feraoun

Ëlima d yessis, smektayent-iyi-t-id s dd$el. Ëlima
trekkem, tezza tasa-s. S nnig wul-is i tedda ula $er
umennu$. Ka-ka a d-tekres anyir-is felli, a yi-dtveggeô tamu$li nni n weqjun amsuv. Yellis louheô
tué-ed $uri tebbi-yi-d.
- Muqel εemmik ! Iwenneε. Fellak i d-yevra
ubaxix agi.
Ama d lehduô-is, ama d tubbya ines, $zen
dgi am useffud yer$an. U$e$-tent $er zdaxel.
Imeîîawen ugin a d-f$en, qqebre$. Muqle$
yemma, twala-d kra yellan, ur tezmir d acu a
texdem. I$av-itt lêal, tebra i wallen-is s tmara :
zi$en εemmi ur s-iôuê wacemma, iqeεed-ed imanis, isu$ $ef tmeîîut-is.
- Ffe$-iyi sya, s kem s loifat-im.
Tesmermez-ed tekka tabburt.
- Iyya $uri a Furulu. Yak ur k-yu$ wara ?
Yemêaleq-iyi-d $ures, allen-iw ççuôent-ed d
imeîîawen, gre$-d nnehta, snexfta$-d abrid,
îîôevqe$ d imeîîi.
Yemma terfed-iyi-d, teffe$-ed ula d nettat.
Teqqim yides setti akk d dadda Rabeê. Mi s-tvellu
tajbirt yemmas netta yettweûûi dadda Rabeê :
baba ulac-it. Di tafrara i ysewweq $er Tizi-Wezzu
yebbi ttεebga n téurin $ef we$yul. Ur d-yettu$al
alarmi a ye$li yiîij. Ur yeéri acemma deg mennu$.
Annect-agi, At Aεmeô faqen-as. Zemren a szewren, a s-sqiîεen di kra uxenduq ; a s-inin a dnerr ttaô imi ten-nesdubez linna. At wedrum nne$
ttzuxxun imi ten nerna, imeôôa akka i tt-walin,
nugar iten i b$un inin. At Aεmeô da$en,

31

Mmis n igellil

ttmeyyizen akken nniven, $ursen d nutni i d
imernayen. D acu tidmi nnsen ur d a$ tekcim sya
ur d a$ teffi$ sya, ur ncukk ara deg yiman nne$. D
ayagi i yessawven baba Lwenis yesseggra dadda
Rabeê ur yeddi yara d wiyav. A t-yettweûûi ad
yemmager baba, ad yawi yides imrigen, u ad
yessεeddi awal i kra i$ yettilin, wid kan yebbi nnif,
ad ff$en i taddart u ad aεnun ti$emmaô iwatan i
wesqiîîeε. Tagnitt d yir nettat ! aêezzeb yugar
leqveε.
Mi d-yebbev baba s axxam ur t-yu$ ur tyebli, nefôeê imeôôa ; maca lfeôê nni amzun akken
s acu i t ixuûûen ; messus. Annecten n lemêadra,
aqeôôeε nni imeôôa rnu $ures wid ttyeîîfen di
ccedda, kra din akk di rrayeε. Akken yeb$u yili
menyif akka wala kteô. Iêun Öebbi, At Aεmeô deg
wakken yewseε wul nnsen, meyzen belli ugaren
At Musa, ur sen-d-tuqiε deg wayen nniven,
qqimen $ef yiman nnsen deg yexxamen nnsen.
Ti$ersi iεumam d iqendyaô, ixebbicen d
ifexxuôen idammen, ttaken-d udem n îrad d ccwal
; d tamu$li yerran baba d azegga$, yettfuôu deg
urfan. Yettgalla s ‘jmeε liman n yergazen” a
limmer yeêdiô i tme$ra n ûbeê. Amzun akken s
acu i s-iôuêen. Yemme$ $ef yiwen udebbuz, yu$al
iserreê-as irfed-ed ajenwi s yin yeédem $er yiwet n
tmeéyant taqdimt yeddem-itt-id. Abrid-is $er
tejmaεt, tiî-is s amennu$. Setti, Ëlima d yessis
jguglent degs ammer ig-xeddem di beôôa ; setti
temêalleq-as-d di temgeôî, Ëlima d yesis ta degjufaô ta deg-$allen ; yal ta tejebbed degs akken ur

32

Mouloud Feraoun

itekk ara tabburt. Yemma tame$bunt, tessudenas ivaôôen, tettεenni $er ssaddatt. ∑emmi yugi a
d-yekkes allen-is degs, maca ur d-yenni zzant
wala r$ant. Ma d nekk urfan-is kksen-iyi tuggdin,
tuzart n ta$ect-is tusa-yi-d $ef wul. Mi d-slan
loiran, kecmen-d u êellen akk baba ; lad$a yiwen
segsen yusa-d s $ur lamin, iceggeεit-id akken a
ten-nerou netta d îemman akk d sin yemôabven n
taddart.
Setti imiren i tekker tessendeh tulawin i
leftil n teôbut n seksu. Nettat s nnefxa d wezday n
lqed i temme$ s acwari i deg yebbi baba tiéurin
$er ssuq tekkes-ed aseεleq n weksum.
- Tura a nwali ixanaben inna imecêaêen ma
s weksum akka am nekkni a seççen agraw agi lxiô,
i d-tewwet deg icunga nne$.
- D lêemmeé aquran a sen-d-sersen, i dtedda yemma yides deg wawal.
- Iban fellasen ! d tidett d igellilen i nella,
maca s lεun n Öebbi, irgazen nnkent di ddunit
nnsen weroin u$alen wudmawen nnsen d
izegga$en ne$ nneêcamen ma yilin inebgawen
ne$ ma d-tas tizi n tirugza. Deg annect-a i dyettban yise$ n twacult.
Maca d agacur kan, isewweq assenni baba ;
xas limmer ulac aksum, setti a d tesεu s wacu ar a
tessεeddi iman-is, ur tetu$al ara d tazegga$t, ama
d lêemmeé i sen d-tefka ama d ibawen.
Mi d-yebbev yiv, dadda Qasi idegger-ed
tabburt n wefrag, tujjaq uqbel ad-ikcem. Yezwared igad a yefrun tamsalt. Tura imi a d-asen

33

Mmis n igellil

imsefruyen, fiêel ma nga tasmilt n twacult, ur
twulem i wacemma, ad tefru mebla tazla
idammen. Dadda Qasi tennefsusi fellas teεkumt.
Ad isiwel i kra n yem$aren n wedrum nne$, wid
iwezznen awal u yettnawalen taqbaylit, $ursen a d
tili tsarutt. Baba ur yugi ara ; tettwacudd, ilaq a d
tefsi. Dadda Qasi yeffe$. Tulawin akken ma llant
ddzent iberdan nnsent, yefkatent wemnar n
wexxam akin, rrant $er texxamin nniven. Maççi
deg wexxam ideg a yili wegraw ar a qqiment !
anagar setti i yesbirecwen $er lkanun, tugi a d
teffe$, ur tezmir ara ad teqqim ur d-teggar ara
iman-is, awal-is a t-id-tini.
Yusa-d lamin, vefôent-id sin yemôabven d
wazal n mraw imusnawen. Nnven-d akk deg
ibeônyas, kecmen-d $er lêaôa, leêêun s waddud
yewzen yufrar, wa deffir wa. Baba yemmuger-iten
s wawal aéidan, yessuden-asen i lecyax iqqerra
nnsen $ummen iqlemyan. Baba Lewnis isenned
deg yiwet n te$meôt, yettekka $er tesga. Yiwen
weεdil d azegga$ sersent-tt-id, yeîîef akk ti$er$ert.
Mi d-zegren i wemnaô, kksen irkasen nnsen,
sersen-ten din ; yal wa yeεna amviq-is, zzin-d d
tasqamutt. Baba yegguma ad yesers iman-is,
yeqqim s ibeddi, isenned s asalas. yekesmumi
amzun s acu s iεerqen.
Üellan $ef nnbi (yess i d-zeggiren yal inaw),
lamin yekker a d-yemmeslay. Baba igzem-as-d
awal.

34

Mouloud Feraoun

- Tamezwarut, môeêba yiswen $urne$ ; tin
$ers, uvan $ezzifit, zwiret deg-mensi, syin ôôay
asaεdi a t-id-yefk Öebbi.
Ïîemman ôuêen ad gallen, maca d asεeddi
n wawal kan, acku éran ilaq ad ççen, tura ne$
ticki. U yernu ad ççen snat n tikkal, imi ma ff$en s
$urne$, $er yefnaten nne$ u$ur a ôuên. Meyzen
garasen, ufan d Öemvan i yesεan lêeq, limmer ad
zwiren di seksu. Akkagi, ad yers lqut nni s lεeql-is
di tεebbuî weqbel ad ççen wayev. Baba di tama-s,
iwala tamsalt s wudem nniven : yeéra ma teççiv
taggella d lmeleê akked yiwen, yewεeô akken a kyexdeε. Iwakken a $-dεun s lxiô u a ttewwet
lbaôaka $urne$, ikmes-asen i sin yemôabven nni
xemsa duôu i yiwen. Aba$ur n wecwari ame$bun
yemmar s ifassen nnsen. Maca ulac u$ilif, ters-ed
lehna. Seksu lεali, aksum aleqqaq, tiéeî n wawal
garane$ d lecyax, tesseqefev-as-d s cwiî n tecrift.
Xas iles ôéag qeôôiê, ad yu$al d aéidan am
tamemt. Tiyersi a d tefsi. Targa idammen ad
tanef amer ad mmaren ger yemdanen yezzin s
weεrur i taluft. Ttif ôôay uzzal.
Ama d at Aεmeô, ama d nekkni, yiwen ur
yettnadi ad yessem$er tisri. Maca, iwakken ad
yeqqim yise$ zeddig, ulac wa yeréen $er wayev. Di
tegnatin am tigi, imuqranen d lecyax n taddart ur
ttarran ara taqejjirt $er deffir ; s werfad uqerru akk
d leqder i d-ttadden, u l$aci imeôôa ta$en-asen
awal.
- Wali zi$ ! At Musa ma d ise$ nnsen nutni i
d-yesεettben timira n wid yettgallan s jmeε liman,

35

Mmis n igellil

usan-d ad ssinfen deεwessu. A nessirem ad
awven $er yeswi nnsen.
Di tilawt, ulac win yunzan. Ur yuksan êed i
t-yu$en ! Imêaddan yennumen timsal am tigi,
éran belli, yal tikkelt, tferru s sin imensawen
iéidanen d cwiî n lemleê ufus, ula d win s
wudmawen.
D$a mi fuken uççi, sdentt akken ilaq, swan
s tawant ; εeddan ad fken lfattiêa : yiwet i wid
yeddren, yiwet i wid yemmuten, yiwet i ssadatt d
iεessasen, yiwet akken ad tewwet ûûaba, ma d
taneggarut i yise$ n twacult. D tagi i s-d-yusan i
setti deg wul, tellez am win yefuden yeswa.
Akken llan medden a nili. Iwakken ur n
teffe$ ara i leεwayed n taddart, εemmi yeêka-yasd i lamin amek tevra. Atan : « Furulu yusa-d s
axxam yettquddur d idammen, qrib yemmut. Rri$
$er Bussaεd a yi-d-yini amek d-tusa, yerra-yi-d s
yir awal. Nemyuîîaf, nennu$. Azrib nnsen, d ayen
teéram, yezga-d $er tama n tejmaεt, ff$en-d akk At
Aεmeô imi d-slan i wmennu$, wwten-iyi-d s lmus.
Widak nne$ bbven-d, mi walan annecten, ur
cudden ara ifassen nnsen. Tekker. Wwet a d
wwte$. Syin tusam-d ». Tban am yiîij uzal. Darani
$ursen akk axbiô amek i tebda amek i tekfa.
Amezwaru i yellin taqaεett, am akken i s-nefka
leqder i$ yefka lêeq, am akken i$ yefka lêeq a
senyefk di$en lêeq i wiyav. Widak i d-ileqmen
awal-is, nnan-d azun ayen d-yenna. Cebbêen-d
kan ameslay s imedyaten, s yenzan d isefra dyebbi umeddaê di teqsiî. Awal tura i lecyax !

36

Mouloud Feraoun

Yiwen degsen yeddem-ed adlis d aqdim, yura s
taεrabt, berrik seg wabbu, yennev deg yiwen
ubeênuq : d nnesxa. Ye$ra-d akken cwiî degs ur
nefhim tabruyt. Yedεa-ya$ s wayen yelhan u
yessawel i lbaôaka, yu$al din din, yendeh s kra
yellan d aεessas ar d a$-d-tas deεwessu limmer a
nesmenteg times. Imiren kan setti tekcem-itt
tugdin, tué ar $ures tessuden adlis nni. Ma d
εemmi ilaq-as ad yessers afus-is $ef nnesxa nni u
ad iggal fellas ur inuda $ef At Aεmeô, ur yessem$ar
tisri. Ula d ifnaten nne$ da$en ad ggalen. Fiêel ma
yesla uôumi a yesmeckuklen taluft. Maca imi
yuzlen idamen, lqavi a d-yessekcem tacyaxt-is, d
acu lamin a t-yessedhu s εecrin n duôu a s-yefk si
leεvil di loib-is sya ar asmi a s-tent ne$rem nekkni
d At Aεmeô.
Annect-agi yakk nnan-a$-t-id. εemmi ur tid-yuli wawal, yerra s-ul-is ; isewweq ; baba
yellez. Ma d lxiô gara$ d At Aεmeô yegzem s ya $er
zzat. Ulac win sent-igan ccan i tqulhatin agi
imeôôa, awi-d kan a d-ters lehna, ad yekfu îîrad
fellane$.
Im$aren ff$en s $urne$. Rran $er At Aεmeô a
sen-d-sersen talwit am akken i $-tt-id-sersen, u
seg wassagi akin ur nettemlaεi yara yidsen.
Tesqama-a$-d $layet. Nu$al d icunga. Wa ur yettaf
wa, wa ur ixeddem lxiô i wa.
Ma d Bussaεd, xas ad ikkes a$bel i wul-is,
maççi azekka a yi-d-yaf qqime$ $er tama-s
iwakken ad lemde$ amek kesun iqecwalen n
leqbayel.

37

Mmis n igellil

-V-

Xwalti zed$ent i snat deg wezniq nne$.
Jeddi Ëmed yeooa-tent-id di texxamt ur nesεi
taεrict ur nesεi addaynin. Di te$meôt iεannec
yiwen ukufi annect ilat iwumi ur zmirent xwalti at
ççaôent. Ssqef yekna-d, ma d tabburt d yiwen n
lluê i d nettat. Tehri n lêaôa ur tεedda yara lqed n
wergaz, te$zi-s dayen i d tasga. Nemdukmaô
zzdaxel am ibuêeddaden di tewrizt. Maca leênana
tufrar-ed : lêiv tmussev a k-d-yeslef amzun a kyessinef
εinettu,
ijeqduren
a
s-tiniv
ttecmumuêen-d di îlam. Awah, xaîi ! Lqefû ,
teméi-w ur yelli d lêebs, ur t-yezdi$ unu$ni. Ussan
d-ssεedda$ din ufgen am wavu.
Ur ssine$ ara isem n xwalti almi tent ssne$
nutenti s tiad nnsent aîas. Isem, $er $uri, amzun
ulac-it. Ur yesεi anamek. Akka ula $er baba d

38

Mouloud Feraoun

yemma. Nekk $ile$ d nnecôaêa asmi, yellis n
εemmi tamecîuêt tenna-yi-d belli baba isem-is
Öemvan, babas Lewnis, yemma Favma ma d
yemmas Ëlima. Imiren i faqe$ belli d wiyav i sen
yessawalen akagi, wamma nekkni nefka-yasen
awalen ççuren d sser d leênana u yernu n yiman
nne$ kan. Nek $uri xwalti ur sεint ara isem : yiwet
xalti tayev nanna.
Tin umi qqare$ xalti d nettat i d tamenzut.
Ttwali$-tt ger wallen-iw teççuô, $ures tazmert.
Tugar yemma i $er tettak cwiî acbi. Udem-is rqiq u
$ezzif, tiênakin-is zegga$it am usisnu. £ures lqed
d tuzert, allen d sin iεeqqayen uzemmur aseôôaoi,
muqrit u berrikit. Ma d amzur, teskerfit ne$ teooit,
seg wakken yeççuô, yezga cwiî kan $ef tuyat-is,
maççi d ayen tett$umu ne$ yettaîîaf umendil. S
wezday lqedd i tleêêu, akken d tuwεiôt i d tushilt u
d tasusamt am yemma ; d ayen teooa ta i teddem
tayev.
Ma d tayevnin sawale$-as Nanna. Mi sεi$
setta iseggasen di lεemô-iw, nettat tessawev
εecrin. Kifkif-itent di lqedd nettat d louheô, yellis
εemmi, d tizyiwin. Yessis εemmi akken ma llant
qqaren-t-ed tif yessetmatsent di tezyen d ûûifa. Di
leênana éri$. Tioiratin imeôôa êemlent-ett, tin
yekkren a k tini « Yamina nne$ ». Babas iεuzz-itt
$ef yessetmas, tiden u$alent-as am yemmas.
Tennum tta$ent-as awal, tebbi-tt kan akken.
Tesseqdac ula d Favma, xas akken s warraw-is.
Ma d xalti, ur tt-id-ttqamaô deg wacemma, ur s-dteqqar la zzant wala rr$ant.

39

Mmis n igellil

Ma ttmeyze$ akka tura, afe$ $ursent lêeq
imi s-fkant ôôay i nanna. Yemma yeddren ger
lehmum d i$ublan, yeôwan asawen d ukessar,
yeswan timeôéuga deg wasmi temmut setti, syin
yerna $ures jeddi, teqqel am lexyal n tebêirt ;
aksum yezwi, ôôay yesbek. Ur tettnamar, ur ttteddu di nneqma i wid têemmel. Ma yella win
iréan awal-is mi d-tefka tidmi-s akka yiwen wass i
useggas ur s-d-uqiε ara, ad tessusem amzun kra
wer yevri. Ma d xalti, awal sin teîîerveq. Têemmu
am baba Lewnis, maca netta d argaz, yettnwal
taqbaylit. Qqaren : « Ddaw webrid, nnig webrid,
leqrar-is d abrid », $ur xalti xaîi, tezga tecev. S
tikli am ta, d awez$i iwakken a d-ters talwit ne$ a
tt-éev leêmala ger loiran. Xas rrsen-ted, ur
ttdument ara. Maççi d tikkelt maççi d ssnat, xalti
wiî ur tessemsi yessis n Ëmed deg ulawen n
leεmum nnsent. Imeîîawen n yemma ur gin
leεnaya, a$unzu n baba ur d-yeqvi liser, aêami n
baba Lewnis am yile$ n wuffal, ur yebbi ur yerri.
Iêun Öebbi tella « Yamina nne$ ». S lehduô ines
êlawen, Qasi yessuruf i xalti ma yella tennu$
tameîît-is ; Dadda Aεôab yettara iman-is maççi
fellas ma yella yettwargem ; tameîîut n Dadda
Aεmeô tesεuééug i lqub. Iles aéidan iteîîev
tasedda. Tefka-yas-tt-id twenza-s, i nanna !
Tuklal.
- Ur smeêsiset ara i xalti, ay atmaten ! d
tamehbult nne$. D tamhbult nnwen. Ilaq awen a
s-tawim. Ssukkes-t-iyi-d ayen i wen yehwan,
ssukkeset-as-d i Favma. Wama nettat ! ur

40

Mouloud Feraoun

tteççêet ara fellas, anef-as att smuhbel. Bih bih
ad tu$al ad tendem.
Akken
i
tveôôu.
Xalti
imir
imir
tettendemmay imi tt-yeffe$ leεqel. Lad$a att terr i
ymeîîawen d usmu$ben, att ttlummu deg iman-is.
Afus t$eééa, s tazla i tettôuêu $ures a tessuden.
Tmeççeê kra tessusef. Wid yettna$en akked xalti
ur ttamnen ara iman nnsen, maççi d tameîîut nni
n lina, tikwal qqaren-as ma maççi d tameslubt i
deg d-nemjadal. S umata tferru talft. Akken i ssurfen ass-a, i éran as surfen azekka. Xalti akken
tesserwat i tessizdig. S sshala i si tgeddel is i
tettu$al. Tettawi-d ccêani tamara ur tt-terri. Di
tilawt, ddeqs i yesmusluben aka am nettat. A tenafev êninit wulawen nnsen. Ur teffren acemma ;
ur teddun di nneqma ; ur ttarran nnmara ; ur
sserfuyen yiwen. Ttawin ddeôk almi sen-yu$al d
tucva. Teddun di leb$i i wiyav almi vuôôen iman
nnsen. Imuqranen qaren-as wigi « d arrac ! ». Xalti
segsen. Yura di twenza-s akken a teqqim alma
temmut. Dayemi i ssεuééugen i wayen a d-tini,
teqnen allen nnsen $ef ayen a texdem. Tedder
ddaw n tecvaî n Nanna, tetta$-as awal maca
tikwal s nnig wul-is, s wekras n wenyir, am llufan
nni ur nelliz ara, yesmermuzen kan weêdes ;
akken xalti. Kra n teswiεin tettaf-ed, ma k-d-tini
lêaoa $ef yiwen am umesmaô di lluê, a s-tiniv
tettkacaf. Tettaεqal wissen amek ? Win têemmel
a tesdari $ef wayen n dir, d ayagi. U yernu, ur s-dyettas di lbal att-faôes tagnitt iwakken a ttesεu cwiî
n lhiba. Xaîi, tidmi-s teffer-itt $ures ; tabaε ur

41

Mmis n igellil

tezmir ara a tt-id-tessefru, i wumi a tt-id-tini ?
Tikwal da$en, ur tuksan ara att-îîef tavsa ne$ a
tteffer imeîîi, tessufu$-ed kra yellan deg wul-is ; d
leêmala ne$ d a$unzu, d lqeôê ne$ d lefeôê. Cwiî
kan akka da$en ad tu$al ad ters.
Ameyyez n xalti ires-as deg ul i Furulu am
teêbult taêmayant di tεebbuî. D tidett, nanna
êemle$-tt nezzeh. Ma yi-terbu deg rebbi-s,
tkemmez-iyi yakk, tssudun-iyi, tettbuddu-yi s kra
yellan. T-tteddu-yi aîas di leb$i. Maca xalti, maççi
akken. Tettwali dgi d amdan am nek am wiyav.
Tettarra iman-is tettmeslay yidi s nniya-s, tettakiyi lêeq ma sεi$-t, tessevlam-iyi ma ilaq. Amzun d
tizyiwin, nettemceqlal seg-ul, s tidett nne$ ; u
tikwal nettnecôaê am sin llufanat. Ufi$ iman-iw
yides d ayen kan. D ayagi iyi ooan êemle$-tt.
Asmi kecme$ i tikkelt tamezwarut $er
xwalti, d wetma id-iyi-bbin. Tettbibbi-yi imi akken
sεi$ tamudi n sin iseggasen. D asedhu iyi
tessedhu Baya nne$ iwakken a neoo yemmatne$
ad-telhu d leqdic-is. S yin, teqqel-iyi d tanmi.
Degmi zemrent tqejjirin-iw ad iyi refdent, ttwintiyi, amzun ttwajebdent s ddkir, $er texxamt n
xwalti. £er din kan i ttarra$, din kan i ttafe$ imaniw, ma xvi$ deg wexxam nne$, ur tesεiv anda a yid-tafev s nnig axxamt nni n xwalti. Baya nne$
ezga $er xwalti, seg wasmi meééiyet. Yu$al d
axxam nne$ wis sin. Nga tawacult nniven
tamecîuêt garane$ kan, s lesrar-is, s wuraren-is, s
wurfan-is. Ma d imennu$en nne$ tessefsaxiten
leêmala am wedfel yessefsay yiîij.

42

Mouloud Feraoun

Xwalti xeddment afexxaô, xedment tavuî.
Lêaôa tezga teççuô d tibuqalin. Di te$meôt, ar
tama n lluê, tsenned taffa n yes$aren i s a d-qdent
asmi a d-yawev lawan. Deg umezwaru n efsut i
beddunt lxedma ufexxaô. Baya d xalti, seddaw
taddart i d-ttemêelfafent s yesnan yeççuren d
tala$t. D tirac itt-fettrent di lêaôa iwakken a
ttekkiw, syin att-ddzent alma tu$al d awren. Attôôucent s waman a d-yeffe$ am urekti, a t-ooent a
d-yekkussem. Mi εeddan fellas sin wussan, a t-idkksent, as-sefrurint kra iceqfan n tbuqalin yeréen
a t-εerkent di snat yidsent akken ilaq lêal. Iceqfan
nni yeqden yakan akk d tala$t tamaynut ttken-d
afexxaô ur netteqqiq ara. Tura d afeûûel i dyeqqimen.
Xalti, ad terfed abruε-s alma d tigecrar, a
ttxemmel i i$allen-is alma d tuyat ; s ufella n yiwet
n telwiêt, a d-tesers tala$t ; a tt-teddez, a ttteεrek, din din a d-tessufe$ talqaεt ama d uskir, d
tarbut ne$ d tabuqalt, d taêbult timdewweôt. Ma
tger iman-is deg ufexxaô, tettarra lwelha-s ala $er
din. Nek éri$ maççi d lawan n lehduô. Ttanef$-as.
Udem n Nanna yezga yecôeh, ur tettêiri ur
yelli. Ula d nettat a d-teîîef ayen mi zemren ad
awin ifassen-is n tala$t, ad treggi, ad tmettel, ad
tberren degs alma yu$al d ajaεbub, yettle$wi
amzun d azrem; Mi meqqer, nettat teéra te$zi i silaqen, a d-tgezzem d tileqmin, syin a t-id-tezzi s
lemêadra i teêbult nni i d-thegga Xalti. Afegrun
deg ufus, ad tjebbed tala$t nni, ad tessirqiq degs

43

Mmis n igellil

alama tεeôôeb-ed telqaεt n lêila teb$a a dtessufe$. Mi tekfa yiwet ad tu$al $er tayev, kan
akken, ur tettεeîîil ara tetteqvaε-ed wetmas.
Xwalti, ur d-ttheggint ara sennig ôebεa n
t$awsiwin $ef tikkelt, acku meééiyet lêaôa. Mi
tekfa tneggarut, tamezwarut att-ya$ lêal tekkaw
cwiî, teswa. A d-teddem taûveltt nniven yeççuôen
d arukti a s-tt-ternu $ef yiran. S ufegrun tettekkay,
tessirqiq, tesseεdal tale$t nni i terna. Simmal
tettemsal degs, iran ttalin-d, ta$awsa tettεeôôib-ed
cwiî. Annect-agi yakk d Nanna i t-ixeddmen. S
tvidac-is i d-wezzen lêila nni amer a s-teεwej ne$
a d-teoo iεeôôiben s ibeôôa, teslufuy-as iwakken ad
tilwi$ am win yeslufuyen i llufan ; leênana-s
imeôôa teger-itt degs. Maççi ala tileqwaε it-tteg
Xalti, ula d nettat tessen am Nanna. Maca, win
iddan iéra, tibuqalin id-ittef$en deg ifassen n
Nanna weêdsent. Zgant weznent, qeεdent, tuli-d
tεenqiqt nnsent u sεant imi amzun yeffe$-ed si
lqaleb. D tidak-is i d-yufraren, i smenyafent sut n
taddart. £er tecbeê i cebênt tbuqalin-is, ternayasent tefses. Yal tin ixeddmen afexxaô udem i d
as-tettak. Sekn-ed tabuqalt i tneggarut degsent a
k-d-tini anwa afus itt-ixedmen. Degsent, yiwet ur
tegdil Nanna ; Rnu acôah idehnen udem-is deg
wemviq n nnefxa d zzux. £ef ayagi i
tettwaêemmel di taddart, kra d-yeff$en deg
ifassen-is yenza. Xalti, ur tettasem ara di metmas,
mgal tulza i tellez imi tt-tesεa. Neqqar s teqbaylit :
“d ayen yellan deg wul n wemdan i d-yettef$en
deg udem-is”. Deg ul n Nanna, anagar leênana i t-

44

Mouloud Feraoun

ized$en, d tin i d-ittef$en di t$awsiwin txeddem.
Xalti, d tamezwarut i yfeôêen s wetmas, tettaoayas akk ayen iweεôen, nettat tlehu-d d tisebbalin d
wuskiren d tuggiwin.
Lêaôa d texxamt mdekmarent di leêwal, ula
d akufi i$um. Tikli nne$ d acrured am win ileêêun
$ef tmellalin, ambiwel nne$ s lemêadra amer i
nettruéu. Xas akken, nek d Baya ur d a$-d-iris ara
di lbal atent-neoo. Nessedhan allen nne$ s tmu$li.
Xalti, yezga yekres wenyir-is, ma d Nanna ters am
lmalykat. Yal ta$awsa s tmacahutt-is, ama d
tafedreqt, ama d taberradit ama d ayen nniven ;
simmal tettban-ed d acu-tt, simmal tettnerni ne$
t$elli deg wulawen nne$. Tikwal ma d-teffe$ yiwet
tezleg ger ifassen n xalti, nettkaεkiε d tavsa,
nettat imiren a d-yerwi ugellaô-is, att-teîîef atttewwet $er lqaεa ad tefruri yakk d iceqfan. Nekkni
d tarewla, a neffer deffir n kra n tsebbalt ibedden
kan $ef cceê, a nettavsa d tufra ; cwiî kan akka,
xalti a s-$lin wurfan.
Mi kksent deg we$bel afeûûel ufexxaô, ayen
iweεôen yekfa. Taεkumt tennefsusi. Ayen dyeggran d dhu. Mi qqurent t$awsiwin nni ; ilaq ad
bôeqcen. Tid ur teqdent ara, am tberruday,
tisebbalin, ssedhanent-tent s tumlilt, mezzint-tent
iwakken ad ilwi$ent. Acku tale$t s i ttwaxeddment
tettak $er tewre$ ma maççi $er tezwe$. Ula d Baya
akk d Titi ggarent ifassen nnsent. Amzay ur
yeêwao ara aîas n tmusni, d aslufu s ufegrun ne$ s
uzemzi alegga$ akk d tuksa iεerriben ne$
ikeεruren ma qimen ur sen girent ara tamawt

45


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